Jack M Goodman

Jack M Goodman
University of Toronto | U of T · Kinesiology and Phys. Ed

PhD

About

178
Publications
23,545
Reads
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3,371
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - present
Mt. Sinai Hospital/UHN
Position
  • Adjunct Scientist
July 2012 - present
University of Toronto
Position
  • Member
September 2011 - present
Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto
Position
  • Adjunct Scientist

Publications

Publications (178)
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have reported on an association between endurance sport, atrial enlargement and the development of lone atrial fibrillation in younger, male cohorts. The atrial morphology and function of middle‐aged, physically‐active males and females have not been well studied. We hypothesized that middle‐aged males would demonstrate larger left a...
Article
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in people with breast cancer (BCa). Vascular dysfunction and adverse arterial remodelling are important contributors to the development of CVD. Antineoplastic (chemotherapy, targeted therapies, hormonal therapies) and radiation therapies may lead to adverse vascular structural and functional...
Article
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Background: Right Ventricular (RV) enlargement is a common in endurance athletes. It is usually considered physiologic, but it is possible this remodeling may be adverse, manifesting as a variant of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC) termed ‘exercise-induced ARVC’. A novel biomarker (anti-DSG2 antibody) has been shown to detect...
Article
The detailed physiological consequences of aerobic training, in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are not well understood. In athletes and non-athletes with HCM, there are two hypothetical concerns with respect to exercise: exercise-related worsening of the phenotype (e.g. promoting hypertrophy, fibrosis), and/or triggering of arrhyth...
Article
Objective The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which Rhythmic Auditory Music Stimulation (RAMS) improves exercise among patients participating in cardiac rehabilitation. Methods 168 English speaking patients over the age of 18 years, were recruited from the Cardiac Rehabilitation and Prevention Program. Participants were random...
Article
Acute exhaustive endurance exercise can differentially impact the right ventricle (RV) versus the left (LV). However, the hemodynamic basis for these differences and its impact on post-exercise recovery remains unclear. Therefore, we assessed cardiac structure and function along with hemodynamic properties of mice subjected to single bouts (216±8mi...
Article
The SARS-Coronavirus-2 (COVID-19) related pandemic has resulted in profound health, financial and societal impacts. Organized sporting events, from the recreational to Olympic levels, have been cancelled to both mitigate the spread of COVID-19 and protect athletes and highly active individuals from potential acute and long-term infection associated...
Article
Background: The relationship between structural and electrical remodeling in the heart, particularly after long-standing endurance training, remains unclear. Signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG) may provide a more sensitive method to evaluate cardiac remodeling than a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Accurate measures of electrical function (...
Article
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Background: Breast cancer surgery results in numerous acute and long-term adverse outcomes; the degree to which these can be mitigated or prevented through prehabilitation is unknown. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal, single-arm, mixed-methods study to examine the feasibility of prehabilitation in 22 women undergoing breast cancer surgery. A...
Article
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Background: Hypoestrogenemia due to menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, in part due to elevated indexes of aortic wave reflection (AWRI) and central (aortic) blood pressure. We sought to investigate whether AWRI and central blood pressure are also augmented in hypoestrogenic exercise-trained premenopausal women with...
Article
Introduction: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 mapping techniques enable the quantification of focal and diffuse myocardial LGE, respectively. Studies have shown evidence of fibrosis in middle-aged athletes, but not relative to physically-active (PA) adults who perform recommended physical activity levels....
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine potential adverse cardiac effects of chronic endurance training by comparing sympathovagal modulation via heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) in middle-aged endurance athletes (EA) and physically active individuals (PA) following maximal exercise. Thirty-six (age, 53 ± 5 years) EA an...
Article
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Knowledge gaps exist in how we implement aerobic exercise programs during the early phases post-stroke. Therefore, the objective of this review was to provide evidence-based guidelines for pre-participation screening, mobilization, and aerobic exercise training in the hyper-acute and acute phases post-stroke. In reviewing the literature to determin...
Article
Prevention of sudden cardiac arrest/death (SCA/D) among athletes is a universal goal, although the optimal strategy for its achievement is controversial, with the inclusion of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) at the center of the debate. The ECG exhibits superior sensitivity over history and physical examination to detect conditions associated w...
