Jacques Gallichand

Jacques Gallichand
Laval University | ULAVAL · Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences

Ph.D.

About

119
Publications
12,628
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1,981
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1991 - December 2015
Laval University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (119)
Article
Full-text available
This article proposes an analytical strategy that combines X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) analysis as an alternative solution to long-term experiments that seek to investigate spatiotemporal variations in soil hydraulic properties induced by drainage and recharge cycles. We conducted CT scanning on 100-cm-high...
Article
An inadequate soil sampling time leads to difficulties in interpreting soil tests, to incorrect recommendations for soil amendments and fertilizers, and to inappropriate environmental protection restrictions. Soil samples may be collected from agricultural fields before, during or after the crop growth period. Since the time of soil sample collecti...
Article
Incineration of municipal sludge and agri-food by-products generates large quantities of ash that can be used in agriculture as phosphorus fertilizer. The fertilizing potential of sludge incineration ash (SIA) from 12 cities in Canada and the United States was tested in a greenhouse experiment against a synthetic fertilizer (TSP: triple superphosph...
Article
Full-text available
Integrated water management has become a priority for cropping systems where subirrigation is possible. Compared to conventional sprinkler irrigation, the controlling water table can lead to a substantial increase in yield and water use efficiency with less pumping energy requirements. Knowing the spatiotemporal distribution of water table depth (W...
Article
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Soil texture is a key soil property influencing many agronomic practices including fertilization and liming. Therefore, an accurate estimation of soil texture is essential for adopting sustainable soil management practices. In this study, we used different machine learning algorithms trained on vis–NIR spectra from existing soil spectral libraries...
Article
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In this paper we first compare three different methods of spatial interpolation, i.e., inverse distance weighting (IDW), thin plate splines (TPS), and kriging on weekly water table depth (WTD) measurements from 80 observation wells in two cranberry farms (Farm A and Farm B) located in Québec, Canada. We use the leave-one-out cross-validation approa...
Article
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Potato is one of the most important legumes and constitutes a dominant portion of the global diet. Its physiological activities as well as the quantity and quality of its tubers are influenced by water stress. Herein, we evaluate the effect of several irrigation regimes on the recovery time of potato physiological activities and yield. The treatmen...
Article
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For homogeneous fertilization and crop management practices, this work hypothesized that texture could influence cereal yield, particularly in dry regions. Particle size analysis could help improve knowledge of the soil-plant relationship to obtain favorable conditions for better yield. The objective of this work is to develop a single granulometri...
Article
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Several studies have pointed out the promising use of nutritional diagnosis methods for the determination of optimum nutrient contents in plant tissues. The present investigation was carried out in different oases in Southern Tunisia to determine reference values for the interpretation of leaf analyses of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Deglet Nour...
Article
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In recent years, the amount of biosolids used for land application has increased constantly. Many studies detail the interest of recycling biosolids in agriculture. However, there is a need for a consumer-oriented model that can predict P-efficiency of biosolids regardless of their origin and composition. Literature about the P availability from a...
Article
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Real-time monitoring of soil matric potential has now become a common practice for precision irrigation management. Some crops, such as cranberries, are susceptible to both water and anoxic stresses. Excessive variations in soil matric potential in the root zone may reduce plant transpiration, due to either saturated or dry soil conditions, thereby...
Article
In recent decades, moisture‐based subsurface drip irrigation management strategies lead to water savings while maintaining strawberry yields in open fields. Most soils in the Québec City area are characterized by a high proportion of schist fragments and high hydraulic conductivity, causing substantial water losses following irrigation. Until now,...
Article
Integrated groundwater management is a major challenge for industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. In some agricultural production systems, optimized water table management represents a significant factor to improve crop yields and water use. Therefore, predicting water table depth (WTD) becomes an important means to enable real-time plan...
Article
Soil compaction is an agricultural and environmental concern. Understanding the parameters affecting crop productivity is essential for an efficient agriculture. We compared two statistical methods: random forest (RF), and multiple linear regression (MLR), to evaluate the effects of various parameters, including subsoiling, on corn (Zea mays L.) pl...
