Jacob M Jungers

Jacob M Jungers
University of Minnesota Twin Cities | UMN · Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics

PhD

About

49
Publications
6,501
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654
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
Global expansion of high-input annual grain crops and associated nitrogen (N) fertilizer use can have negative consequences for the environment and human health. Nitrate nitrogen (NO 3-N) leaching from fertilized annual crops can contaminate groundwater and pollute natural aquatic ecosystems and rural drinking water sources. Intermediate wheatgrass...
Article
Intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium; IWG) is being domesticated as a perennial grain crop. Advanced grain‐type IWG populations display variability in key physiological parameters related to seed development making it difficult to determine grain harvest timing. A quantitative literature review of cool‐season grasses informed the modelli...
Article
Full-text available
Relationships between species diversity, productivity, temporal stability of productivity, and plant invasion have been well documented in grasslands, and these relationships could translate to improved agricultural sustainability. However, few studies have explored these relationships in agricultural contexts where fertility and weeds are managed....
Article
Positive relationships between plant species diversity, soil microbial function and nutrient cycling have been well documented in natural systems, and these relationships have the potential to improve the production and sustainability of agroecosystems. Our objectives were to study the long-term effects of planted species composition and nitrogen (...
Article
Cover crops are commonly used to provide soil cover and can extend the grazing season, but have not been explored in horse pastures. The objectives of this research were to evaluate yield, forage nutritive value, and horse preference of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), winter rye (Secale cereale L.), berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L...
Article
Cover crops are commonly used to provide environmental benefits and can extend the grazing season, but have not been explored in horse pastures. The objectives of this research were to evaluate forage mass, forage nutrient composition, and preference of annual ryegrass, winter rye, berseem clover, purple top turnip, and daikon radish under horse gr...
Article
Diversity and nitrogen addition have positive relationships with plant productivity, yet climate‐induced changes in water availability threaten to upend these established relationships. Using long‐term data from three experiments in a mesic grassland (ranging from 17‐34 years of data), we tested how the effects of species richness and nitrogen addi...
Article
a new perennial grain crop through breeding and agronomic research. However, progress has been hampered by lack of understanding of environmental requirements for flowering and grain production. Therefore, we developed a phenology model for IWG adapted from the STICS soil-crop model. The model was compliant with experimental results (relative root...
Article
Genetically engineered, reduced lignin (RL) alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars have been developed for enhanced forage nutritive value. Research is needed to quantify differences in forage nutritive value among conventionally bred cultivars marketed as high in nutritive value (HNV) and RL cultivars. The objective was to evaluate forage nutritiv...
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Full-text available
Adequate seed production is essential for cultivar success in perennial ryegrass turf and forage industries, but improvement is limited by the complexity of yield components and low‐rank correlations between selection and production environments. This study examined seed yield components among 20 perennial ryegrass entries in both spaced plantings...
Article
Full-text available
Degraded farmlands have been abandoned worldwide, especially in high- and middle-income countries. These lands help combat climate change as they undergo natural recovery of vegetation and soil carbon and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. However, recovery can be slow, requiring decades to centuries to approach pre-cultivation or natural s...
Chapter
Forage legumes are key components of livestock rations whether grazed or harvested as hay or silage. The predominant forage legumes grown in humid regions of the US, Canada, and northern Mexico belong to the Medicago , Trifolium , and Lotus genera. Cool‐season legumes conduct symbiotic nitrogen fixation through a relationship with specific soil bac...
Article
Perennial crops have the potential to provide food, feed, fuel and fiber while promoting multiple ecosystem services. Intermediate wheatgrass (IWG) [Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Buckworth & Dewey] is a perennial grass being bred for grain production. Because the development of IWG as a grain crop is still in its infancy, basic agronomic management...
Article
Full-text available
Intermediate wheatgrass is a cool‐season perennial forage grass, whose grain is commercialized in the US as “Kernza”. Its extensive root system may help reducing soil erosion, water pollution, and carbon emissions. Nitrogen fertilization and forage harvest intensity may affect the belowground biomass and non‐structural carbohydrates (NSC) concentra...
