Jack Brouwer

Jack Brouwer
University of California, Irvine | UCI · Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

About

51
Publications
12,453
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,309
Citations
Citations since 2017
42 Research Items
1304 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400

Publications

Publications (51)
Article
Load anomalies in power distribution systems are relatively rare, yielding imbalanced classification datasets. Consequently, traditional artificial intelligence approaches for detecting load anomalies tend to be relatively inaccurate or rely heavily on pre-processing optimization. Reasoning that hyperdimensional computing (HDC) lends itself natural...
Article
Full-text available
Implementing environmentally friendly fuels and high efficiency propulsion technologies to replace the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) fueled by fossil fuels such as Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) and Marine Gas Oil (MGO) on board ships represents an attractive solution for maritime power. In this context, fuel cells can play a crucial role, thanks to their...
Article
To reduce emissions and energy use in data centers, a novel integration between a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a triple-effect absorption chiller (AC) is proposed to meet both the electrical and cooling requirements of server computers. An installation of SOFC units at a data center can operate using natural gas infrastructure that today suppli...
Article
Introduction Lifetime expectations and uncertainties regarding end-of-life performance hinder widespread deployment of fuel cell technology. Conventional cell performance diagnostic methodologies rely upon either ex-situ measurements, which lack an immediate connection with the physical degradation phenomena, or upon single cell in-operando electro...
Article
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology offers several advantages such as fuel flexibility, high efficiency, and zero criteria pollutant emissions. SOFC systems have the potential to be cheaper and provide more reliable and cleaner electrical load-following characteristics compared with other technologies by dynamic operation and control. Cost and...
Article
Electrochemical energy conversion based on electrolysis and fuel cells offers one possible technological route to long term storage of renewable electricity. However, a major factor limiting commercial deployment is uncertainty about the long-term durability of these technologies in real-world operation. To be successful, these technologies must in...
Article
The integration of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a triple-effect absorption chiller (AC) is proposed to meet the electrical and cooling requirements of a data center. Utilizing waste heat in the exhaust stream of the SOFC, a triple-effect AC system can produce the required cooling. A 200-kW SOFC system is optimized to produce the required elec...
Article
In this work, we apply a machine learning approach to solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system diagnostics. Instead of fitting electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) into a physics based model or equivalent circuit, we train machine learning models to recognize failures from a database of simulated EIS. We use a coarse-grained physics-based model...
Article
In this study, we propose a new experimental setup and methodology that can perform in-situ diagnostic of a solid oxide cell stack without interfering with its normal steady state operation. We establish a floating ground galvanodynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement setup connected to a 6-cell short stack. The diagnostic setup...
Article
We develop a new approach to model the linearized power flow in distributed energy resources (DER) allocation and dispatch optimization. The model uses the Decoupled Linearized Power Flow (DLPF) (Yang et al., 2016) approach. DLPF has the advantage of being suitable for meshed networks, while the majority of current models use LinDistFlow, which is...
Article
Utilization factors are a popular method to identify distributed solar photovoltaic potential in many scopes. Though not the most accurate method, it is computationally inexpensive. In this work, Google’s Project Sunroof is reverse engineered to produce an image analysis model capable of predicting photovoltaic capacity for user-defined volumes. Th...
Article
Historically, California has been a world leader in the development and application of environmental regulations. Policies to address air pollution have reduced criteria pollutant emissions, improved regional air quality, and benefited public health. To this end, California has imposed strict regulations on light-duty, medium-duty, and heavy-duty v...
Article
High temperature steam electrolysis and co-electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide for hydrogen and syngas production is gaining attention for its potential to play a key role in the production of renewable fuels and for long-term energy storage. Unlocking a longer lifetime and lower costs for these systems is required if they are to be widely dep...
Article
A new cause-based approach was used to estimate the change in methane emissions from the natural gas system resulting from a change in throughput. The analysis builds upon prior work (Mac Kinnon et al., 2018) positing that a cause-based, marginal approach to estimating methane emission impacts of reducing or increasing natural gas use was more accu...
Article