Article
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Despite its inconveniences, the most recognized method to extract boron from soils is that of hot water extraction (BHW), which is used for diagnostics and recommendations. However, the Mehlich-3 (M3) method is widely used to extract and diagnose several elements at once (P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, B, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) and is well adapted to routine analy...
Article
In North America, almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] trees are grown almost exclusively in the Central Valley of California. Research on deficit irrigation is needed to improve water productivity. Real-time technology assessing soil water potential to manage irrigation initiation has led to significant improvements in water productivity in ot...
Article
Phosphorus (P) is a limited resource that could be depleted. Consequently, recycling the P contained in sewage sludge, including sewage sludge incineration ash (SIA), from wastewater treatment plants is a possibility to be explored. A greenhouse experiment using annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) was performed with an experimental design of th...
Article
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Losses of nitrogen fertilizer from agricultural watersheds are among the main causes of water quality degradation in Quebec. Under maize crop, leached nitrate can reach up to 185 kg N ha−1. The synchronization of the nitrogen fertilization with crop uptake would be a way to optimize the use of nitrogen fertilizer and reduce nitrate leaching. Coupli...
Poster
Full-text available
The human use of fresh water has expanded at a rate twice that of the population increase. Nowadays, 70 percent of the 3 830 cubic km of water use is being taken by the agricultural sector. Among the major crops, the potato stands on top of the calories production per liter of water. Ironically, potato yields are particularly sensitive to soil wate...
Article
The capacity of water reservoirs may be considerably reduced by sediment transport and accumulation. This phenomenon may occur quickly in regions prone to erosion, such as Hammam Debagh Dam region in Algeria. For better management of water resources, it is important to estimate the volume of a reservoir by regular and frequent topo-bathymetric surv...
Article
The subsampling of soil for laboratory testing may be done by the volumetric or gravimetric methods. The specific method used may depend on regional or national regulations. Here, we present an analysis of the results, obtained by Mehlich III extraction, of 100 mineral soils and 24 organic soils in Quebec. Samples were selected by independent labor...
Article
Byproducts can provide an important amount of nutrients for crops and improve soils properties. According to their C/N, nitrogen (N) mineralization or immobilization may be observed after their application onto agricultural land. Therefore, an indicator is needed to assess byproducts N availability for crops. Thirty-seven studies from the scientifi...
Article
Recent research funding, as well as technological and management changes, has led to important scientific discoveries on irrigation and drainage of cranberry that could significantly impact on plant yield and water use. This paper integrates all this information into new proposed guidelines for irrigation and drainage management of cranberry. It ex...
Article
Over the last few years, advanced knowledge in cranberry field hydrology has lead to substantial increase in production. Much of this progress has come from knowing the relationship between drainage capacity and soil profile properties. However, drainage problems can occur and an appropriate diagnosis remains essential for making recommendations ad...
Article
Cranberries were grown under controlled environmental conditions to determine the effects of soil waterlogging on cranberry gas exchange in three growth stages and to investigate the recovery time after waterlogging. Photosynthesis declined by 28% after the first day of waterlogging at the bud elongation stage and was 46% lower after the fifth day....
Article
The impact of two drainage problems on cranberry yield was investigated. In the first case, a yield decline of 39% was measured for cranberries growing over clogged drains, and in the second case, an inadequate design of the drainage outlet was associated with a 25% yield reduction. This yield decrease vanished the following year after redesigning...
Article
Inadequate and (or) inconsistent soil sample preparation techniques (SPT) contribute to excessive variance, difficulties in soil test interpretation, and incorrect lime and fertilizer recommendations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of SPT of five laboratories in Quebec (Canada) on chemical parameters measurement reliability....
Article
The impact of two drainage problems on cranberry yield was investigated. In the first case, a yield decline of 39% was measured for cranberries growing over clogged drains, and in the second case, an inadequate design of the drainage outlet was associated with a 25% yield reduction. This yield decrease vanished the following year after redesigning...