Article
‘MN‐Clearwater’ (Reg. no. CV‐287, PI 692651) is the world's first commercial food‐grade intermediate wheatgrass [IWG; Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey subsp. intermedium] grain cultivar. It was developed as a synthetic population at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, and released in August 2019. Intermediate wheatgrass i...
Article
Establishing native perennial plants on the agricultural landscape can improve ecosystem services and provide marketable products such as seed for restoration plantings and biomass for renewable energy. Native perennials of economic and ecological interest should be examined in different planting configurations over time to determine their suitabil...
Article
Management systems that produce both grain and biomass co‐products could enhance the profitability of the novel perennial grain crop Kernza® intermediate wheatgrass [Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey] (IWG). Harvesting IWG for grain typically results in a straw harvest; in addition, vegetative biomass can be cut in spring, fall,...
Article
Reduced lignin alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has the potential to improve alfalfa forage quality, yet forage morphology, biomass allocation, and stem and leaf forage nutritive value remains undetermined. The objectives of this study were to characterize changes in morphological development and forage nutritive value within stem and leaf fractions fo...
Article
Increasing intermediate wheatgrass [Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey] grain yield and maintaining yield over the life of a stand will be critical to the economic viability of Kernza® grain production. Research on perennial grasses has shown that seed yield can be enhanced by 1) mechanically defoliating the stand for hay producti...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Silflower (Silphium integrifolium Michx.) is a potential perennial oilseed crop that can provide ecosystem services; however, its seed, oil, and biomass yield potential are unknown. Our objectives were to determine the effects of planting density and N fertilizer on silflower seed, oil, and biomass yields and seed yield components for 3 yr...
Article
Full-text available
Bioenergy from perennial grasses mitigates climate change via displacing fossil fuels and storing atmospheric CO2 belowground as soil carbon. Here, we conduct a critical review to examine whether increasing plant diversity in bioenergy grassland systems can further increase their climate change mitigation potential. We find that compared with highl...
Article
Intermediate wheatgrass ( Thinopyrum intermedium ; IWG) is a perennial cereal crop undergoing development for grain production; however, grain yield declines of >75% are often observed after year 2 of the perennial stand and may be linked to soil nutrient depletion. Intercropping IWG with a perennial legume such as alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ) could...
Article
Intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium; IWG), a new perennial grain crop, has the potential to provide ecosystem services while producing food-grade grain; however, productivity is currently limited by high rates of lodging. Trinexapac-ethyl (TE) and prohexadione-calcium (PC) are widely used plant growth regulators (PGRs) for mitigating lo...
Article
Plant breeders are increasing yields and improving agronomic traits in several perennial grain crops, the first of which is now being incorporated into commercial food products. Integration strategies and management guidelines are needed to optimize production of these new crops, which differ substantially from both annual grain crops and perennial...
Article
Intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) is a perennial grass that is being domesticated and improved for use as a grain crop. As a perennial grain crop, intermediate wheatgrass has the potential to produce economically viable, food-grade grain while providing environmental benefits such as reduced erosion and nitrate leaching. To guide agr...
Article
Full-text available
Dry bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) can be grown as a local food source and as an alternative to soybean ( Glycine max ) to diversify organic crop rotations. To understand the benefits of diversification of organic cropping systems, the effects of preceding alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ) and corn ( Zea mays ) crops on yields of five dry bean types and one...
Article
Full-text available
Perennial crops have fewer environmental impacts compared to annual crops, but there are no perennial grains available to replace the annual grains that occupy a majority of U.S. cropland. Here we report grain and biomass yields from an improved breeding population of intermediate wheatgrass (IWG) [Th i-nopyrum intermedium (Host) Buckworth & Dewey]...
Article
Full-text available
Frost seeding alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be convenient and economical for establishing or renovating forage stands; however, premature seedling emergence triggered by unusually warm temperatures followed by fatally cold temperatures can lead to seedling mortality and stand failure. Delaying germination could improve establishment success in f...
