Jack Watson

Jack Watson
University of Tennessee | UTK · Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

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114
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Publications

Publications (114)
Article
The loading ratio of a solvent extraction process is the ratio of moles of metal extracted to moles of extractant fed. Since the efficiency has several limitations, it is recommended to quantify a metal-extraction system in terms of its loading ratio in addition to its efficiency or extraction rate coefficient. In this study, the loading ratio was...
Article
This study level process design represents an economically viable method for extracting thorium dioxide and other rare earth elements from monazite ore. This paper incorporates results from the 2019 capstone project from the honors Design Internship in Green Engineering in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. In this activity, senior students in...
Article
Extraction of yttrium (Y) from sulfuric acid was studied using di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (DEHPA). A portion of the organic phase was recycled back into the mixer after extraction for the mixer to operate at a moderate organic-to-aqueous volumetric phase ratio while processing at a low organic-to-aqueous flow rate ratio. The effective performance o...
Article
Frequently optimizations of chemical processes are presented in terms of the maximization of fractional conversion, but the primary concern when implementing a process is much more likely to be the economic viability. These are distinct optima that tend to occur at very different points. It was the purpose of this paper to integrate leaching experi...
Article
Waste phosphatic clay presents a difficult disposal problem and a significant loss of P2O5. Recent developments make this study on the use of phosphatic clay as a feed material for H3PO4 production worthwhile. (a) New data from Florida Industrial and Phosphate Research Institute (FIPR) suggest that the “clay” waste can be effectively treated by imp...
Article
The performance of two inorganic ion exchange resins, Isolute SCX and Isolute SCX-2, were compared to the performance of the organic resin AG-50X8 in the separation of the radionuclide bismuth-213 from its parent solution of actinium-225. The breakthrough of the actinium-225 for all three columns was well below the toxicity level but the Isolute SC...
Article
A comparison of the ion exchange properties of the inorganic resin Isolute SCX-2 with alkali metal cations, including francium, to the organic Dowex 50X8 resin is presented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ion exchange properties of the alkali metal cations with a resin containing a less hydrophobic backbone structure. It was found...
Article
The sorption/desorption of gallic acid, a simple phenolic compound, was studied experimentally in a batch system. The motivation for this project was to provide insight to the recovery of phenolic compounds from switchgrass. Recovery of phenolic compounds could enhance the sustainability and economics of biorefining facilities. The sorption/desorpt...
Article
Full-text available
Melting/freezing points of AlCl3 in saturated chloroaluminate ionic liquids [molar ratio 2:1 AlCl3:1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC)] are measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A critical range of temperature data (50-130 °C) for AlCl3 dissolution and precipitation from saturated chloroaluminate ionic liquids is obtained. T...
Article
Full-text available
Presented is a computer-aided process design and analysis procedure for use in creating Aspen HYSYS-based base-case design simulations for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. This procedure is based on the work of Douglas. This approach provides a step by step method to system design that permits preliminary assessments of the economic viability, which allows...
Article
Full-text available
Aluminum electrodeposition and electrodissolution in mixtures of AlCl3 and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride on carbon paper electrodes consisting of graphitized fibers were investigated. Porous electrodes, such as carbon paper electrodes, often offer possible advantages such as higher nominal current densities and less dendrite formation, over...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the equilibrium absorption of water in various solvents and solvent-mixtures being considered for the counter-current solvent extraction of acetic acid from improved Uranium Extraction (UREX+) process solutions. It then seeks to determine if there is any correlation between the equilibrium water content of these solvents and...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the use of annular centrifugal contactors for the liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from an acidic aqueous phase into an organic phase consisting of 1.5 M Tributyl Phosphate in n-Dodecane. Initial break time tests were performed in order to investigate the mixing/separation viability of the organic/aqueous system, and...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in the development of redox-flow batteries (RFBs) for large-scale grid storage is growing, and considerable investments have been made into the research and development of RFBs over the past few decades. Unfortunately, practical implementation has been hampered by various cost and performance issues typical of an immature state of developm...
Article
Full-text available
The objective for this research was to employ the extended adsorption isotherm (EAI) to develop a predictive relationship between the activity of H2O (aw) and the mean ionic activity (a±) of aqueous HNO3. The EAI model is a calculative approach to the estimation of solutions for activities of highly non-ideal chemical systems and is the collective...