Article
In cranberry production, efficient drainage systems are essential for the development of precision irrigation methods. Most cranberry fields are equipped with subsurface drainage systems used for water table control and excess water removal. Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) are highly sensitive to wet soil conditions, and decreases in crop...
Article
A cultural practice for cooling cranberry plants and avoiding yield losses due to overheating is to turn on sprinkler irrigation for a few minutes when a critical temperature threshold is reached. The purpose of this study was to determine: (i) the critical leaf temperature to start irrigation for evaporative cooling in cranberry production, (ii) t...
Article
Full-text available
Water table control has been successfully tested to improve the sustainability of water management in cranberry production. In the province of Québec (Canada), three sites were investigated to determine the optimum water table depth below soil surface (WTD) using three criteria: (1) increasing yield without decreasing fruit quality; (2) minimizing...
Article
The impact of irrigation thresholds based on soil water potentials on total anthocyanin content (TAcy) of cranberry fruit was studied at two sites. Two methods based on spectrophotometric measurements were compared: the acidic solvent extraction (ASE) method and the pH-differential method. TAcy was greater by 21–29 percent when irrigation was manag...
Article
This study examines velocity components in 3D and shear stress distributions in flows with adverse pressure gradient over a gravel-bed channel using three types of vegetation on banks, rice, straw and Typha stems. Results of this experimental study are compared with those for flows in the bare bank channel. Results show that the flows with adverse...
Article
Yield components are useful for characterizing the impact of crop management parameters on cranberry yield and are known to be influenced by irrigation management. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential contribution of cranberry yield components to maximizing yield, and the influence of the soil water tension threshold used to initiate...
Article
Spatial interpolation methods are required for analysing the effects of soil hydraulic properties on irrigation management. This study was conducted to determine which interpolation methods are best suited to map these properties. During the summer of 2012 we mapped the spatial variability of soil physical properties, soil matric potential, water t...
Article
Failure of bridges due to local scour in the vicinity of bridge abutments is a common occurrence. In this study, experiments under two different channel conditions were conducted to assess the impacts of vegetation on channel banks on local scour around a wing-wall abutment with circular edges. Some experiments were conducted in channel with vegeta...
Article
This research presents recent advances on morphodynamic modeling over gravel dunes. Boundary-layer separation over gravel fixed dunes is investigated by Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV). Using the measurements of flow over dunes at laboratory scale, examined the influence of dune lee sides on the separation of flow. Experiments were conducted in...
Article
As the cranberry industry implements irrigation automation, thresholding based on real-time monitoring of soil moisture to initiate irrigation is lacking. This study was conducted to determine the optimum soil water potential for starting sprinkler irrigation (SWPI) that would optimize water productivity (WP) without decreasing yield. During the 20...
Article
The effect of cobble concentration and vegetated banks on the mean flow and turbulence of streams has not yet been investigated. Cobble concentrations ranging from 10 to 30 cobbles/m2 were tested by this study. In total, 27 velocity profiles were measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) at a sampling frequency of 200 Hz. The results sho...
Article
The influence of a combined system of jet injection through the pier and bed suction on the reduction of local scour around a circular pier was investigated in a laboratory flume. Experiments were conducted for two water depths (10.5 and 28 cm) under 1-jet and 3-jet injection and different angles between the jets, with bed suction rate Q(s)/Q(0) =...
Article
This paper primarily presents velocities, Reynolds stresses and turbulence intensities of flow over a series of two-dimensional asymmetric sharp-crested, gravel bedforms. The bedforms have a mean wavelength of 0.96 m, a mean height of 0.08 m, and a width of 0.4 m (equal to the flume width) and a lee slope of 28°. The results show that extrapolati...
Article
Full-text available
Experiments were conducted in an 8 m long, 40 cm wide, and 60 cm deep re-circulating flume with vegetated banks and gravel bed to study the effects of accelerating and decelerating flows on the flow structure. Significant dip phenomenon was observed in velocity profiles under decelerating flow and the velocity defect law was not suitable due to the...
