Jacob Stolle

Jacob Stolle
Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique | INRS · Eau Terre Environnement Centre

PhD

About

63
Publications
14,872
Reads
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687
Citations
Citations since 2017
57 Research Items
676 Citations
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Introduction
Assistant Professor of Coastal and Fluvial Hydrodynamics at the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) in the Centre Eau Terre Environnement. His research interests include the application of hybrid physical and numerical modelling for the design of resilient coastal protection structures under challenging climatic conditions and hybrid physical-numerical modelling procedures for improving the understanding of coastal phenomena.

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Extreme hydrodynamic events, such as those driven by tsunamis, have a significant impact on coastal environments. The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics computational method gained popularity in modelling these phenomena. However, high resolution is needed in areas of interest, making coupling techniques popular to reduce computational costs. Herein,...
Article
Extreme hydrodynamic events such as hurricanes or tsunamis threaten coastal regions in particular. Such hazards must be assessed and appropriately incorporated into building codes to mitigate casualties and damages to coastal structures. Guidelines are often developed through experimental investigations that assume buildings remain rigid during hyd...
Article
Many post-event field investigations suggest that dramatic flood hydrodynamics and impact of large floating objects contribute significantly to building damage during a tsunami event. However, the interactions between the transient flood waves, floating debris, and structures have neither been well explored nor understood, and few modelling tools h...
Conference Paper
Extreme hydrodynamic events, such as tsunamis, can transport debris of a very wide range of dimensions, from cohesive sediments to debris such as trees and cars. Large sized floating debris are particularly hazardous for two main reasons: (i) they can accumulate in narrow passages, such as the case of log jams at bridges, and obstruct the flow, cre...
Article
Forensic engineering field surveys conducted in the aftermath of large-scale tsunamis documented the presence of deep local scour holes around structures caused by extreme inundation occurring during such events. The mechanisms leading to scour in extreme flows are still not well understood, as several physical phenomena influencing the spatio-temp...
Article
Landslides, rock falls or related subaerial and subaqueous mass slides can generate devastating impulse waves in adjacent waterbodies. Such waves can occur in lakes and fjords, or due to glacier calving in bays or at steep ocean coastlines. Infrastructure and residential houses along coastlines of those waterbodies are often situated on low elevati...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing the risk of tsunami-driven debris has increasingly been recognized as an important design consideration. The recent ASCE/SEI7-16 standard Chapter 6 requires all the areas included within a 22.5° spreading angle from the debris source to consider the debris impact. However, it would be more reasonable to estimate the risks using numerical...
Article
Full-text available
Inland tsunami flows can be greatly affected by the presence of coastal buildings. The present study experimentally and numerically investigated the effects of nine different building layouts on 1) the tsunami inundation process and spatial velocity distribution, 2) the flow depth and velocity at a specific point, and 3) the extent of the area wher...
Article
Full-text available
Floods can transport debris of a very wide range of dimensions, from cohesive sediments to large floating debris, such as trees and cars. The latter increases the risk associated with floods by, for example, obstructing the flow or damaging structures due to impact. The transport of this type of debris and their interaction with structures are ofte...
Article
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The September 28, 2018 earthquake and tsunami, which occurred north of Palu City, Indonesia, attracted widespread interest from the scientific community due to the unusually large tsunami that occurred after a strike-slip earthquake with a relatively small moment magnitude (M_W = 7.5). To understand the structural performance of buildings and infra...
Article
Large tsunamis pose an immense threat to the inhabitants and infrastructure of coastal communities. The hazard related to coastal flooding events depends not only on the hydrodynamic loading itself, but also on the amount of debris entrained and displaced by the flood. To date, limited knowledge on the interaction of tsunami-induced inundation and...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of modelling the dynamic behavior of structures under extreme hydraulic loading requires a comprehensive examination at a range of scale to develop analytical relationships in the development of scaling methodologies. The experimental program outlined here begins this process by examining the structural response of idealized wooden stru...