Article
Recycle of nitric acid in the UREX+ process requires removal of acetic acid. An analysis of the effects of acetic acid in each process step indicates no step will be significantly affected by the concentrations expected. Thus, acetic acid removal can be placed after the last salts are removed, just before the nitric acid is recycled. Two promising...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores different technologies for removing acetic acid from a UREX + waste stream. The waste stream contains both nitric and acetic acids, and the acetic acid must be removed from the waste stream to prevent potential problems in the downstream steps as well as affecting the recycle of nitric acid. The acetic acid is formed after the U...
Article
Full-text available
In the UREX + process, acetic acid must be removed from the raffinate stream to avoid interference with the recovery and recycle of nitric acid solutions. Solvent extraction was selected to be the most promising approach to accomplish this cleanup. Acetic acid partitioning into pure diluents used in the UREX + process were found to be too low for a...
Article
Full-text available
In the UREX+ process, acetohydroxamic acid is added to the UREX step to suppress plutonium extraction. Hydrolysis of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) produces acetic acid and hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN). The capability to remove acetic acid from aqueous process solutions is desirable as UREX+ flowsheets continue to evolve. Reasons for acetic acid rem...
Article
A computational model is developed to calculate thermodynamic phase equilibria in aqueous solutions of fluoride, phosphate, and hydroxide up to 100 °C. A variety of data are used, including isopiestic and electromotive force measurements, freezing point data, vapor pressure data at 100 °C, heat capacities, heats of dilution, and solubility measurem...
Article
A computational model is developed to calculate thermodynamic phase equilibria in alkaline solutions of trisodium phosphate up to 100C. A variety of data are used, including isopiestic measurements, freezing point data, vapor pressure data at 100C, heat capacities, heats of dilution, and solubility measurements. Pitzer''s ion-interaction treatment...
Article
The loading cycle of many (perhaps most) commercial adsorption and ion exchange operations involves a favorable isotherm. Concentration fronts for favorable isotherms approach a constant pattern for long bed lengths, and most industrial adsorption and ion exchange operations use sufficiently deep beds that the constant-pattern conditions are approa...
Article
Electrophoresis is an exceptionally effective method for separating small particles or large molecules in the colloidal size range, and is widely used in biological and clinical studies to separate cells, viruses, and large proteins. It has become the standard analytical tool for detecting the presence of these materials. Despite the success of ele...
Article
To increase diffusion rates into adsorbents, efforts are being made to increase the porosity of adsorbents by increasing both the number of porous passages into the particles and the size of those passages. These efforts can eventually result in some flow of fluid through the particles from the pressure drop through the adsorption bed. Earlier pape...
Article
An efficient methodology is developed for parameter estimation and is applied by fitting 6 unknown rate coefficients. The estimation procedure is generally applicable to any system, although development has currently been limited to first-order systems of ordinary differential equations (ODE), such as those describing multiple chemical reactions. T...
Article
Full-text available
We have designed an anti-evaporative cover for use with the sample and reagent cups and other liquid containers that are required in automated analytical systems. This cover, which is simple in design, consists of a baseplate and a cylindrical chimney. By increasing the height and decreasing the inner diameter of the chimney, evaporative losses can...
Article
A packed bed with an applied electric field is an efficient filter for removing submicron particles suspended in nonconducting liquids. A theoretical model, based on a force balance on a suspended particle, is in qualitative agreement with experimental results and should provide valuable insight for filter design. However, quantitative differences...
Chapter
Immobilization of Micrococcus luteus within beads of bone gelatin results in a material which is able to adsorb significant quantities of strontium from dilute aqueous solutions analogous to some nuclear industry wastewaters. The mechanism appears to be principally an ion-exchange phenomenon. Both the bone gelatin and the microbial cells contribute...
Chapter
The effectiveness of chromatographic processes is often limited by the resistance to mass transfer into the exchanger particles. The likelihood of the exchange process being limited by particle diffusion resistance is especially high when one or both of the exchanging ions has a high molecular weight, and thus large molecular size and low mobility...
