Jacques Regniere

Jacques Regniere
Natural Resources Canada | NRCan · Canadian Forest Service

PhD

About

138
Publications
31,453
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8,147
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1980 - present
Natural Resources Canada
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • Population dynamics and ecology of insect, insect pest management, modelling

Publications

Publications (138)
Article
Full-text available
A predator, Laricobius osakensis Montgomery and Shiyake (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), is being mass-produced and released for the biological control of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). To better understand and predict the seasonality of this predator in North America, the development and reprodu...
Article
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We describe the distribution and amount of foliage, expressed as foliated branch surface area, weight, or number of buds in the live crown of healthy open-grown and closed-canopy balsam fir and white spruce trees. Balsam fir and white spruce have very similar total foliage surface area and weight. The live crown of white spruce trees contains fewer...
Preprint
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Climate is an essential component of environmental models. Over the last two decades, many weather generators have been presented in the literature. Although their implementation into software has been of great help to environmental modellers, their lack of integration into modelling frameworks still represents a challenge for end users. In many ca...
Article
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Long-term studies of insect populations in the North American boreal forest have shown the vital importance of long-distance dispersal to the maintenance and expansion of insect outbreaks. In this work, we extend several concepts established previously in an empirically-based dispersal flight model with recent work on the physiology and behavior of...
Article
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Understanding the genetic basis of climatic adaptation is essential for predicting species’ responses to climate change. However, intraspecific variation of these responses arising from local adaptation remains ambiguous for most species. Here, we analyze genomic data from diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) collected from 75 sites spanning six...
Article
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This article is the third and last of a series of models developed to investigate the impact of climate on the spatiotemporal biology of parasitoids. After two earlier papers investigating Tranosema rostrale and Meteorus trachynotus, this last article concerns the tachinid fly Actia interrupta (Diptera: Tachinidae). An individual-based model of the...
Article
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BACKGROUND In eastern Canada, surveys of overwintering second-instar spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) larvae (‘L2s’) are carried out each fall to guide insecticide application decisions in the following spring. These surveys involve the collection of fir and spruce branches in selected stands, followed by the mechanical/chemical removal of...
Article
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Actia interrupta (Diptera: Tachinidae) is a larval parasitoid of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). A rearing technique using manual inoculation of first instar maggots on the larval hosts is described that improves rearing efficacy and allows for laboratory experimentation. This technique increases the number...
Article
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The impact of avian predation on a declining population of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumifereana (Clem.), was measured using single-tree exclosure cages in a mature stand of balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.), and white spruce, Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss. Bird population censuses and observations of foraging and nest-feeding activity were als...
Article
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We sampled outbreak populations of western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), between 1997 and 2016 in Douglas‐fir forests in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. Annual rates of change in population densities were correlated with generation survival, modulated by egg recruitment via dispersal of moths. Most...
Article
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This is the second article of a series of three where we develop temperature-driven models to describe the seasonal interactions between parasitoids and their hosts which we use to explore the impact of climate on their spatiotemporal biology. Here, we model the biology of Meteorus trachynotus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with an individual-based mode...
Chapter
Insect defoliators constitute a distinct class of forest disturbance because they are selective, extensive, periodic, and spatially synchronous, albeit imperfectly. This chapter discusses the nature of the mechanisms that generate cycles and synchronize these cycles across the landscape. A template is presented that could be used to structure a pro...
Article
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Despite their importance as mortality factors of many insects, the detailed biology and ecology of parasitoids often remain unknown. To gain insights into the spatiotemporal biology of insect parasitoids in interaction with their hosts, modeling of temperature-dependent development, reproduction, and survival is a powerful tool. In this first artic...
Article
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The spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, Clem., is the most significant defoliating pest of boreal balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea sp.) in North America. Historically, spruce budworm outbreaks have been managed via a reactive, foliage protection approach focused on keeping trees alive rather than stopping the outbreak....
Article
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The crepuscular (evening) circadian rhythm of adult spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) flight activity under the influence of changing evening temperatures is described using a mathematical model. This description is intended for inclusion in a comprehensive model of spruce budworm flight activity leading to the simulation of mass mi...
Article
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We describe an individual-based model of spruce budworm moth migration founded on the premise that flight liftoff, altitude, and duration are constrained by the relationships between wing size, body weight, wingbeat frequency, and air temperature. We parameterized this model with observations from moths captured in traps or observed migrating under...
Article
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Aerial applications of a registered formulation of synthetic spruce budworm female sex pheromone were made in 2008, 2013 and 2014 to disrupt mating in populations of this forest insect pest in Quebec, Canada. Each year, the applications resulted in a 90% reduction in captures of male spruce budworm moths in pheromone-baited traps. A commensurate re...
Article
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Management of spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), outbreak spread requires understanding the demographic processes occurring in low, but rising populations. For the first time, detailed observations were made in the early stages of outbreak development. We sampled populations over a three-year period in both treated and untreated popu...
