Jackson T Wright

Jackson T Wright
Case Western Reserve University | CWRU · Division of Nephrology and Hypertension

MD, PhD

About

316
Publications
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80,203
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Additional affiliations
July 1990 - present
Case Western Reserve University
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (316)
Article
Background: In a recent individual level meta-analysis, intensive versus standard blood pressure (BP) treatment reduced participants’ risk of orthostatic hypotension (OH). Whether OH modified the relationship between intensive treatment and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or death is unknown. Methods: We performed an individual participant dat...
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Background: Communication of the benefits and harms of blood pressure lowering strategy is crucial for shared decision-making. Objectives: To quantify the effect of intensive versus standard systolic blood pressure lowering in terms of the number of event-free days DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial PARTI...
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Historic redlining has been linked with several modern-day health inequities across major urban cities, including asthma, certain types of cancer, preterm birth, mental health, and other chronic diseases. It remains unclear whether historical redlining influences inequities in cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases. Accordingly, we sought to exa...
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Background: The SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) demonstrated reductions in major cardiovascular disease events and mortality with an intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) goal intervention. However, a detailed description of the blood pressure intervention, antihypertensive medication usage, blood pressure levels, and rates a...
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BACKGROUND AND AIMS Circulating cardiac biomarkers implicated in the pathogenesis of heart disease may provide a non-invasive, more precise assessment of cardiovascular risk. In the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), intensive blood pressure lowering was associated with a 25% reduction in cardiovascular events and a 27% reduction...
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Hypertension treatment and control prevent more cardiovascular events than management of other modifiable risk factors. Although the age-adjusted proportion of US adults with controlled blood pressure (BP) defined as <140/90 mm Hg, improved from 31.8% in 1999-2000 to 48.5% in 2007-2008, it remained stable through 2013-2014 and declined to 43.7% in...
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Importance: Antihypertensive treatments benefit cerebrovascular health and cognitive function in patients with hypertension, but it is uncertain whether an intensive blood pressure target leads to potentially harmful cerebral hypoperfusion. Objective: To investigate the association of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) control vs standard c...
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The SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) results have influenced clinical practice but have also generated discussion regarding the validity, generalizability, and importance of the findings. Following the SPRINT primary results manuscript in 2015, additional results and analyses of the data have addressed these concerns. The primary...
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Behavioral interventions consolidating technology are underutilized and do not reach diverse populations such as African Americans with hypertension. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of a theoretically derived, technology-based intervention in African Americans with hypertension. African Americans with hypertension (N = 18; age range...
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The greater antihypertensive responses to initial therapy with calcium channel blockers (CCBs) or thiazide-type diuretics than renin-angiotensin system blockers as initial therapy in non-Hispanic Black (NHB) adults was recognized in the US High BP guidelines from 1988 to 2003. The 2014 Report from Panel Members Appointed to the Eighth Joint Nationa...
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Background: Funded by the Ohio Department of Medicaid, the Ohio Cardiovascular and Diabetes Health Collaborative (Cardi-OH) unites the 7 medical schools in Ohio to improve outcomes and reduce disparities in hypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The purpose of this needs assessment was to identify high priority educational topics for the dissemina...
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Recently published national data demonstrate inadequate and worsening control of high blood pressure (HBP) in the United States, outcomes that likely have been made even worse by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This major public health crisis exposes shortcomings of the US health care delivery system and creates an urgent opportun...
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Rationale & objective: Cardiovascular events are less common in women than men in general populations; however, studies in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are less conclusive. We evaluated sex-related differences in cardiovascular events and death in adults with CKD. Study design: Prospective cohort study. Setting & participants: 1778 women and 2...
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Several important findings bearing on the prevention, detection, and management of hypertension have been reported since publication of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Blood Pressure Guideline. This review summarizes and places in context the results of relevant observational studies, randomized clinical trials, a...
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Importance Meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials have indicated that improved hypertension control reduces the risk for cognitive impairment and dementia. However, it is unclear to what extent pathways reflective of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology are affected by hypertension control. Objective To evaluate the association of intensive blood...
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Background: It is unclear whether faster progression of atherosclerosis explains the higher risk of cardiovascular events in CKD. The objectives of this study were to 1. Characterize the associations of CKD with presence and morphology of atherosclerotic plaques on carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2. Examine the associations of baselin...