Article
A series of revegetation practices have been implemented to improve the environmental quality and to reduce water and soil losses in the wind and water erosion transitional belt of China's Loess Plateau. An incompatibility exists between the limited water availability and the extensive plant coverage needed to protect the soil from accelerated eros...
Article
In this experimental study, the turbulent flow in a channel with vegetation by using sprouts of wheat on channel bed was investigated. Two different aspect ratios of channel were used. An Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry was used to measure parameters of turbulent flow over submerged sprouts of wheat, such as velocity profiles. The log law and the Reyn...
Article
This paper presents results of the friction factor of cobble-bed and boulder-bed rivers based on 23 field measurements in three mountainous rivers in Iran. Results reveal that features of our measured velocity profiles in boulder-bed rivers in mountainous region do not present a specific shape but illustrate specific pattern in cobble-bed rivers. T...
Article
Soil texture and evaporative demand have been reported to be the main factors which influence the transpirational response to soil water deficits. However, experimental evidences are not enough. The objective of this study was to investigate the transpirational response to soil water availability in soils of different textures under different evapo...
Article
Boudreau, J., Caron, J., Elrick, D., Fortin, J. and Gallichand, J. 2009. Solute transport in sub-irrigated peat-based growing media. Can. J. Soil Sci. 89: 301-313 New legislation to reduce the amount of fertilizer leached into the environment by horticultural growers and the need to implement water-saving irrigation systems require an understanding...
Article
Simard to phosphorus research in agroecosystems and future prospects. Can. J. Soil Sci. 89: 145Á155. In this paper we present the soil test P saturation, budget, and fractionation procedures used in R. R. Simard's laboratory. We expand that work to: (1) Mehlich-III P saturation index using a weighting factor for Fe accumulation in soils; (2) P budg...
Article
The economic feasibility of large-scale subsurface drainage projects in irrigated land is affected by construction costs. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of two different types of subsurface drainage system layout on construction costs for a 1000 ha pilot area located in the Nile Delta of Egypt. The two types of layout studied were...
Article
Soil erosion is the most significant threat to land productivity and environmental quality on the Loess Plateau of China. The annual total sediment load of the Yellow River is 1.6 billion tons, with about 90 percent coming from soil erosion from the Loess Plateau. To reduce soil erosion from the Loess Plateau, conservation practices, including tree...
Article
The Soil Conservation Service curve number (CN) method commonly uses three discrete levels of soil antecedent moisture condition (AMC), defined by the 5-day antecedent rainfall depth, to describe soil moisture prior to a runoff event. However, this way may not adequately represent soil water conditions of fields and watersheds in the Loess Plateau...
Article
Full-text available
The knowledge of nutrient mass load at the outlet of watersheds is a key tool in water quality management projects. However, because of the lack of frequent concentration measurements, a precise estimation of mass load is not possible. This study was conducted to determine the quality of mass load estimation for a combination of six sampling freque...
Article
Because of the high income resulting from apple production, apple orchards have widely spread since the 1980's in the gully region of Loess Plateau of China. Compared to winter wheat, a major crop in this region, apple trees deplete most of the available water in the 0–10 m soil profile after 30 years, resulting in a decline of apple yield and prof...
Article
The Erosion and Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) has been used to determine the effect of different cropping systems and management practices on soil productivity in the Loess Plateau of China. However, its crop growth and soil water balance submodels have not been verified in this region. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the...
Article
Considering the difficulty in quantifying phosphorus losses from agricultural areas, index methods (PI) for predicting relative losses of phosphorus (P) to surface water have been developed in many regions of Europe and North America. This research was conducted to compare results of a PI model with measured values of P losses, to an adjacent water...
