Jack J Middelburg

Jack J Middelburg
Utrecht University | UU · Department of Earth Sciences

PhD

About

605
Publications
181,309
Reads
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44,696
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - present
Utrecht University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
May 1992 - August 2009
Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW)
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (605)
Article
Full-text available
Stable isotopes have been used extensively to study food-web functioning, that is, the flow of energy and matter among organisms. Traditional food-web studies are based on the natural variability of isotopes and are limited to larger organisms that can be physically separated from their environment. Recent developments allow isotope ratio measureme...
Article
Full-text available
Organic carbon processing at the seafloor is studied by biogeochemists to quantify burial and respiration, by organic geochemists to elucidate compositional changes and by ecologists to follow carbon transfers within food webs. Here I review these disciplinary approaches and discuss where they agree and disagree. It will be shown that the biogeoche...
Book
Full-text available
This open access book (https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-030-10822-9) discusses biogeochemical processes relevant to carbon and aims to provide readers, graduate students and researchers, with insight into the functioning of marine ecosystems. A carbon centric approach has been adopted, but other elements are included where relevant or...
Article
Full-text available
The ocean plays a major role in the global carbon cycle and the storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. This key function of the ocean is related to the reaction of dissolved carbon dioxide with water to form bicarbonate (and minor quantities of carbonic acid and carbonate). Alkalinity, the excess of bases, governs the efficiency at which this occ...
Article
Full-text available
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals secreted by marine organisms are abundant in the ocean. These particles settle and the majority dissolves in deeper waters or at the seafloor. Dissolution of carbonates buffers the ocean, but the vertical and regional distribution and magnitude of dissolution are unclear. Here we use seawater chemistry and age dat...
Article
1. Deep‐sea sponge grounds are hotspots of biodiversity, harboring thriving ecosystems in the otherwise barren deep sea. It remains unknown how these sponge grounds survive in this food‐limited environment. 2. Here, we unravel how sponges and their associated fauna sustain themselves by identifying their food sources and food‐web interactions using...
Article
Full-text available
Autochthonous and allochthonous organic carbon (OC) are important carbon sources for zooplankton in lakes, and changes in the abundance and proportions of those sources may affect zooplankton community composition and lake ecosystem function. Nevertheless, long-term changes in assimilation of autochthonous and allochthonous carbon by zooplankton an...
Article
Full-text available
Cable bacteria are multicellular sulfide oxidizing bacteria that display a unique metabolism based on long-distance electron transport. Cells in deeper sediment layers perform the sulfide oxidizing half-reaction whereas cells in the surface layers of the sediment perform the oxygen-reducing half-reaction. These half-reactions are coupled via electr...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Macroalgal habitats are believed to be the most extensive and productive of all coastal vegetated ecosystems. In stark contrast to the growing attention on their contribution to carbon export and sequestration, understanding of their global extent and production is limited and these have remained poorly assessed for decades. Here we report a fi...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate if the commonly neglected riverine detrital carbonate fluxes might reconciliate several chemical mass balances of the global ocean. Particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) concentrations in riverine suspended sediments, that is, carbon contained by these detrital carbonate minerals, were quantified at the basin and global scale. Our appro...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a time-dependent, one-dimensional model of early diagenesis that we term RADI, an acronym accounting for the main processes included in the model: chemical reactions, advection, molecular and bio-diffusion, and bio-irrigation. RADI is targeted for study of deep-sea sediments, in particular those containing calcium carbonates (CaCO3). R...
Article
Full-text available
In the open ocean, calcium carbonates are mainly found in two mineral forms. Calcite, the least soluble, is widespread at the seafloor, while aragonite, the more soluble, is rarely preserved in marine sediments. Despite its greater solubility, research has shown that ara-gonite, whose contribution to global pelagic calcification could be at par wit...
Article
Full-text available
The Central Arctic Ocean is one of the most oligotrophic oceans on Earth because of its sea-ice cover and short productive season. Nonetheless, across the peaks of extinct volcanic seamounts of the Langseth Ridge (87°N, 61°E), we observe a surprisingly dense benthic biomass. Bacteriosponges are the most abundant fauna within this community, with a...
Article
Full-text available
Subtidal marine sediments are one of the planet's primary carbon stores and strongly influence the oceanic sink for atmospheric CO2. By far the most widespread human activity occurring on the seabed is bottom trawling/dredging for fish and shellfish. A global first‐order estimate suggested mobile demersal fishing activities may cause 0.16–0.4 Gt of...
Article
Full-text available
Perturbed nutrient balances in watersheds may eventually impact the marine ecosystem, but this river‐coast coupling is poorly understood. Monthly dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) fluxes from seven major rivers in China were calculated by a global river nutrient model (IMAGE‐GNM), and then used in a regional ocean model system (ROMS) to explore ch...