Article
This study sought to examine whether cardiovascular performance during exercise, assessed using the vascular-ventricular coupling index (VVC), was affected by exaggerated blood pressure (EBP) responses in endurance-trained athletes. Subjects were middle-aged endurance-trained males and females. Blood pressure measurements and left ventricular echoc...
Article
Background: Atrial arrhythmias occur at a higher than expected prevalence amongst endurance athletes. Few studies have examined both atrial structure and arrhythmias in middle-aged endurance athletes. We examined the relationship between P-wave duration, atrial dimensions, and the presence of atrial ectopy in long-standing, middle-aged endurance a...
Article
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Sudden cardiac death (SCD), especially in a young seemingly healthy individual, is a tragic and highly publicized event, which is often followed by a strong emotional reaction from the public and medical community.” Although rare, SCD in the young is devastating to families and communities, underpinning our society's desire to avoid any circumstanc...
Article
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Blood pressure responses to graded exercise testing can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information. While published guidelines outline what constitutes a “normal” and “abnormal” (i.e., exaggerated) blood pressure response to exercise testing, the widespread use of exaggerated blood pressure responses as a clinical tool is limited due t...
Article
Background: The efficacy of internet-based interventions to improve hypertension management is not established. We evaluated the therapeutic benefit of e-counseling by adapting best evidence guidelines for behavioral counseling. Methods and results: This multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial included assessments at baseline, 4 mon...
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Most exercise studies in mice have relied on forced training which can introduce psychological stress. Consequently, the utility of mouse models for understanding exercise-mediated effects in humans, particularly autonomic nervous system (ANS) remodeling, have been challenged. We compared the effects of voluntary free-wheel running vs. non-voluntar...
Article
Aims: The assumption of equivalence between right ventricular and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure is fundamental to several assessments of right ventricular or pulmonary vascular hemodynamic function. Our aims were to 1) determine whether systolic pressure gradients develop across the right ventricular outflow tract in healthy adults during e...
Article
Moderate physical activity levels are associated with increased longevity and lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the relative risk of lone AF is 3-5 fold higher in intensive endurance-trained athletes compared to healthy adults. There is growing concern that 'excessive' endurance exercise may promote cardiac remodeling leading to long...
Article
The present study examined the hemodynamic response to recreational pick-up hockey relative to maximal exercise testing in middle-aged men. A total of 23 males with a mean age=53±7 yrs were studied. Graded exercise testing on a cycle ergometer determined maximal oxygen consumption, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Ambulatory BP and Holter e...
Article
Objective: Untrained individuals with exaggerated blood pressure (EBP) responses to graded exercise testing are characterized as having resting dysfunction of the sympathetic and cardiovascular systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the resting cardiovascular state of endurance-trained individuals with EBP through a comparison of norm...
Article
The “athletic heart,” is characterized by hypertrophy and dilation of the heart, in addition to functional and electrical remodeling. The aim of this study was to provide reference two-dimensional (2DE) and three-dimensional (3DE) echocardiographic measurements in a large database on draft-eligible elite ice hockey players and to determine the freq...
Article
Purpose: An augmented pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) response may explain exercise intolerance in some humans. However, routine use of exercise hemodynamic testing is limited by a lack of data from normal older men and women. Our objective was to evaluate the exercise PAWP response and the potential for sexual dimorphism in healthy, non-dy...
Article
Purpose: To determine the effects of a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation programme of aerobic and resistance exercise training on arterial stiffness, peak calf vasodilatory reserve, and haemostatic markers in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Observational cohort study examining effects of 12 weeks of exercise training in 23 subjects (13 men,...
Article
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Key points: A consistent inverse hyperbolic relationship has been observed between pulmonary vascular resistance and compliance, although changes in pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) may modify this relationship. This relationship predicts that pulmonary artery systolic, diastolic and mean pressure maintain a consistent relationship relative...
Article
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Background: Increased physical activity (PA) is associated with improved quality of life and reductions in cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and all-cause mortality in the general population in a dose-response manner. However, PA acutely increases the risk of adverse CV event or sudden cardiac death (SCD) above levels expected at rest. We review the l...
