Jacek Gwizdka

Jacek Gwizdka
University of Texas at Austin | UT · School of Information

MEng, MASc, PhD

About

170
Publications
39,463
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,959
Citations
Introduction
Associate Professor, iSchool, U of Texas at Austin. I study human information interaction and retrieval and apply cognitive psychology and neuro-physiological methods to understand information searchers and improve search experience. I am particularly interested in creating models that describe and predict cognitive and affective phenomena in human information interaction. Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=gto9D-8AAAAJ
Additional affiliations
September 2019 - present
University of Texas at Austin
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
December 2012 - July 2019
University of Texas at Austin
Position
  • Lecturer
August 2005 - December 2012
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (170)
Article
This paper reports our investigation of differences in users' behavior between difficult and easy search tasks, as well as how these differences vary with different types of tasks. We also report how behavioral predictors of task difficulty vary across task types. In addition, we explored how whole-task-session level user behaviors and within-task-...
Article
The search task and the system both affect the demand on cognitive resources during information search. In some situations, the demands may become too high for a person. This article has a three-fold goal. First, it presents and critiques methods to measure cognitive load. Second, it explores the distribution of load across search task stages. Fina...
Article
The goal of this study is to expand our understanding of the relationships between selected tasks, cognitive abilities and search result interfaces. The underlying objective is to understand how to select search results presentation for tasks and user contexts. Twenty three participants conducted four search tasks of two types and used two interfac...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies examine how human information sources correct health misinformation on social media. This study investigates the proportion of healthcare professionals who intend to correct health misinformation on social media using various social correction methods, such as private priming, public priming, private rebuttal, and public rebuttal. It al...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological resilience has emerged as a key factor in mental health during the global COVID-19 pandemic. However, no work to date has synthesised findings across review work or assessed the reliability of findings based on review work quality, so as to inform public health policy. We thus conducted a meta-review on all types of review work from t...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study aims to determine the extent to which human information agents, such as healthcare professionals, respond to health misinformation on social media (i.e., by correcting it using private priming, public priming, private rebuttal, and public rebuttal, including reporting misinformation). Moreover, guided by social identity theory (SIT) and...
Article
A large body of research has provided evidence that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with broad changes in attentional processes which are in turn implicated in core facets of emotion regulation. However, prior research has primarily focused on specific task-based evaluations of attention. In the current study, we evalua...
Article
This study investigates surrogates' health information sharing behavior through information sources and information evaluation. A lab‐based experiment was conducted. Twenty‐five participants read five scenarios, each with three preselected webpages from a government, a commercial, and an online forum source. Participants had to decide whether to sh...
Chapter
Cognitive load is one of the most studied constructs in NeuroIS [1]. Not surprisingly, we have identified 27 papers presented at NeuroIS retreats between 2012 and 2020 which included measurement of cognitive load or related constructs. This paper reviews terminology used to refer to cognitive load, mental workload and its variations, as well as the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Health misinformation is a public health concern. Various stakeholders have called on health care professionals, such as nurses and physicians, to be more proactive in correcting health misinformation on social media. Objective: This study aims to identify US physicians’ and nurses’ motivations for correcting health misinformation on so...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The global COVID-19 pandemic continues to have wide-ranging implications for health, including psychological well-being. A growing corpus of research reviews has emerged on the topic of psychological resilience in the context of the pandemic. However, this body of work has not been systematically reviewed for its quality, nor with resp...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Health misinformation is a public health concern. Various stakeholders have called on health care professionals, such as nurses and physicians, to be more proactive in correcting health misinformation on social media. OBJECTIVE This study aims to identify US physicians’ and nurses’ motivations for correcting health misinformation on soc...
Article
Health consumers can easily access information on the Internet. The quality of online health information varies and overall is concerning. The definition of eHealth literacy implies that consumers' ability to evaluate online health information varies with their eHealth literacy. A lab-based experiment was conducted to investigate how information so...
Article
Full-text available
Background Health misinformation on social media is a public health concern, and healthcare professionals can help correct it. However, research on how they correct health misinformation on social media is rare. Objective To develop a conceptual model that demonstrates how healthcare professionals correct health misinformation on social media. Me...
Chapter
An eye-tracking experiment (N = 24) was conducted to study differences in reading between automated and human-written news. This work adopted expectation-confirmation theory to examine readers' prior expectations and actual perceptions of both human-written news and automated news. Results revealed that nine eye-tracking variables were significantl...
Article
A lab‐based experiment was conducted to understand how eHealth literacy and information source affect reading vs. scanning behavior on health webpages. Participants read 15 webpages from commercial, government, and online forum sources while their eye movements were tracked. Negative binomial regression and Kruskal‐Wallis tests revealed that high e...