Article
The Soil Conservation Service curve number (CN) method is widely used for predicting direct runoff from rainfall. However, despite the extent of cultivation on hillslope areas, very few attempts have been made to incorporate a slope factor into the CN method. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate existing approaches integrating slope in...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of phosphorus (P) in surface water is a major cause for water quality degradation in agricultural areas. Available tools for estimating the relative P contribution from fields include P-index (PI) models. We performed sensitivity analyses on a PI model, adapted for the province of Québec, to identify the site characteristics and input...
Article
This technical note presents an automatic measurement system for measuring losses of agricultural pollutants in surface runoff and subsurface drainage outflow. This system can be operated during rainfall events and snowmelt periods. The runoff system was composed of a sediment trap, a V-notch weir and an automatic system for flow measurement and sa...
Article
Cette note technique présente un système automatique de mesure des pertes de polluants agricoles par ruissellement et drainage souterrain pouvant opérer durant la période estivale et la fonte nivale. Le système de mesure du ruissellement est composé d'une trappe à sédiments, d'un déversoir en V et d'un système automatique de mesure du débit et de c...
Article
High evaporative demand and limited precipitation restrict the yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in the Loess Plateau of China under semiarid climatic conditions. Grain yield can be improved by effective water management practices. A 13-year field experiment was conducted at the CERN Changwu Agro-ecological Experimental Station of...
Article
Afforestation has been suggested as a means of improving soil and water conservation in north-western China, especially on the Loess Plateau. Understanding of the hydrological responses to afforestation will help us develop sustainable watershed management strategies. A study was conducted during the period of 1956 to 1980 to evaluate runoff respon...
Article
Winter wheat monoculture occupies a large area of the Loess Plateau dryland region of China. Its yield is mainly limited by available water and fertilization. From the mid-1980s, yield of winter wheat increased with fertilizer application, and this increased productivity may increase soil-water depletion and reduce available soil-water at planting....
Article
Rapid wetting of structurally unstable soils results in aggregate disintegration, soil densification, reduced porosity, and changes in the pore-size distribution and intake hydraulic properties. Knowledge of changes in these properties is critical for use in hydrological, solute transport, or erosion models. Multiple determinations of these paramet...
Article
Full-text available
L'intégration du concept d'eau mobile-immobile dans l'équation de dispersion-advection (EDA) résulte en une équation de transport mobile-immobile (ETMI), qui tient compte de l'écoulement préférentiel homogène dans les sols faiblement structurés. Un modèle numérique, utilisant la méthode numérique des lignes (MNL), a été développé en couplant l'ETMI...
Article
The lack of available growing-season water in the middle reaches of the Yellow River watershed has caused the development of deficit irrigation in the Loess Plateau of China. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of different irrigation frequencies and timings on water use and corn yield and to determine optimum water management practi...
Article
Full-text available
Integration of mobile-immobile water in the dispersion-advection equation (DAE) has resulted in a mobile-immobile transport equation (MITE) which takes into account the homogeneous preferential flow in weakly structured soils. A numerical model using the numerical method of lines (NML) coupled with the MITE with Richards' equation was developed. Re...
Article
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Use of the mobile-immobile transport equation requires the knowledge of two key parameters: the immobile water content, θim, and the exchange coefficient between mobile and immobile phases of groundwater, αm. In this paper, these two parameters were 1) estimated by a tension infiltrometer, and 2) optimized by a numerical model. For the parameter es...
Article
Full-text available
L’utilisation de l’équation de transport mobile-immobile nécessite la connaissance de deux paramètres clefs à savoir la teneur en eau immobile, , et le coefficient d’échange entre les phases mobile et immobile de l’eau du sol, . Ces deux paramètres ont été 1) estimés par un infiltromètre sous tension et 2) optimisés par un modèle numérique. Pour l’...
Article
Full-text available
La modélisation du transport des solutés dans un milieu non-saturé repose habituellement sur l’équation de dispersion-advection (EDA). Un modèle numérique (TSOL) a été développé en couplant l’EDA avec l’équation de Richards et en incluant le prélèvement de l’eau par les plantes. La résolution numérique a été effectuée par la méthode numérique des l...