Article
Full-text available
Baleen from mysticete whales is a well-preserved proteinaceous material that can be used to identify migrations and feeding habits for species whose migration pathways are unknown. Analysis of δ ¹³ C and δ ¹⁵ N values from bulk baleen have been used to infer migration patterns for individuals. However, this approach has fallen short of identifying...
Article
Full-text available
Rivers play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle. However, it remains unknown how long-term river C fluxes change because of climate, land-use, and other environmental changes. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal variations in global freshwater C cycling in the 20th century using the mechanistic IMAGE-Dynamic Global Nutrient Model...
Article
Full-text available
The chemical composition of foraminiferal calcite reflects seawater variables and is therefore a popular paleoceanographic tool. The sedimentary record of foraminiferal shell chemistry is, however, mostly interpreted using empirical calibrations. Since geochemical patterns in foraminifera often deviate from inorganic analogues, there is an ongoing...
Preprint
Full-text available
We introduce a time-dependent, one-dimensional model of early diagenesis that we term RADI, an acronym accounting for the main processes included in the model: chemical Reactions, Advection, molecular and bio-Diffusion, and bio-Irrigation. RADI is targeted for study of deep-sea sediments, in particular those containing calcium carbonates (CaCO3). R...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the open ocean, calcium carbonates are mainly found in two mineral forms. Calcite, the least soluble, is widespread at the seafloor, while aragonite, the more soluble, is rarely preserved in marine sediments. Despite its greater solubility, research has shown that aragonite, which could contribute between 10 and 90% to pelagic calcium carbonate...
Article
Full-text available
Rivers transport dissolved and solid loads from terrestrial realms to the oceans and between inland reservoirs, representing major mass fluxes on Earth's surface. The composition of river water and sediment provides clues to a plethora of Earth and environmental processes, including weathering, erosion, nutrient and carbon cycling, environmental po...
Article
Full-text available
Benthic animals profoundly influence the cycling and storage of carbon and other elements in marine systems, particularly in coastal sediments. Recent climate change has altered the distribution and abundance of many seafloor taxa and modified the vertical exchange of materials between ocean and sediment layers. Here, we examine how climate change...
Article
Full-text available
It is well recognized that dam construction aggravates eutrophication and hypoxia in river reservoirs, but the interaction between oxygen dynamics and carbon cycling is often unclear. Here we investigated the external and internal controls on oxygen consumption and effects of hypoxia on carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in a subtropical reservoir in so...
Article
Full-text available
Cable bacteria are multicellular, Gram-negative filamentous bacteria that display a unique division of metabolic labor between cells. Cells in deeper sediment layers are oxidizing sulfide, while cells in the surface layers of the sediment are reducing oxygen. The electrical coupling of these two redox half reactions is ensured via long-distance ele...
Article
Full-text available
Sponges produce distinct fatty acids (FAs) that (potentially) can be used as chemotaxonomic and ecological biomarkers to study endosymbiont-host interactions and the functional ecology of sponges. Here, we present FA profiles of five common habitat-building deep-sea sponges (class Demospongiae, order Tetractinellida), which are classified as high m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rivers transport dissolved and solid loads from terrestrial realms to the oceans and between inland reservoirs, representing major mass fluxes on Earth's surface. The composition of river water and sediment provides clues to a plethora of earth and environmental processes, including weathering, erosion, nutrient and carbon cycling, environmental po...
Article
The three large marine ecosystems (LMEs) bordering China (Yellow Sea/Bohai Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea) have received excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the past decades with detrimental consequences for ecosystem functioning, such as increased productivity, loss of biodiversity, and proliferation of harmful algal blooms (HABs)....
Article
Full-text available
Deep-sea sponges and their microbial symbionts transform various forms of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) via several metabolic pathways, which, for a large part, are poorly quantified. Previous flux studies on the common deep-sea sponge Geodia barretti consistently revealed net consumption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and oxygen (O 2) and net rel...
Article
Full-text available
Eutrophication of water bodies has been a problem causing severe degradation of water quality in cities. To gain mechanistic understanding of the temporal dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in a groundwater-fed low-lying urban polder, we applied high-frequency monitoring in Geuzenveld, a polder in the city of Amsterdam. The high-frequency...
Poster
Full-text available
GloRiSe, a new global database of river sediment composition, including information on geochemical, mineralogical and trace elements along with detailed meta-data, is introduced. Moreover, a preliminary example for the use of state-of-the-art statistical methods for upscaling the data provided by GloRiSe while maintaining spatial discretization. Us...
Article
Full-text available
The organic matter occluded in the silica of fossil diatom frustules is thought to be protected from diagenesis and used for paleoceanographic reconstructions. However, the location of the organic matter within the frustule has hitherto not been identified. Here, we combined high spatial resolution imaging by nanoSIMS and Raman microspectroscopy to...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Over the last centuries, human activities have exerted increasing pressures on the environment, leading to drastic alterations in the functioning of freshwater bodies (e.g., eutrophication). Global biogeochemical models have proven crucial to investigate interactions between humans, hydrology, and water quality of surface fresh waters. How...