Article
Fine particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) air pollution is implicated in global mortality, especially from cardiovascular causes. A large body of evidence suggests a link between PM 2.5 and elevation in blood pressure (BP), with the latter implicated as a potential mediator of cardiovascular events. We sought to determine if the outcomes of intensi...
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Diets high in sodium have long been known to raise blood pressure, which, in turn, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Though authoritative recommendations have been made in the past several decades for federal policies and programs to reduce sodium consumption, measures adopted to date have not been effective. We recommend a comprehensiv...
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Background: African American (AA) male survivors of strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIA) have the highest risk of recurrent stroke when compared to other racial-ethnic men. However, there is a paucity of evidence-based strategies, including organizational, educational, or behavioral interventions, that targets secondary stroke risk reductio...
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Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease including stroke, small vessel disease, and dementia. The Systolic blood PRessure INTervention (SPRINT) randomized trial prospectively evaluated the effects of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) control (target SBP<120mmHg) versus standard control (SBP<140mmHg)...
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Rationale and Objective While low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality, the clinical significance of variability in eGFR over time is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the association between variability in eGFR and the risk of CVD events and all-cause mortality. Study Desig...
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Importance In December 2013, the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC8) published a recommendation that non-Black adults initiate antihypertensive medication with a thiazide-type diuretic, calcium channel blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme...
Article
We evaluated the association between orthostatic hypertension and cardiovascular outcomes and the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP) control on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with orthostatic hypertension. Post hoc analyses of the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) data were conducted; orthostatic hypertension was defined...
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Background Results from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that intensive control of systolic blood pressure significantly reduced the occurrence of mild cognitive impairment, but not probable dementia. We investigated the effects of intensive lowering of systolic blood pressure on specific cognitive functions in a prepl...
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Purpose: Adoption of technology has increased to support self-managing chronic diseases. However, behavioral interventions evaluating such technology have been understudied in African Americans with hypertension. The aim of this study was to explore a community and technology-based intervention for hypertension self-management (COACHMAN) intervent...
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Background: Although intensive blood pressure (BP)-lowering treatment reduces risk for cardiovascular disease, there are concerns that it might cause orthostatic hypotension (OH). Purpose: To examine the effects of intensive BP-lowering treatment on OH in hypertensive adults. (PROSPERO: CRD42020153753). Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochr...
Article
Background: Intensive blood pressure (BP) treatment reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, but there are ongoing concerns that it also might be harmful by increasing the risk of orthostatic hypotension (OH). However, individual trials have been inconclusive. Methods: In this individual participant data meta-analysis, we systematically reviewed...
Article
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is frequently observed with hypertension treatment, but its contribution to adverse outcomes is unknown. The SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) was a randomized trial of adults, age ≥50 years at high risk for cardiovascular disease with a seated systolic blood pressure (BP) of 130 to 180 mm Hg and a sta...
Article
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) control in older adults with hypertension, considering cognitive and physical function. Design: Secondary analysis. Setting: Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) PARTICIPANTS: Adults 80 years or older. Intervention: Participants with hypertension but...
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African American (AAs) are disproportionately affected by hypertension. Developing effective outreach programs with community partners is a major public health priority and ideal to educate, empower, and offer support to self-manage hypertension in AAs. The purpose of this pilot is to investigate the effectiveness of a community outreach program us...
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Objective: Observational evidence supports an inverse association between hypovitaminosis D and blood pressure (BP), but intervention data have failed to demonstrate beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation on BP. Following the downwards redefinition of hypertension treatment targets and the need to better identify individuals at greater ri...
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Background: Low serum bicarbonate level is associated with increased mortality, but its role as a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. This study evaluates the association between serum bicarbonate concentration and CVD and whether the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering on CVD outcomes is modified by serum bicarbonat...
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Importance The effect of intensive blood pressure lowering on brain health remains uncertain. Objective To evaluate the association of intensive blood pressure treatment with cerebral white matter lesion and brain volumes. Design, Setting, and Participants A substudy of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of hypertensive adults 50 years or ol...
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Background Blood pressure ( BP ) varies over time within individual patients and across different BP measurement techniques. The effect of different BP targets on concordance between BP measurements is unknown. The goals of this analysis are to evaluate concordance between (1) clinic and ambulatory BP , (2) clinic visit‐to‐visit variability and amb...