Article
Wastewaters from numerous industrial and laboratory operations can contain toxic or undesirable components such as metal ions, which must be removed before discharge to surface waters. Adsorption processes that have high removal efficiencies are attractive methods for removing such contaminants. For economic operations, it is desirable to have an a...
Article
Use of the electrically stabilized expanded bed is an approach to the improvement of the performance of processes in beds of solid sorbents. Particle motion in a fluidized bed of nonconducting particles such as molecular sieves is halted when the bed is “frozen” by a strong electric field imposed across the bed. This allows sorption performance to...
Article
Tritium releases from fusion reactors were estimated for normal (nonaccident) operating conditions. The STARFIRE reactor design was used as a reference case, but the effects of alternate design choices and conditions were also addressed. Potential environmental losses were examined for each of the major tritium handling systems. Estimates of --20 C...
Article
Radioactive and nonradioactive effluents will be released routinely during normal operation of near-term commercial fusion power reactors. Nonradioactive effluents will be essentially the same as those released at conventional steam-electric power plants. Radioactive effluents will consist of activated corrosion products and tritium. Most radioacti...
Article
A new model has been developed for predicting the rate at which gaseous molecular iodine is absorbed by water sprays. This model is a quasi-steady-state mass transfer model that includes iodine hydrolysis reactions. The parameters of the model are • spray drop size • initial concentration of the gas and liquid phases • temperature • pressure • the...
Article
Recent studies have shown that when high electric fields are imposed on expanded fluidized beds, motion of the particles can cease. This provides the potential for fixed bed operations with the void fraction sufficiently large that only moderate pressure drops are required, even with small particles. This paper explores the dielectric forces that i...
Article
Low-pressure, low-temperature adsorption of N//2 and CO//2 was studied in beds of 4A molecular sieves. System parameters were estimated by a comparison of experimental results and a molecular-flow theoretical model. The general objective of the work was to develop a mathematical model to describe quantitatively the mass transfer in a deep-bed cryos...
Article
A new and improved radiotracer technique provides information on both the particulate concentration and the movement during sedimentation of monodispersed and binary mixtures. In studies of sedimentation with 44 and 62 μm ion exchange particles, several solids concentrations, three fluid viscosities, and three mixtures with different ratios of the...
Article
Effective thermal conductivities for beds of deactivated, granular iron-titanium alloy have been measured over a range of hydrogen pressures from 0.1 to 35 atm (0.01-3.5 MPa) and over a temperature range from 10 to 75°C (283-348 K). At approximately 40deg;C (313 K), the conductivity rises almost linearly from 1.18 Btu/(h·ft·°F), or 2.04 W/(m·K), at...
Article
Solid wastes are produced in all phases of the fossil energy fuel cycle, from extraction to energy production. Additional wastes are often generated as a result of the environmental controls required to ensure that effluents meet regulations. As in many other industries, process development in this area is more advanced than the environmental contr...
Article
The isothermal equilibrium pressures of a YNb alloy-H2 system were measured as a function of the atomic composition in the temperature range 100–890 °C. The results showed that the yttrium and niobium components sorbed hydrogen independently. The equilibrium pressure P in torrs of the plateau region in the YH2 system could be expressed by (T is i...
Article
Mathematical models have been developed to predict the performance of metal-hydride beds used for hydrogen storage. The relative importance of heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical kinetics and equilibrium have been evaluated by comparison of the models with experimental data supplied by Brookhaven National Laboratory for a cylindrical bed contain...
Article
Mass transfer rates of an electrolyte through a turbulent aqueous film in an agitated two-phase nondispersing liquid-liquid contactor were measured using an aqueous electrolyte solution as the light phase and mercury as the heavy phase. The mass transfer rates were measured polarographically via the diffusion-limited, electrically driven reduction...
Article
A continuous flow model is developed which describes flow through a vessel in which the fluid undergoes axial dispersed plug flow and some of the flid is held back in a deadwater zone. The first three moments of the concentration-time curve are related to the three parameters of the model, and an equation is presented to predict the outlet concentr...
Article
Although most coal combustion ash produced in the United States is discarded as a waste (⩾52 million metric tons per year), results are presented to show that fly ash can be an economical source of Al2O3, Fe2O3, and possibly several other metals, many of which are presently being imported. Although several metal recovery processes were studied, onl...