Article
Full-text available
Hazardous events, such as landslides, rock slides, rock falls or avalanches often generate extreme, impulsive waves when entering water bodies (Fuchs & Hager, 2015). These waves are approximated by solitary waves and researchers investigate their damage potential when inundating built environment. Deepening the understanding of solitary waves runni...
Article
Full-text available
Designing tsunami-safe buildings relies on engineering codes to estimate induced loads. The only such design code, written in mandatory language is "Chapter 6 - Tsunami Loads and Effects" published recently in the ASCE 7-16 (2017). In this study, for the first time, a bore originating from a solitary wave was used to investigate the damage to an id...
Article
Full-text available
Permafrost coastlines represent a large portion of the world’s coastal area and these areas have become increasingly vulnerable in the face of climate change. The predominant mechanism of coastal erosion in these areas has been identified through several observational studies as thermomechanical erosion—a joint removal of sediment through the melti...
Article
The September 28 2018 Palu tsunami surprised the scientific community, as neither the earthquake magnitude nor its strike-slip mechanism were deemed capable of producing the wave heights that were observed. However, recent research has shown that the earthquake generated several landslides inside Palu bay. The authors conducted a post-disaster fiel...
Article
In the past, hydraulic and structural design has predominantly relied on deterministic methods, often neglecting the stochastic nature that underlies transient loading processes. Nowadays, probabilistic design methods have gained wider attention. The accurate estimates of design conditions for structures must consider the probabilistic properties o...
Article
The entrainment of debris in tsunami-induced floods and storm surges can result in their accumulation on structures, a phenomenon known as debris damming. Such dams can decrease the stability of the affected structures by increasing the area of the flow obstruction, resulting in increased resistance forces. The formation of debris dams can also res...
Article
Full-text available
Tsunamis can cause large damage to breakwaters and other protection structures placed along the coastline. The strong flows generated by such waves can move the armor units of composite breakwaters, leading to large impact forces on the caissons behind them. In the present work laboratory experiments were carried out in a flume to determine the for...
Article
Video footage from the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis showed large quantities of debris entrained within the inundating flows. Such extreme debris conditions can lead to a high probability for multiple impacts on structures particularly in built-in coastal communities. In the current North American design guidelines and standards, commo...
Article
Full-text available
Adequate design of pipelines used for oil, gas, water, and wastewater transmission is essential not only for their proper operation but particularly to avoid failure and the possible extreme consequences. This is even more drastic in nearshore environments, where pipelines are potentially exposed to extreme hydrodynamic events, such as tsunami- or...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, numerical simulations were conducted to estimate the spatio-temporal characteristics of tsunami inundation for municipalities on Vancouver Island, Canada, as a result of various potential Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake deterministic scenarios. By varying the earthquake magnitude and associated slip distance, the influence...
Article
Full-text available
On September 28, 2018, a large earthquake and its accompanying tsunami waves caused severe damage to the coastal area of Palu Bay, in the central western part of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. To clarify the distribution of tsunami inundation and run-up heights, and damage to coastal communities due to the tsunami, the authors conducted a field survey...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past two decades, extreme flood events generated by tsunamis or hurricanes have caused massive damage to nearshore infrastructures and coastal communities. Utility pipelines are part of such infrastructure and need to be protected against potential extreme hydrodynamic loading. Therefore, to address the uncertainties and parameters involve...
Article
Full-text available
A field survey team went to Palu City, Indonesia in the aftermath of the September 28th, 2018 earthquake and tsunami to investigate its effects on local infrastructure and buildings. The study focused on the coast of Palu Bay, where a tsunami wave between approximately 2 and 7 m high impacted the local community as a result of several complex tsuna...
Article
Debris loading has been identified during several forensic engineering field surveys in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Japan tsunamis as a critical design load. However, little research has addressed the assessment of debris loading hazards. The study presented herein examines the entrainment and transport of debris over a 1...