Article
Full-text available
Historically, agroecosystems have been designed to produce food. Modern societies now demand more from food systems-not only food, fuel, and fiber, but also a variety of ecosystem services. And although today's farming practices are producing unprecedented yields, they are also contributing to ecosystem problems such as soil erosion, greenhouse gas...
Article
Full-text available
Native perennial bioenergy crops can mitigate greenhouse gases (GHG) by displacing fossil fuels with renewable energy and sequestering atmospheric carbon (C) in soil and roots. The relative contribution of root C to net GHG mitigation potential has not been compared in perennial bioenergy crops ranging in species diversity and N fertility. We measu...
Article
Full-text available
Biomass yield is an important factor when recommending native perennial plants and mixtures for bioenergy production. Our objective was to determine long-term biomass yields in fertilized and unfertilized native plant monocultures and mixtures that show promise for bioenergy across diverse environments in the Upper Midwest. We measured biomass yiel...
Article
Full-text available
Various local factors influence the decision of when to harvest grassland biomass for renewable energy including climate, plant composition, and phenological stage. However, research on biomass yield and quality related to a wide range of harvest timing from multiple environments and years is lacking. Our objective was to determine the effect of ha...
Article
Full-text available
Grasslands enrolled in conservation programs provide important habitat for nesting game birds and waterfowl, but conservation grasslands have been targeted as a source of biomass for bioenergy and this could impact nesting birds. We studied the effects of biomass harvest on nest success and density using 109 blue-winged teal (Anas discors), mallard...
Article
High yields are a priority in managing biomass for renewable energy, but the environmental impacts of various feedstocks and production systems should be equally considered. Mixed-species, perennial grasslands enrolled in conservation programs are being considered as a source of biomass for renewable energy. Conservation grasslands are crucial in s...
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Full-text available
Companion crops supply additional economic returns when used to establish perennial forage crops, and they should provide similar benefits when establishing native perennial grasslands for bioenergy. We evaluated the effect of cereal grains and native perennial companion crops on biomass yield of three different bioenergy crop types (switchgrass (P...
Article
Full-text available
Native prairie plants can be managed to provide biomass for cellulosic ethanol production; however, there is inadequate information in northern latitudes regarding the effects of fertilizers on biomass and ethanol yields. We evaluated biomass yield, land ethanol yield (theoretical ethanol production per unit area), and nutrient harvest in grassland...
Article
Full-text available
Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass...
Conference Paper
Complementarity is used in ecology to describe how species coexist. Here, we use the idea of complementarity to describe how humans can manage a sustainable planet. Similar to how various species interact in the environment, land cover types interact on the landscape. With strategic placement of land cover types, we can optimize the resource-use ef...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Marginal lands enrolled in state or federal conservation programs and planted with perennial grassland cover can serve as a source of bioenergy. Conservation grasslands are often composed of mixtures of native plants from various functional groups including warm- and cool-season grasses, legumes, and other forbs. These...
Data
Calibration statistics for NIRS prediction of forage characteristics and plant cell polysaccharides. (DOCX)
Data
Calculations for estimating residential power production from conservation grasslands in SW Minnesota. (DOCX)
Data
Equation to estimate theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency from sugar concentrations. (DOCX)
Data
Assessment of bale weight variability for large round bales of biomass harvested from conservation grasslands. (DOCX)
Data
Ten most frequently observed species and their average percent cover in sample quadrats. (DOCX)
Conference Paper
Interwoven with the natural watersheds of the United States—made up of lakes, ponds, and rivers—are large artificial watersheds of drain tiles and ditches which prevent fields from becoming too damp by draining them of excess water. The drained water carries fertilizers, antibiotics, pesticides, hormones, and other chemicals into natural watersheds...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Marginally productive land, such as that enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), may provide acreage and economic incentives for cellulosic energy production. Improving the yields from these lands will help establish a biomass producer's position in the marketplace. The effects of water and nitrogen on biomass yields were investigated i...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
Use genetics and breeding to increase yield, seed size, threshability, and quality of intermediate wheatgrass (Kernza) grain.