Preprint
Full-text available
Baleen from mysticete whales is a well-preserved proteinaceous material that can be used to identify migrations and feeding habits for species whose migration pathways are unknown. Analysis of δ13C and δ15N from bulk baleen has been used to infer migration patterns for individuals. However, this approach has fallen short of identifying migrations b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sponges produce distinct fatty acids (FAs) that (potentially) can be used as chemotaxonomic and ecological biomarkers to study endosymbiont-host interactions and the functional ecology of sponges. Here, we present FA profiles of five common habitat-building deep-sea sponges (class Demospongiae, order Tetractinellida), which are classified as high m...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last few decades, a suite of inorganic proxies based on foraminiferal calcite have been developed, some of which are now widely used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Studies of foraminiferal shell chemistry have largely focused on cations and oxyanions, while much less is known about the incorporation of anions. The halogens fluori...
Article
Full-text available
Are nutrients retained by river damming? Rivers are dammed for hydropower, flood control, navigation or water storage for human use. Globally, about half of the rivers are impacted by damming [1], with major consequences for biodiversity , fish migration, primary production, greenhouse gas emissions and retention of nutrients [2,3]. The traditional...
Article
Full-text available
Dissolved carbon (C) leaching in and from soils plays an important role in C transport along the terrestrial-aquatic continuum. However, a global overview and analysis of dissolved carbon in soil solutions, covering a wide range of vegetation types and climates, is lacking. We compiled a global database on annual average dissolved organic carbon (D...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the spatially explicit (0.5 degree spatial resolution) DISC-SILICON module, which is part of the IMAGE-DGNM global nutrient cycling framework. This new model for the first time enables to integrate the combined impact of long-term changes in land use, climate and hydrology on Si sources (weathering, sewage and soil loss) and sin...
Article
Full-text available
Several ocean-based measures are available to reduce both climate change and its impacts on the open-ocean and coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the international community working on the ocean, from institutions to the private sector, can play a significant role in both adaptation and mitigation. All measures have limitations and tradeoffs. Desp...
Article
Full-text available
Ocean alkalinity plays a major role in ocean’s carbon uptake, in buffering, and in calcium carbonate production and dissolution, and it impacts and is affected by various biogeochemical processes.
Article
Full-text available
Soils represent the largest reservoir of organic carbon (OC) on land. Upon mobilization, this OC is either returned to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2) or transported and ultimately locked into (marine) sediments, where it will act as a long-term sink of atmospheric CO2. These fluxes of soil OC are, however, difficult to evaluate, mostly due...
Article
Full-text available
We collected water samples from the Scheldt estuary during December 2015 and November 2016 for methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C and δD values) analyses, to investigate the origin of the excess dissolved CH4, which is a common feature in estuaries. The Scheldt estuary is a eutrophic, heterotrophic tidal estuary, located at...
Article
Full-text available
The oxygen isotope composition of diatom frustules is thought to reflect the isotopic composition of the ambient seawater at the time of biomineralisation. However, significant concerns exist surrounding the degree of post-mortem alteration that might occur. Here, we study post-mortem overprinting of the δ¹⁸O signal in various forms of silica by in...
Article
Full-text available
The vast majority of freshly produced oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is derived from marine phytoplankton, then rapidly recycled by heterotrophic microbes. A small fraction of this DOC survives long enough to be routed to the interior ocean, which houses the largest and oldest DOC reservoir. DOC reactivity depends upon its intrinsic chemica...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature is one of the fundamental environmental variables governing microbially mediated denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in sediments. The GHG nitrous oxide (N2O) is produced during denitrification, but not by anammox, and knowledge of how these pathways respond to global warming remains limited. Here, we show that wa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Soils represent the largest reservoir of organic carbon (OC) on land. Upon mobilization, this OC is either returned to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2), or transported and ultimately locked into (marine) sediments, where it will act as a long-term sink of atmospheric CO2. These fluxes of soil OC are, however, poorly quantified, mostly due to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Eutrophication of water bodies has been a problem causing severe degradation of water quality in cities. To gain mechanistic understanding of the temporal dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorus in a groundwater fed low-lying urban polder, we applied high frequency monitoring in Geuzenveld, a polder in the city of Amsterdam. The high frequenc...
Article
Full-text available
Multicellularity is a key evolutionary innovation, leading to coordinated activity and resource sharing among cells, which generally occurs via the physical exchange of chemical compounds. However, filamentous cable bacteria display a unique metabolism in which redox transformations in distant cells are coupled via long-distance electron transport...
Article
During the so-called Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC: 5.97-5.33 Myr ago), reduced exchange with the Atlantic Ocean caused the Mediterranean to develop into a “saline giant” wherein ∼1 million km³ of evaporites (gypsum and halite) were deposited. Despite decades of research it is still poorly understood exactly how and where in the water column these...