Chapter
The human eye plays an essential role in information acquisition from external world, and much of our contemporary information technology relies on visual processing. The eye-mind hypothesis suggests that human attention is connected to where our eyes are looking (Just and Carpenter 1980). Taken together with the continual movement of our eyes and...
Preprint
Full-text available
We propose an image-classification method to predict the perceived-relevance of text documents from eye-movements. An eye-tracking study was conducted where participants read short news articles, and rated them as relevant or irrelevant for answering a trigger question. We encode participants' eye-movement scanpaths as images, and then train a conv...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to introduce eye tracking as a method for capturing direct and indirect measures of online human information search behaviour. The unique contribution of eye-tracking data in studying information behaviour is examined in the context of health information research. Design/methodology/approach The need for multip...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The complex stochastic nature of eye tracking data calls for exploring sophisticated statistical models to ensure reliable inference in multi-trial eye-tracking experiments. We employ a Bayesian semi-parametric mixed-effects Markov model to compare gaze transition matrices between different experimental factors accommodating individual random effec...
Conference Paper
We investigate the relationship between search behavior, eye -tracking measures, and learning. We conducted a user study where 30 participants performed searches on the web. We measured their verbal knowledge before and after each task in a content-independent manner, by assessing the semantic similarity of their entries to expert vocabulary. We hy...
Chapter
Mind-wandering (MW) is a phenomenon that affects most of us; it affects our interactions with information systems. Yet the literature on its effects on human-computer interaction is only scant. This research aims to contribute to establishing eye-tracking measures that could be used to detect periods of MW while a user is engaged in interaction wit...
Chapter
We continue investigating neuro-physiological correlates of information relevance decisions and report on research-in-progress, in which we study health-related information search tasks conducted on open web. Data was collected using an eye-tracker and a single-channel EEG device. Our findings show significant differences in pupil dilation on visi...
Article
We investigated the searching behaviors of twenty-four children in grades 6, 7, and 8 (ages 11-13) in finding information on three types of search tasks in Google. Children conducted 72 search sessions and issued 150 queries. Children's phrase-and question-like queries combined were much more prevalent than keyword queries (70% vs. 30%, respectivel...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND As the quality of online health information remains questionable, there is a pressing need to understand how consumers evaluate this information. Past reviews identified content-, source-, and individual-related factors that influence consumer judgment of trustworthiness and credibility of online health information. However, systematic k...
Article
Background: As the quality of online health information remains questionable, there is a pressing need to understand how consumers evaluate this information. Past reviews identified content-, source-, and individual-related factors that influence consumer judgment in this area. However, systematic knowledge concerning the evaluation process, that...
Poster
Full-text available
In this video, we introduce a real-time algorithm that computes gaze transition entropy. This approach can be employed in detecting higher level cognitive states such as situation awareness. We first compute fixations using our real-time version of a well established velocity threshold based algorithm. We then compute the gaze transition entropy fo...
Preprint
Full-text available
We conducted an eye-tracking study where 30 participants performed searches on the web. We measured their topical knowledge before and after each task. Their eye-fixations were labelled as "reading" or "scanning". The series of reading fixations in a line, called "reading-sequences" were characterized by their length in pixels, fixation duration, a...
Article
A lab‐based experiment was conducted to understand the multidimensional and dynamic changes in the use of relevance criteria on online news on search engine result pages (SERPs). Data from retrospective think‐aloud (RTA) was first analyzed to investigate the criteria used when participants selected a search result on SERPs. The number and frequency...
Article
We investigated differences in reading strategies in relation to information search task goals and perceived text relevance. Our findings demonstrate that some aspects of reading when looking for a specific target word are similar to reading relevant texts to find information, while other aspects are similar to reading irrelevant texts to find info...
Article
Query auto-completion (QAC) is the ubiquitous information search function that displays a list of suggested queries, where the list changes as the searcher types. This article reports on an exploratory study of QAC usage during complete search sessions in a lab study of 29 participants, where a session comprised searching on an assigned multi-facet...
Article
Full-text available
Assessment of text relevance is an important aspect of human–information interaction. For many search sessions it is essential to achieving the task goal. This work investigates text relevance decision dynamics in a question-answering task by direct measurement of eye movement using eye-tracking and brain activity using electroencephalography EEG....
Conference Paper
The workshop will be the second in a series, building upon a successful workshop held at the SIGIR 2015 conference. The main aim is to focus on a narrow but highly important set of topics that have been identified in the last workshop and are of importance to IR and IIR researchers. The core theme of the workshop will be challenges is using and app...