Article
Dam-break waves are commonly used throughout the field of hydraulic engineering. Given the availability of several welldeveloped analytical solutions, as well as the relative ease with which they can be implemented as a numerical or physical boundary condition, dam-break waves have been used to examine various phenomena. This study employs a smooth...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Debris loading has been identified during several engineering field surveys in the aftermath of the 2004 and 2011 Tsunamis as a critical design load. However, little research has addressed the assessment of debris loading hazards. The study presented here examines the entrainment and transport of debris over a 1:10 sloped bed in tsunami-like condit...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents a wealth of publicly-available information, as well as unique insights generated from the efforts of StEER’s Field Assessment Team (FAT-1) led by Associate Director for Assessment Technologies, Ian Robertson, working in collaboration with a larger international reconnaissance team. The intent of this report is to: 1. provide an...
Article
Field surveys of recent major flood events have emphasized the need for an in-depth examination of debris loading. Debris loading occurs when solid objects entrained within the flow interact with a structure in its movement path, exerting loads through direct impacts or damming. Until now, the focus of research into debris impacts has concentrated...
Presentation
Extreme coastal events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami as well as the 2005 Katrina and 2012 Sandy hurricanes demonstrated that, hydrodynamic loading aside, debris loading represents a major factor in the extreme loading conditions experienced by inland infrastructure. While extreme hydrodynamic loading due to coastal...
Presentation
Proper design of pipelines used for oil, gas, water and wastewater transmission is of great importance. This is even more critical when pipelines are located in nearshore, coastal areas that are exposed to extreme hydrodynamic events, such as tsunami and storm surges. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)), in its ASCE7 Chapter 6: Tsunami...
Presentation
IPCC’s AR5 stated that it is more likely than not that the frequency of tropical cyclones (TCs) will decrease and that the intensity of TCs will increase over the Western North Pacific in the late 21st century. Until now, many researchers have tried to project wave climate according to various climate change scenario (Hemer et al., 2013). Most stud...
Presentation
Past tsunami events have caused extreme damage in coastal regions. Examples are the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004 and the Tohuku Tsunami in 2011. These extreme natural disasters brought into light the devastating nature which tsunami-induced inundation might inflict when propagating on-land. As a result of eye-witness reports and extensive media cov...
Presentation
Forensic engineering surveys of extreme flooding events, such as the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami and the 2012 Hurricane Katrina, demonstrated the importance of debris in estimating loading on structures. Debris are any solid objects entrained within the inundating flow. The resulting loads from these objects can be the result of debris damming, where debri...
Article
The study presented herein examines the influence of a swing gate on the generation of dam-break waves. Recently, researchers have been using swing gate systems, as opposed to vertical lift gates, as swing gates can be more economical as well as simpler to design and construct. The experimental programme presented herein examines the influence of t...
Article
In field investigations of major flooding events, debris impact has been identified as a critical load and has thus been included in various building codes, such as FEMA P-646 and ASCE7. However, the evaluation of debris loading solely based on field data is challenging. Therefore, to address the uncertainties related to debris loading, an experime...
Article
Historical tsunami events have resulted in extreme damage to coastal regions worldwide. Among the various loads associated with tsunami waves, debris impact has been shown to cause major damage to nearshore infrastructure. As a result, debris impact loads have been included prominently in existing design guidelines and standards, such as the FEMA P...
Conference Paper
The coastal environment is a significant part of the Canadian landscape as the country is not only bordered by the world’s three main oceans (Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific) but also encompasses several important internal marine waters, such as the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Hudson Bay, as well as the long shores of the world’s largest fresh water...
Article
Debris loading during extreme flooding events has been documented by many post-tsunami field surveys of disaster-stricken communities and, as such, it is now considered and accounted for as a critical design consideration in the design of resilient infrastructure. Debris damming is one of the debris loads of concern, occurring when solid objects en...
Article
Recent extreme hydrodynamic events, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, and 2013 Typhoon Haiyan, have indicated the vulnerability of coastal communities. As a result, emphasis has been placed on understanding and developing methods of assessing the potential loads associated with these extreme events. The majority of rese...
Chapter
The entrainment of debris within inundating flows in extreme hydrodynamic events results in impact loads and other effects that need to be considered in the design of at-risk structures. The analysis of debris impact loads has been performed following field investigations as well as in an experimental setting. The emphasis of this research has prim...