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The 2017 Hypertension Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend out-of-clinic BP monitoring to screen for white coat and masked hypertension among adults not taking antihypertensive medication and white coat effect and masked uncontrolled hypertension among adults taking antihypertensive medication. We estimated the percentage of US adults meeting cri...
Article
Blood pressure (BP) varies over time within individual patients and across different BP measurement techniques. The effect of different BP targets on the concordance between BP measurements is unknown. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate concordance in: 1) clinic BP and ambulatory BP, 2) clinic visit-to-visit variability and ambulatory BP var...
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The accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) is essential for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. This article provides an updated American Heart Association scientific statement on BP measurement in humans. In the office setting, many oscillometric devices have been validated that allow accurate BP measurement while reducing human err...
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Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (ATRH) is highly prevalent and associated with cardiovascular disease risk in patients with chronic kidney disease. We analyzed the association of inflammatory biomarkers with ATRH and its complications in patients with chronic kidney disease. ATRH was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg while taking ≥3...
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The accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) is essential for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Restricted use of mercury devices, increased use of oscillometric devices, discrepancies between clinic and out-of-clinic BP, and concerns about measurement error with manual BP measurement techniques have resulted in uncertainty for clini...
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Importance: There are currently no proven treatments to reduce the risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Objective: To evaluate the effect of intensive blood pressure control on risk of dementia. Design, setting, and participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted at 102 sites in the United States and Puerto Rico among adults aged...
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Background: In the United States, incidence of ESRD is 1.5 times higher in men than in women, despite men's lower prevalence of CKD. Prior studies, limited by inclusion of small percentages of minorities and other factors, suggested that men have more rapid CKD progression, but this finding has been inconsistent. Methods: In our prospective inve...
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Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the tissues surrounding the teeth, with evidence of systemic effects. Some studies showed the benefit of periodontal therapy on blood pressure (BP), but the impact of periodontitis on BP control is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed cross-sectional, nationally representative data from trea...
Article
A rapid decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate over 2 years in a large hypertensive cohort was associated with similar risks for overall cardiovascular disease in people with or without diabetes mellitus, but with higher all-cause mortality, heart failure, and end stage renal disease risk in people with diabetes. Accepted for publication...
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Patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) are at risk for further loss of kidney function and death, which occur despite reasonable blood pressure treatment. To determine whether arterial stiffness influences CKD progression and death, independent of blood pressure, we conducted a prospective cohort study of CKD patients enrolled in the CRIC stu...
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Background and objectives: Cognitive function worsens as kidney function declines, but mechanisms contributing to this association are not completely understood. Metabolic acidosis, a common complication of CKD, leads to neural networks overexcitation and is involved in cerebral autoregulation. We aimed to evaluate the association between serum bi...
Article
Recent publications have stated that the blood pressure (BP) measurement technique used in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) was unattended. However, the SPRINT protocol does not address the issue of attendance. A survey was conducted immediately after SPRINT closeout visits were completed to inquire whether BP measurements were u...
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Background and objectives: Central BP measurements provide noninvasive measurement of aortic BP; our objectives were to examine the association of central and brachial BP measurements with risk of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients with CKD and to determine the role of central BP measurement in conjunction with brachial BP in estima...
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Background: Impaired renal function is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality. The impact of short-term renal function decline on outcomes is less well studied. The association of antihypertensive medications with the impact of short-term estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline is not kn...
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Background: The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults provides recommendations for the definition of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) thresholds for initiation of antihypertensive medication...
Article
Background: The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults provides recommendations for the definition of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) thresholds for initiation of antihypertensive medication...
Article
Aims: To determine whether baseline metabolic syndrome (MetS) modifies the effect of intensive blood pressure control on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, and whether effects varied by race/ethnicity. Materials and methods: We performed post-hoc analyses among Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), Non-Hispanic White (NHW), and Hispanic participants with and wit...
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Background and purpose: The visual analogue scale is a self-reported, validated tool to measure quality of life (QoL). Our purpose was to determine whether baseline QoL predicted strokes in the ALLHAT study (Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) and evaluate determinants of poststroke change in QoL. In the AL...
Article
Background In the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), adults at high risk for cardiovascular disease who received intensive systolic blood-pressure control (target, <120 mm Hg) had significantly lower rates of death and cardiovascular disease events than did those who received standard control (target, <140 mm Hg). On the basis of...