Conference Paper
Search effort is an important aspect of Interactive Information Retrieval (IIR). Prior findings show that higher cognitive ability searchers tend to perform more actions than lower ability searchers. In an eye-tracking lab study we investigated the effects of working memory (WM) on search effort. The findings show that higher WM searchers perform m...
Conference Paper
We investigate query characteristics and click behavior on SERPs of children in grades 6 and 8 (ages 11 and 13, respectively). We employ Retrospective Think-Aloud (RTA) protocol to elicit children's thought processes while clicking on results and to identify the sources of information that shaped these processes. We analyze the effect of grade leve...
Article
We present a case study of quality evaluation of online health information. Two participants were selected from a health information search (HIS) study, in which we are investigating consumers' evaluation of the quality of online health information. The selected cases offered a rare example of two almost exactly opposite eye-movement patterns on th...
Article
With the growth in sensing devices, data logging capabilities and multi-sensory presentation interfaces, it has been argued that the future of documents is “multisensory, pervasive, and immersive,” and building an agenda around these themes is critical for future information science research. Hence, in this panel, we bring together an international...
Research
Full-text available
Designed to measure subjective relevance judgment during information search.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present a cognitive-economic approach to examining the cost in information search. Unlike previous studies on economic models, we calculated the cost in information search based on participants' eye-tracking data as well as their behavioral data, such as query formulation, search task duration, SERP and web page visits. Using Prin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The "Search as Learning" (SAL) workshop is focused on an area within the information retrieval field that is only beginning to emerge: supporting users in their learning whilst interacting with information content.
Presentation
Full-text available
Differences in Reading between Word Search and Information Relevance Decisions – Evidence from Eye-tracking. Slides from paper presentation at NeuroIS 2016 in Gmunden.
Conference Paper
Query auto completion (QAC) is nearly ubiquitous in modern search systems, however, there are few published studies on how searchers use QAC query suggestions. This study describes the use of QAC by 29 searchers working on eight assigned search topics in a lab setting. We found that our subjects had differing propensities to use QAC, with some sear...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, the potential for expanding the set of scientific evidence and insights associated with the users' role during the search process is explored. As it is intended to be a position paper and not a systematic survey, a comprehensive review of literature is not presented here. However, the authors draw on some early stage research, in thi...
Article
Full-text available
This Tutorial+Workshop will discuss opportunities and challenges involved in using neuro-physiological tools/techniques (such as fMRI, fNIRS, EEG, eye-tracking, GSR, HR, and facial expressions) and theories in information retrieval. The hybrid format will engage researchers and students at different levels of expertise, from those who are active in...
Article
We investigate how children in grades 6 and 8 (ages 11 and 13, respectively) read search engine results pages (SERPs) in the context of searching Google. We use eye-tracking to detect children's reading of SERPs, and the effect of grade level and task type on reading behaviors and interactions. We have created a web search interface that retrieved...
Article
The objective of this panel is to discuss a multi-faceted conceptual framework to link information literacy theory and practice. The panelists will present findings of their research into adult and young users' knowledge of and competencies in information literacy in varied information environments. The ultimate goal of the panel is to build consen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This short paper presents initial results from a project, in which we investigated differences in how users view relevant and irrelevant Web pages on their visits and revisits. The users' viewing of Web pages was characterized by eye-tracking measures, with a particular attention paid to changes in pupil size. The data was collected in a lab-based...
Article
Relevance, a fundamental concept in information search and retrieval, is 80-years old [4]. The recent decades have been ripe with work that brought a much better understanding of this rich concept. Yet, we still don't know which cognitive and affective processes are involved in relevance judgments. Empirical work that tackles these questions is sca...
Article
In this paper we describe the Searching as Learning Workshop (SAL 2014) taking place at IIiX 2014 in Regensburg, Germany.
Article
Full-text available
We present a system that supports Interactive Information Retrieval user studies on the Web. Our system provides support for user and task management, for processing web-based task specific interfaces and for Web-event logging. It also offers functionality useful to IIR studies that capture eye-movement on Web page elements. The system complements...
Article
Full-text available
While many multidimensional models of relevance have been posited, prior studies have been largely exploratory rather than confirmatory. Lacking a methodological framework to quantify the relationships among factors or measure model fit to observed data, many past models could not be empirically tested or falsified. To enable more positivist experi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Relevance is a fundamental concept in information retrieval. We consider relevance from the user's perspective and ask if the degree of relevance can be inferred from eye-tracking data and if it is related to the cognitive effort involved in relevance judgments. To this end we conducted a study, in which participants were asked to find information...
Article
Full-text available
We present preliminary results from a Web search study, where we paid particular attention to the design of complex tasks. We used subjective, behavioral, and cognitive measures to investigate the effects of task complexity and, separately, of search user interface elements. Our findings confirm the expected task properties by design – no differenc...