Article
Full-text available
Following the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, Japanese tsunami protection guidelines stipulate that coastal defences should ensure that settlements are shielded from the coastal inundation that would result from Level 1 tsunami events (with return periods in the order of about 100 years). However, the overtopping mechanism and leeward inundatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the past several decades, tsunamis have caused catastrophic damage to coastal communities as well as a huge number of fatalities. An example is the 2011 Japan Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, which occurred along the north-eastern coastline of Japan. The earthquake on March 11 predominantly affected the eastern coast of Japan. A large tsunami wa...
Article
Full-text available
Debris loads during flood events have been well-documented by forensic engineering field surveys of affected communities. Research has primarily focused on debris impact loading and less emphasis has been placed into quantifying the loads and effects associated with debris damming, which occurs when solid objects accumulate at the front of structur...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on an experimental test program investigating the motion and entrainment of flow-entrained debris. The motion of debris in large scale hydraulic events can cause severe damage to the impacted communities: the dynamic characteristics of the debris' motion is crucial in identifying high-risk areas in affected communities. Determini...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Determining the location of floating or partially submerged objects during an extreme hydrodynamic event is an important task the investigation of impact loading resulting from debris impacts. This study investigates the application of a novel tracking system which is based on the radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and exploits the me...
Article
An experimental study was performed to examine multiple debris entrainment and transport in tsunami-like flow conditions. The study was performed in the Tsunami Wave Basin at Waseda University. The wave basin used a falling-head driven elongated solitary wave that broke at the edge of a horizontal apron to generate a tsunami-like surge. The debris,...
Article
Full-text available
Recent natural disasters, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Tsunami, exhibited the importance of tsunami-resistant infrastructure in high-risk coastal areas. The failure of critical infrastructure in tsunami-stricken communities has led to a recent emphasis on extreme loading conditions associated with tsunami events. One of the critica...
Article
Experimental research was conducted focusing on debris motion over a horizontal apron featuring vertical obstacles in the path of the debris propagation. The apron was designed as a typical representation of a harbor threatened by an inundating tsunami. The experimental setup idealized often complex harbor settings. The debris was a scaled-down 20-...
Article
This study presents the results of an experimental research program dealing with spatial debris motion on a horizontal apron depicting a typical harbor wharf. Accordingly, scaled-down 6.1-m (20-ft) shipping containers were equipped with a novel yet nonintrusive real-time tracking system and motion sensors. The instrumentation allowed for the spatio...
Article
Flood disasters such as dam breaks and surges from extreme hurricanes or tsunamis entrain and transport substantial amounts of submerged or floating debris. Understanding of motion and spatiotemporal distribution of debris entrained by a flood is thus of great importance to hydraulic, coastal, and structural engineers; the displacement of debris to...
Article
Debris in high-volume, high velocity flows, such as tsunamis, storm surges, and dam breaks, cause widespread damage to coastal communities. Evaluating the motion of the debris within the flow is difficult due to the variety of variables that can affect the motion, therefore techniques must be developed to quickly and accurately track the motion of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Extreme hydrodynamic flows are frequently induced by flash floods, dam breaks or tsunamis. The flows are characterised by high momentum and intense turbulence. Although hydrodynamic features of these flows and the forces exerted on vertical structures are under closer scrutiny, little attention has been given to the interaction between the arriving...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper outlines a camera-based object tracking algorithm to track water-borne debris in high-velocity flow. The algorithm uses image processing techniques to identify the debris within the image and assigns unique identifiers to each debris to track the debris through an area of interest (AOI). The algorithm uses color thresholding and blob anal...

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Project (1)
Project
This EU-funded project encompasses experimental and numerical work on flow-structure interaction at University of Ottawa, Canada, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan and Leibniz University Hannover, Germany. It is investigated how artificial debris such as cars, containers, or pieces from destructed buildings can be parametrized and how it spatiotemporally distributes in violent flows as appearing during dam breaks, flash floods, storm surges or tsunamis. Innovative radio-frequency based and inertial measurement technique are applied for object tracking. Impact loading to buildings and infrastructure from multiple artificial debris are assessed which eventually leads to design guideline improvements and aims to contribute to European and international resilience and safety against natural disasters.