Article
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Egg recruitment quantifies the relative importance of realized fecundity and migration rates in the population dynamics of highly mobile insects. We develop here a formal context upon which to base the measurement and interpretation of egg recruitment in population dynamics of eastern and western spruce budworms, two geographically separated specie...
Article
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Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.; SBW) outbreaks are one of the dominant natural disturbances in North America, having killed balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea sp.) trees over tens of millions of hectares. Responses to past SBW outbreaks have included the aerial application of insecticides to limit defoliation a...
Article
Climate change affects the geographic range and outbreak behavior of forest insects. Both the range and dynamics of insect populations are linked to physiological responses to abiotic conditions and trophic interactions via their effects on individual fitness. We develop a process-based simulation model of population fitness for the western spruce...
Article
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Understanding the causal pathways through which forest insect outbreaks are triggered is important for resource managers. However, detailed population dynamics studies are hard to conduct in low‐density, pre‐outbreak populations because the insects are difficult to sample in sufficient numbers. Using laboratory‐raised larvae installed in the field...
Article
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Eastern (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlocks (T. caroliniana) of eastern North America have been attacked by the non-native hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (HWA) since the first half of the 20th century. Unlike most insects, HWA develops through one generation from fall to late winter, exposing this insect to the lethal effects o...
Article
Phenology is a key aspect of plant and animal life strategies that determines the ability to capture seasonally variable resources. It defines the season and duration of growth and reproduction and paces ecological interactions and ecosystem functions. Phenology models have become a key component of models in agronomy, forestry, ecology, and biogeo...
Poster
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The effect of high temperature on the performance of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) parasitoid Tranosema rostrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), its polydnavirus (TrIV), and the immune reaction of its host.
Article
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Understanding the mechanisms that cause large-scale synchrony in insect population dynamics might yield key insights for predicting potential outbreak occurrence. Here, we evaluated which environmental factors best explain synchronous population fluctuations in the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) (SBW), a major defoliator of conifer...
Article
Endoparasitoids face the challenge of overcoming the immune reaction of their hosts, which typically consists of encapsulation and melanisation of parasitoid eggs or larvae. Some endoparasitic wasps such as the solitary Tranosema rostrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) that lay their eggs in larvae of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lep...
Article
Full-text available
The temperature-dependent development and survival of immatures, as well as adult longevity and potential fecundity of the endoparasitoid Tranosema rostrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitizing spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions at several constant temperatures...
Article
Aerial application of Mimic® 2LV to rising outbreak populations of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens); Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Québec, Canada, resulted in high levels of population reduction at spray deposits of 0.5–1.2 μg tebufenozide/g of foliage. Application to potted host trees in outdoor enclosures followed by bioassay...
Article
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Tranosema rostrale (Brischke) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is an important parasitoid of low-density spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations. To investigate the effectiveness of this parasitoid in attacking low-density spruce budworm populations, we conducted a detailed laboratory study on its reprod...
Article
Conifer-feeding spruce budworms emerge from overwintering sites as small larvae in early spring, several days before budburst, and mine old needles. These early-emerging larvae suffer considerable mortality during this foraging period as they disperse in search of available, current-year buds. Once buds flush, surviving budworms construct feeding s...
Article
The seasonal pattern of parasitism by a parasitoid can be influenced by many factors, such as interspecific competition and host instar preference. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to describe the seasonal pattern of parasitism of spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) larvae by Tranosema rostrale (Brischke), and to investig...
Article
Conifer-feeding budworms (Choristoneura) hibernate in sheltered locations on their host trees from late summer of 1 year to spring of the next. During this period, they do not feed but rely on sustenance provided in the egg. Overwinter survival is dependent on the rate of consumption of these limited reserves. 2. A process model was developed that...
Article
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Over the past decades, as significant advances were made in the availability and accessibility of computing power, individual-based models (IBM) have become increasingly appealing to ecologists (Grimm 1999). The individual-based modeling approachprovides a convenient framework to incorporate detailed knowledge of individuals and of their interactio...
Article
Climate change is altering insect disturbance regimes via temperature-mediated phenological changes and trophic interactions among host trees, herbivorous insects, and their natural enemies in boreal forests. Range expansion and increase in outbreak severity of forest insects are occurring in Europe and North America. The degree to which northern f...
Article
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Silvicultural treatments are suggested as an option for controlling insect defoliators, although the effects of treatment on parasitism remain widely unknown. Therefore, in the present study, the influence of partial cutting on hemlock looper Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) parasitism is studied by comparing two cutting int...
Article
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Cut-points to distinguish larval instars of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), from the measurement of head-capsule width were determined using a maximum likelihood approach. The cut-points that distinguish the four instars are suitable to classify individual larvae from field populations co...
Article
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Climate induced species range shifts might create novel interactions among species that may outweigh direct climatic effects. In an agricultural context, climate change might alter the intensity of competition or facilitation interactions among pests with, potentially, negative consequences on the levels of damage to crop. This could threaten the p...
Article