Article
The chemistry of three methods for the recovery of alumina from fly ash is reviewed. Fly ashes are characterized with respect to both physical and chemical properties, and differences in ashes derived from eastern and western coals are identified. Aluminum solubilization from fly ashes is explained in terms of the solid phases present, which are re...
Conference Paper
Low-pressure transfer operations have been used or proposed which utilize sorption or condensation processes to induce flow. The applications include vacuum pumping, as well as transport of gases between vessels. The unsteady-state operation and the coupling of sorption/condensation with the flow rate produce interestingly complex behavior.
Article
An experimental campaign was carried out to develop process flowsheets for the removal of metals from fly ash and their subsequent separation into saleable products. The capital cost requirements for processing 1 million tons of ash (dry basis) per year were $42.5 million and $55 million, respectively, for the two most promising processes, HCl dire...
Article
The relative importance of heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical kinetics, and equilibrium were evaluated by comparison of the models with experimental data suppled for a cylindrical bed containing iron-titanium (FeTi) alloy. Of these factors, only mass transfer was found to be of negligible importance. An equilibrium model containing no empirical...
Conference Paper
A comprehensive investigation of several methods for the recovery of aluminum from fly ash was carried out. The objective was to investigate and evaluate methods for the recovery of high purity alumina which could be readily substituted in the existing aluminum industry for imported alumina or for alumina derived from imported bauxite. Here, the ch...
Conference Paper
Results are shown for the acid extractability of several minerals from: (1) raw shale, (2) shale that has been retorted with hydrogen under pressure, and (3) retort residue that has been subjected to an oxidative roast. Six elements (Al, Co, Fe, Mo, U, and V) have been identified as having the greatest probability for economical recovery. Conceptua...
Article
Sorption isotherms for SFâ on activated charcoal were obtained between -83 and 100°C in the pressure range of 0.13 mPa to 100 kPa (1 ..mu..torr to 750 torr) by microgravimetric techniques. Charcoal uptakes as high as 0.80 g of SFâ per gram of charcoal were observed with isosteric heats of sorption values ranging from -6.0 to -7.5 kcal/(g-mol). 5 f...
Article
Studies were made of the purification of SF/sub 6/ vapor contaminated with air for application at the Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility. Liquefaction appears to be a good method for recovering about 90% of the SF/sub 6/ if it is badly contaminated (15% air), and an even greater fraction can be recovered from mixtures containing less air. In cas...
Article
The solubility of tritium in yttrium was measured at temperatures from 250 to 400 °C and at low pressures (atomic fractions of tritium in yttrium below 0.001). In this region the solubility followed the Sieverts' relationship and the Sieverts' constant was Ky-t (ppm Torr -1 2) = 0.55 exp ( 22 900 RT) The results agree with extrapolations of previou...
Article
Helium pumping speeds measured for the Excalibur model CVR 1106 cryosorption pump fall into two regimes depending on the feed rate. At feed rates below 6.2×10<sup>-6</sup> Torr l s<sup>-1</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup>, pumping speeds decrease with loading from 2.2 l s<sup>-1</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup> to 0.3 l s<sup>-1</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup>. At feed rates highe...
Conference Paper
During the past 2 years, several promising new processes for the recovery of valuable resource materials from coal ash, primarily power plant fly ash, have been conceived and investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These processes, which include direct acid leach, the salt-soda sinter process, and the Calsinter (CaSo/sub 4/-CaCO/sub 3/)...
Conference Paper
Laboratory-scale tests and preliminary engineering economic analyses have been performed to evaluate several processes for the recovery of aluminum and other metals from fly ash. Preliminary tests have also been made on two coal conversion ashes. The processes examined include: direct acid leach, lime-sinter, lime-soda sinter, and two new sinter-le...
Article
Separate abstracts were prepared for the two included sections on chemical engineering research and magnetic fusion research. (MOW)
Article
An electroconductivity technique is described which can be used not only for determining the overall phase holdups in a three-phase fluidized bed, but, more importantly, it can also be used for determining the local holdups as a function of height in the column. One disadvantage of the technique is that it can only be applied to systems with electr...