Article
There is growing recognition of the importance of learning as a search outcome and of the need to provide support for it. Yet, before we can consider learning as a part of search, we need to know how to assess it. This panel will focus on methods and measures for assessing learning in the context of search tasks and their outcomes. The panel will b...
Article
The acquisition of information and the search interaction process is influenced strongly by a person’s use of their knowledge of the domain and the task. In this paper we show that a user’s level of domain knowledge can be inferred from their interactive search behaviors without considering the content of queries or documents. A technique is presen...
Conference Paper
We examined user behavior on information search tasks at two levels of complexity. Users were divided into two groups according to their working memory span (WM). The results show that in more demanding task conditions both user groups change behavior, but they differ in how they change it. High-WM user performed more actions to find more informati...
Article
We examined the effect of introducing search results overview in the form of a tag cloud displayed next to a textual search result list. Does such an overview make users faster in search task execution and lower the cognitive effort required to make progress? We use cognitive effort measures derived from eye tracking data to examine the effect of p...
Article
This panel will discuss opportunities and challenges involved in applying cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging in information science. The panelists will discuss lessons learned from related disciplines and will consider how neuroimaging tools, such as fMRI, fNIRS, and EEG, could contribute to information science.
Article
Effects of mental demands on searchers were examined by controlling tasks complexity and by assessing searchers' working memory span (WM). The searchers were divided into low and high WM group. We expected that on more complex tasks all searchers would perform more searches to find more information. However, only high-WM searchers performed more se...
Article
Purpose – This study seeks to explore technology use in a higher education classroom with the focus on tablet computers. Design/methodology/approach – Study participants consisted of 36 undergraduate students from Rutgers University's Information Technology and Informatics major. Data were collected using an online survey, a classroom observation,...
Article
a b s t r a c t We report on an investigation into people's behaviors on information search tasks, specifically the rela-tion between eye movement patterns and task characteristics. We conducted two independent user stud-ies (n = 32 and n = 40), one with journalism tasks and the other with genomics tasks. The tasks were constructed to represent inf...
Conference Paper
Click through events in search results pages (SERPs) are not reliable implicit indicators of document relevance. A user's task and domain knowledge are key factors in recognition and link selection and the most useful SERP document links may be those that best match the user's domain knowledge. User study participants rated their knowledge of genom...
Article
In this study, we attempted to use dwell time on content pages as a predictor of document usefulness, and evaluated the prediction performance in different types of tasks. A user study was conducted to address this research problem. A total of 32 participants conducted searches associated with 4 different tasks, varying along several task type dime...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose to personalize search result content through modeling multiple user behavioral measures in different ways as evidence for implicit relevance feedback for different types of search tasks. The point of this personalization is to predict potentially useful documents based on the type of task, and on multiple behaviors indicat...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this panel is to look back on seven years of research on folksonomies and tagging systems and to summarize its main contributions as well as to try forecasting the evolution folksonomies will make in the future. Research findings which show the advantages and drawbacks of folksonomies and tagging systems in various scenarios and whic...
Article
This video presents a novel visualization technique of interactive search sessions. The objective of this work is to enable characterization and comparison of interactive search sessions with respect to strategies and tactics employed by different people and on different search tasks. The visual aspect of this approach aims to off-load cognition by...
Article
We present a method to measure some aspects of cognitive effort by a user while reading during a search session. We measured reading eye movement properties and patterns of eye movement in a user study (n=32) of participants carrying out realistic journalism IR work tasks. The results show the cognitive effort measures correlate positively with the...
Article
Users engaged in information search often reformulate or modify their queries. This paper reports on an investigation of how task type and task situation influence users' query reformulation behavior. A controlled experiment was conducted with 48 participants, each working on six web search tasks classified into three types according to the task st...
Article
Self-assessment of topic/task knowledge is a human metacognitive capacity that impacts information behavior, for example through selection of learning and search strategies. It is often used as a measure in experiments for evaluation of results and those measurements are taken to be generally reliable. We conducted a user study (n=40) to test this...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the last two decades, Interactive Information Retrieval (IIR) has established a new direction within the long tradition of IR that introduces the user at its center and poses new challenges for system evaluation. IR systems can improve performance by utilizing information about the entire interactive process of search. This approach has so far...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing cognitive load on web search is useful for characterizing search system features and search tasks with respect to their demands on the searcher's mental effort. It is also helpful for examining how individual differences among searchers (e.g. cognitive abilities) affect the search process. We examined cognitive load from the perspective o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Personalization of information retrieval tailors search towards individual users to meet their particular information needs by taking into account information about users and their contexts, often through implicit sources of evidence such as user behaviors. Task types have been shown to influence search behaviors including usefulness judgments. Thi...