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Silvicultural treatments such as thinning have been suggested as management tools against the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Among other things, parasitoids are also proposed to be influenced by silvicultural procedures, but the effect of thinning on spruce budworm's natural enemies has not been teste...
Article
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Patterns of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lambert) pollen cone production are of interest because they may help explain jack pine budworm (Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman) outbreak patterns. We used generalized linear mixed models to analyze pollen cone production in 180 permanent plots in Ontario, Canada between 1992 and 2008. Pollen cone productio...
Article
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This chapter discusses the theoretical basis and application of phenology models for poikilothermic animals, with a particular emphasis on insects. Realistic and accurate models make use of the non-linear, unimodal nature of physiological responses to temperature, using the rate-summation paradigm. In addition, the intrinsic (genetic) variation of...
Article
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Artificial diet is commonly used to rear the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the laboratory. While its effect on spruce budworm performance is relatively well studied, no information exists about the influence of rearing diet on larval parasitism. In this study, spruce budworm larvae reared in the l...
Article
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An individual-based phenology model for western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was developed using stage-specific rates of development, oviposition, and egg hatch observed under controlled conditions at several temperatures. Model output was compared with age distributions estimated by sampling field...
Article
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Many regions are increasingly threatened by agricultural pests but suffer from a lack of data that hampers the development of adequate population dynamics models that could contribute to pest management strategies. Here, we present a new model relating pest survival to temperature and compare its performance with two published models. We were parti...
Article
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The present study relates the survival rate of bagworm eggs to extreme winter temperature and weight of egg clutches. The eggs were collected in the spring of 2009 at 104 locations in the mid-western United States of America across a latitudinal range from 36.5–41.5 °N. Egg survival after a 1-week incubation period was overdispersed, suggesting tha...
Article
Allee effects can cause populations to decline due to decreasing population growth rates with decreasing density and play a major role in population dynamics. Mate‐finding failure, a common mechanism contributing to demographic Allee effects, is usually difficult to demonstrate because of the arduous nature of sampling individuals at very low densi...
Article
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Tetropium fuscum (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a Palaearctic wood borer that has been established in Atlantic Canada since at least 1990. Neither the number of instars nor methods for determining the instar of field-collected larvae have been documented for this species. Head-capsule width was measured for 949 T. fuscum larvae in order...
Article
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Species have been invading new territories ever since life appeared on Earth, as invasion is part of the struggle for life. From the times of supercontinents Rodinia and then Pangea to the current distribution of the world's continents, species have moved within and between land masses in search of opportunities for survival and growth. Species hav...
Article
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The phenology of Winthemia fumiferanae Toth. (Diptera: Tachinidae), a larval–pupal parasitoid of the spruce budworm, was studied in Quebec to evaluate its synchrony with the host. Adult emergence showed protandry and occurred when budworm larvae were in the second to the fifth instar. In Malaise trap catches, males were dominant during the emergenc...
Article
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The immature stages of Meteorus trachynotus Vier., developing in larvae of Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), are described. The egg of M. trachynotus is of the stalked type. There are three larval stages. The first instar has a caudal appendage which stops growing in the second instar and is lost when the larva exits from the host in the third inst...
Article
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A probabilistic model is developed which relates stocking to degree of scarification and aerial seeding rate. Seed deposition patterns resulting from air turbulence and aircraft motion, as well as variability in seedbed distribution across a seeding chance, are shown to decrease potential stocking. The model is validated by comparison with experime...
Article
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The potential for mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), to expand its historical range in North America from west of the continental divide into the eastern boreal forest was assessed on the basis of analyses of the effects of climate and weather on brood development and survival, and key asp...
Article
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Climatic changes are predicted to significantly affect the frequency and severity of disturbances that shape forest ecosystems. We provide a synthesis of climate change effects on native bark beetles, important mortality agents of conifers in western North America. Because of differences in temperature-dependent life-history strategies, including c...
Article
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Much evidence is accumulating that insect distributions are changing. The changing earth’s climate is providing mobile species with an evolving “hospitability” template, and increasing global commerce expands opportunities for mobile species to colonize new habitats. Predicting the distribution of insects in the face of accelerating global commerce...
Article
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The concept of biodiversity can be simply defined as the sum of all biotic variation from the level of genes to ecosystems. Biodiversity at the species level, frequently called "species diversity", is a core concept of ecological community and conservation research. To date, however, no single number can fully capture such a concept without loss of...
Chapter
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The gypsy moth has become established throughout southern Canada east of Lake Superior where the climate is suitable for the completion of its univoltine life cycle. The spread of the gypsy moth to the north and west in Canada has so far been prevented by climatic barriers and host plant availability as well as by aggressive eradication of incipien...
Article
We have developed a model describing the responses of mountain pine beetle to daily fluctuations of temperature, in terms of development, survival and reproduction. The model also describes the aggregation, attack, and competition of beetles in pine stands. Built in an individual based framework, using an object-oriented approach, this model can pr...
Article
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The potential impacts of climate change on forest insect species have been described while the approach on predicting their distributions have been explained that is based on their known physiological responses to specific weather factors. The developmental responses have been the primary basis for this modelling as it determines the climates under...