Article
An excalibur CVR‐1106 cryosorption pump was fitted with a special cooling system to permit measurement of deuterium pumping speeds at temperatures between 6 and 20 K. Pumping speeds were found to be a function of feed rate, loading prior to each run, loading during runs, and thermal treatment between runs. At feed rates ≪3×10-4 Torr l s-1 cm-2, spe...
Conference Paper
Two new sinter-leach processes are described for recovering metals from fly ash. These processes, conceived at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are both capable of recovering more than 90% of the primary metal constituents. Data are presented on the use of flue gas desulfurization sludge in one of these processes (CALSINTER), thereby making use o...
Article
The hydrodynamics of three-phase (gas-liquid-solid) fluidized beds has been studied in two columns of 7.62 and 15.2 cm in dia. The minimum gas and liquid velocities necessary to fluidize a bed were determined as a function of the particle size and density and the liquid viscosity; no effect of the initial bed height or column diameter was found. An...
Conference Paper
Plasma recovery systems in fusion reactors must be capable of exhausting a mixture of deuterium, tritium, and helium from the reactor between burns (and possibly during burns) to remove leaking or diverted plasma. Concentrations of helium in these mixtures may range from 1 to 15 percent. An Excalibur CVR 1106 cryosorption pump was tested to determi...
Article
Cryosorption pumping of a 95% deuterium-5% helium mixture has been studied in order to determine whether hydrogen isotopes and helium can be pumped by a single cryosorptive panel during fusion reactor plasma recovery. The cryosorption pump used here contains a molecular sieve adsorption panel cooled by liquid helium. Results of the investigation in...
Article
Experimental flooding data for the countercurrent flow of air and water in a 7.62-cm-diam glass column filled with Goodloe packing were compared with a correlation reported by the packing manufacturer. Flooding rates observed in this study were as low as one-half those predicted by the correlation. Rearranging the packing by inverting the column an...
Article
Full-text available
We studied sample evaporation and its effect on analytical error. Several factors influencing evaporative loss have been identified and measured: environmental, instrumental, and operational factors, and the chemical and physical properties of the sample and its container. Such losses from several different types of sample cups have been measured,...
Conference Paper
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a comprehensive program concerned with plasma fuel recycle, tritium recovery from blankets, and tritium containment in fusion reactors. Two studies of most current interest are investigations of cryosorption pumping of hydrogen isotopes and measurements of tritium permeation rates through steam generator materi...
Conference Paper
Thermonuclear reactors impose unique vacuum pumping problems involving very high pumping speeds, handling of hazardous materials (tritium), extreme cleanliness requirements, and quantitative recovery of pumped materials. Two principal pumping systems are required for a fusion reactor, a main vacuum system for evacuating the torus and a vacuum syste...
Article
Tritium handling techniques in an experimental fusion power reactor (EPR) are evaluated to determine the requirements of the system and to compare different equipment and techniques for meeting those requirements. Tritium process equipment is needed (1) to evacuate and maintain a vacuum in the plasma vessel and the neutral beam injectors, (2) to pu...
Article
Countercurrent flow of liquids in columns packed with Raschig rings was studied with fluids having a wide range of physical properties. These results, along with data reported previously from other studies, were used to develop a correlation for predicting flooding rates in packed columns that is significantly better than previous correlations. Dis...
Article
Brief discussions are given on research progress during this report period for the following two topics: (1) conceptual design of a tritium handling system for Ormak F/BX, and (2) design of, and preparation for, tests of cryosorption pumping for fusion reactors. The status of the program is outlined. (MOW)
Article
The following projects were studied: centrifugal fast analyzer development; advanced analytical techniques for wastes and biological materials; bioprocesses; water pollution; tritium processing; a tritium handling system for CTR program, and coal conversion process development. Six sections have been announced in ERDA Research Abstracts and 2 s...
Article
Sample evaporation and its effect on analytical error were studied. Several factors influencing evaporative loss have been identified and measured: environmental, instrumental, and operational factors, and the chemical and physical properties of the sample and its container. Such losses from several different types of sample cups have been measured...
Article
The hydrodynamics of countercurrent flow of liquids with a high density difference cannot be predicted reliably from correlations developed with data on fluids having low densities (usually water and organic solvents). Dispersed-phase holdup, flooding rates, and pressure drop during countercurrent flow of mercury and water were studied with several...