This paper estimates operational benefits and opportunities for utility-scale, distributed generation resources, called Transmission Integrated Grid Energy Resource (TIGER) stations herein, to support the electric power grid. Efficient, near-zero-emissions, high-temperature Fuel Cells fed by natural gas, operate as the generation source. For analys...
Conference Paper
In this research, we utilize Southern California (SoCal) natural gas transmission pipelines and underground storage resources for transporting and storing hydrogen gas for a 100% renewable energy penetration. The goal is to determine to what extent natural gas infrastructure can be used to deliver and store hydrogen to meet SoCal electric demand fo...
Article
The goal of this study is to evaluate the impacts and capabilities of dynamically dispatching Solid Oxide Steam Electrolysis (SOSE) systems to support high penetration of renewable photovoltaic sources in the UCI microgrid. The UCI microgrid operation has been simulated as a linear programming problem in Matlab® considering all of its operational c...
Article
The impacts of increasing deployment of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) on existing energy infrastructure has been investigated in a microgrid, an energy system that, with its constraints, foreshadows the challenges of the evolving electricity network. The campus microgrid of the University of California, Irvine (UCI) is modeled, including an existi...
Article
In response to climate change and sustainability challenges, various incentive programs have increased solar photovoltaic (PV) generation interconnection in the low voltage electrical distribution system. However, electric utility support of PV generation is limited by reverse power flow into the electricity network at high penetration levels. This...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Traditional carbon capture technology has been shown to effectively capture emissions, but at a cost of reducing power plant output. Molten carbonate fuel cell technology (MCFC) has the potential to be able to concentrate plant carbon emissions into a gas stream that is suitable for storage while boosting total plant power output. When considering...
Conference Paper
The University of California, Irvine (UCI) uses a 19 MW natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) to provide nearly all campus energy requirements. Meanwhile, the University of California system has committed to achieving carbon neutrality at all facilities by 2025. This has resulted in an influx of new energy efficiency and onsite solar generation, increa...
Article
In this study the integration of a SOFC with liquid desiccant system is considered for powering and cooling a data center at the rack level. The novel idea is that each single fuel cell (~12 kW) is used to power one server rack and the waste heat from the fuel cell is used to regenerate a desiccant to provide dehumidification or cooling. The object...
Article
Decarbonization of the power sector is a key step towards greenhouse gas emissions reduction. Due to the intermittent nature of major renewable sources like wind and solar, storage technologies will be critical in the future power grid to accommodate fluctuating generation. The storage systems will need to decouple supply and demand by shifting ele...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable energy conversion requires zero emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants using primary energy sources that the earth naturally replenishes quickly, like renewable resources. Solar and wind power conversion technologies have become cost effective recently, but challenges remain to manage electrical grid dynamics and to meet...
Article
In this paper, the performance of a renewable Solar Photovoltaic (PV) nanogrid — here defined as a small-scale power system, which comprises a single domain for control, reliability, and power quality — is assessed for Electric Vehicle (EV) charging. A nanogrid testbed, containing PV as the power supply, twenty EV charging stations, a Battery Energ...
Article
The variability of renewable energy sources, specifically for large scale integration into the electricity sector, has brought increased attention to the requirements for energy storage systems. To mitigate the intermittency of renewable energy, many different energy storage technologies, such as pumped hydro, compressed air energy storage, batteri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of two different thermal control strategies on the behavior of a Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell (SOEC) system without an external heat source which produces compressed hydrogen to be injected into the gas grid or stored for later use. The developed dynamic model consists of an electrolyzer stac...
Poster
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of two different thermal control strategies on the behavior of a Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell (SOEC) system without an external heat source which produces compressed hydrogen to be injected into the gas grid or stored for later use. The developed dynamic model consists of an electrolyzer stac...
Article
Full-text available
Path to zero carbon emissions Models show that to avert dangerous levels of climate change, global carbon dioxide emissions must fall to zero later this century. Most of these emissions arise from energy use. Davis et al. review what it would take to achieve decarbonization of the energy system. Some parts of the energy system are particularly diff...
Chapter
Full-text available