Article
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Objectives: The clinical and prognostic significance of 'exaggerated' elevations in pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) during symptom-limited exercise testing is increasingly recognised. However, the paucity of normative data makes the identification of abnormal responses challenging. Our objectives was to describe haemodynamic responses that...
Article
Purpose: To examine the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of financial incentives for exercise self-monitoring in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Methods: A 12-week, 2 parallel-arm, single-blind feasibility study design was employed. A volunteer sample of CR program graduates was randomly assign...
Article
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Preference-based tempo-pace synchronized music has been shown to reduce perceived physical activity exertion and improve exercise performance. The extent to which such strategies can improve adherence to physical activity remains unknown. The objective of the study is to explore the feasibility and efficacy of tempo-pace synchronized preference-bas...
Article
Compared with eumenorrheic women, exercise-trained women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (ExFHA) exhibit low heart rates (HR) and absent reflex renin-angiotensin-system activation and augmentation of their muscle sympathetic nerve response to orthostatic stress. To test the hypothesis that their autonomic HR modulation is altered concurrent...
Article
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We studied the contribution of phasic left atrial (LA) function to left ventricular (LV) filling during exercise. We hypothesized that reduced LV filling time at moderate-intensity exercise limits LA passive emptying and increases LA active emptying. Twenty endurance-trained males (55±6 years) were studied at rest and during light (~100bpm) and mod...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire to facilitate the design of acceptable financial health incentive programs. A multiphase psychometric questionnaire development method was used. Theoretical and literature reviews and three focus groups generated a pool of content areas and items. New items were developed to ensure adequate c...
Article
ABSTRACT Our prior observations in normotensive postmenopausal women stimulated the hypotheses that compared to eumenorrheic women, active hypoestrogenic premenopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea would demonstrate attenuated reflex renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system responses to an orthostatic challenge, whereas to defend blood...
Article
Full-text available
Our prior observations in normotensive postmenopausal women stimulated the hypotheses that compared to eumenorrheic women, active hypoestrogenic premenopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea would demonstrate attenuated reflex renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system responses to an orthostatic challenge, whereas to defend blood pressure...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Compared with eumenorrheic women, exercise-trained women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (ExFHA) have a low heart rate (HR), absent reflex activation of their renin-angiotensin-system, and augmentation of the normal increase in muscle sympathetic nerve burst incidence during orthostatic stress, suggesting concurrently altered autonomic HR m...
Article
Background Exercise-induced adaptations of the human atria remain understudied, particularly early in the training process. We examined the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) on left atrial (LA) systolic and diastolic function, relative to left ventricular (LV) function in...
Experiment Findings
Objectives: To determine the hemodynamic effects of an acute bout of exercise on previous findings of impaired resistance vessel function in physically active premenopausal women with hypothalamic hypoestrogenemia (ExHH). Methods: Two groups of similarly trained recreationally active premenopausal women were studied: ExHH (n=12; aged 25±1 years; bo...
Article
Objectives: To determine the hemodynamic effects of an acute bout of exercise on previous findings of impaired resistance vessel function in physically active premenopausal women with hypothalamic hypoestrogenemia (ExHH). Methods: Two groups of similarly trained recreationally active premenopausal women were studied: ExHH (n=12; aged 25±1 years; bo...
Article
Financial health incentives, such as paying people to exercise, remain controversial despite widespread implementation. This focus group study explored the acceptability of incentives among a sample of Canadian cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients (n = 15). Focus groups were conducted between March and April 2013 until further sampling ceased to pr...
Article
Background: The optimal approach to prescribing resistance training (RT) combined with aerobic training (AT) for psychosocial and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is unclear. Aim: To compare the effects of AT combined with RT (1 versus 3 sets) versus AT alone on HRQOL and psychosocial outcomes. Design: Subjects (N.=72) were randomized to...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Exercise-trained hypoestrogenic premenopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (ExFHA) exhibit impaired endotheli