The National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC) of the University of California, Irvine (UCI), has developed and applied a dynamic simulation and control system development approach for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) systems for almost two decades. The approach is thoroughly vetted and peer-reviewed. Simplifica...
Article
Widespread electrification, i.e., switching direct fossil fuel end-uses to electricity, coupled with renewable power use is essential to achieve aggressive greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emission reduction targets. Few have investigated the requisite electric grid infrastructure transformation and technology path coupled with spatial and tem...
Article
Full-text available
The Paris Agreement highlights the need for local climate leadership. The University Of California’s approach to deep decarbonization offers lessons in efficiency, alternative fuels and electrification. Bending the emissions curve globally requires efforts that blend academic insights with practical solutions.
Article
A proton exchange membrane electrolyzer is integrated with a photovoltaic system using Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) power electronics systems in several configurations to evaluate the extent to which the system can respond to the dynamics of photovoltaic power. Both direct current from the solar photovoltaics (DC) and alternating current rec...
Article
Our novel idea is a highly efficient, zero emission solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system that can be dynamically dispatched to produce electricity, hydrogen fuel, and cooling in various amounts to meet energy and power demands of a single residence. Although SOFC systems exhibit high electrical efficiency, in practical applications almost half of th...
Article
In this study, we experimentally evaluated electrolysis of water using a short stack of six solid oxide electrochemical cells (SOEC) at temperatures ranging between 700 °C and 800 °C. A model of the SOEC stack was verified and then used to evaluate thermal management of the stack operating below the thermoneutral voltage, which at these temperature...
Conference Paper
To improve the energy efficiency and achieve zero-net energy goals, as well as to reduce environmental impacts, we demonstrated and evaluated the use of a 1.5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) with Micro-combined heat and power (Micro-CHP) for powering residential homes. In this study, we designed, tested and demonstrated an SOFC Micro-CHP system as...
Conference Paper
A molten carbonate electrolysis cell (MCEC) is capable of separating carbon dioxide from methane reformate while simultaneously electrolyzing water. Methane reformate, for this study, primarily consists of carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane, and a high percentage of water. Carbon dioxide is required for the operation of a MCEC since a carbonate ion...
Conference Paper
The State of California has adopted a deep greenhouse gas emissions reduction target of 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050, but decarbonizing the power generation sector cannot lead to such aggressive emissions reductions by itself since only 21 percent of total statewide GHG emissions originate from power generation. Therefore, widespread electr...
Article
To evaluate the overall economic benefits of hydrogen production, delivery and dispensing of the novel hybrid Reformer-Electrolyzer-Purifier (REP) technology, cost analysis was carried out and compared to various hydrogen production technologies using H2A Analysis Models. The hydrogen cost contributions are compared amongst REP, steam methane refor...
Article
Solid oxide fuel cells produce electricity with high efficiency, low pollutants, and low noise. Coupling a fuel cell with a renewable energy resource such as photovoltaic panels (PV) and a battery for electrical energy storage enhances the ability to vary the power outputs of the integrated hybrid system, and allows better use of renewable energy....
Article
The National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC) of the University of California, Irvine, has led research, development, and demonstration projects on High-Temperature Fuel Cell systems. In parallel, the NFCRC is engaged in studies of the hydrogen economy from the generation to the utilization of hydrogen. One of the recent developments in integrated...
Article
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) systems produce enough waste heat at high enough temperature to produce excess H2 through endothermic internal steam reforming reactions. In this work, detailed thermodynamic models of novel stationary fuel cell systems that co-produce hydrogen (H2-FCS) have been developed and analy...
Article
Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are especially attractive for combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) applications due to their high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, and high-quality waste heat. In this work, thermodynamic and chemical engineering models are used to evaluate the use of absorption co...
Article
Design and construction of incineration system are summarized. Results from burning sawdust and hay are detailed. Results of the initial testing of the combustor system are presented, along with the results of the small scale tests of copper oxide cleanup system.
Article
The objective of this project is to analyze the potential for hydrogen co-production within high-temperature stationary fuel cell systems (H2-FCS) and identify novel designs with minimum CO2 and cost. Specific objectives are to (1) develop novel H2-FCS designs that release low greenhouse gas emissions; and (2) develop novel H2-FCS designs with low...

Network

Cited By