Jaap Ham

Jaap Ham
Eindhoven University of Technology | TUE · Research Group Human-Technology Interaction

PhD

About

127
Publications
38,058
Reads
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2,487
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2007 - present
Eindhoven University of Technology
Position
  • Professor
August 2004 - August 2007
Utrecht University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
August 2004 - present
Independent consultancy
Position
  • Independent consultant on Persuasive Technology for sustainability and health
Education
November 1999 - May 2003
Radboud University
Field of study
  • Cognive Social Psychology

Publications

Publications (127)
Article
Full-text view-only version of the paper can be accessed here:: http://rdcu.be/ut5k With this set of papers, we hope to contribute significantlyto a scientific approach to e-coaching for healthy lifestyles.We sincerely believe such a scientific approach is needed inthis growing field, as part of the identification and validationof valuable compone...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A vast majority of people with motor disabilities cannot be part of the today's digital society, due to the difficulties they face in using conventional interfaces (i.e., mouse and keyboard) for computer operation. The MAMEM project aims at facilitating the social inclusion of these people by developing a technology that allows computer operation,...
Article
Measurement of physiological reactions to persuasive messages can improve our understanding of psychological processes of persuasion, and potentially further enhance and personalize current persuasion interventions. However, little is known about the relationship between psychophysiology and persuasive processes. This study focused on four persuasi...
Article
Full-text available
In the last years, there have been rapid developments in social robotics, which bring about the prospect of their application as persuasive robots to support behavior change. In order to guide related developments and pave the way for their adoption, it is important to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of social robots as persuas...
Article
Full-text available
Background Though pedagogical artificial agents are expected to play a crucial role in the years to come, earlier studies provide inconsistent results regarding their effect on learning. This might be because their potential for exhibiting subtle nonverbal behaviours we know from human teachers has been untapped. What is more, there is little evide...
Chapter
Technological systems can be equipped with persuasive design principles that influence user perceptions. For instance, earlier research showed that Perceived Social Support can influence user perceptions such as effectiveness and knowledge sharing intentions. However, to our knowledge, how Perceived Social Support affects Perceived Credibility has...
Article
Full-text available
Persuasion aims at changing peoples’ motivations and/or behaviors. This study explores how and when physiology reflects persuasion processes and specifically whether individual differences in motivations and behaviors affect psychophysiologic reactions to persuasive information. Participants (N = 70) with medium or high meat consumption patterns wa...
Article
Full-text available
Persuasive technology (PT) can assist in behavior change. PT systems often rely on user models, based on behavior and self-report data, to personalize their functionalities and thereby increase efficiency. This review paper shows how physiological measurements could be used to further improve user models for personalization of PT by means of bio-cy...
Article
With technology being ubiquitous in our daily lives, it is crucial to understand the factors that influence their perceived credibility. In the current research, we focus on the design of Academic Social Networking Sites (ASNSs). In order to facilitate continuous adoption and use of ASNSs, it is important to understand the factors that determine th...
Article
Full-text available
Learning to play a musical instrument involves skill learning and requires long-term practicing to reach expert levels. Research has already proven that the assistance of a robot can improve children’s motivation and performance during practice. In an earlier study, we showed that the specific role (evaluative role versus nonevaluative role) the ro...
Chapter
Given the prevalent use of technology for human activities, the determinants of user perceptions of the credibility of technological systems must be understood. This study investigated how user perceptions of persuasive elements that are incorporated in Academic Social Networking Sites (ASNSs) influence the Perceived Credibility of these sites. Spe...
Chapter
Persuasive Technologies can cause behavior change for improving child health care. However, for persuasive technology to be effective, users have to accept it. We propose a model of determinants of users’ acceptance of persuasive technologies that contains five constructs from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), which we...
Chapter
The gradual rise in workload and the penetration of labor-saving technology minimized physical activity in the working environment, which threaten office workers’ physical and psychological well-being. Promoting physical exercise at the office is a potential solution to this problem. In the current research, we investigated the determinants of exer...
Article
Full-text available
The constant increase in work pressure and the penetration of labor-saving technologies have significantly reduced physical activity in office-based work routines, threatening employees’ physical and mental well-being. Encouraging physical exercises at the office seems a potential solution. However, while there is a wealth of research into occupati...
Research
Full-text available
There is growing evidence that persuasive technologies are more likely to be effective in motivating behavioral change if personalized to the target users. This has led to an increasing interest in the field of personalised persuasive technologies (PPT) among researchers and practitioners in the academia and industry, respectively. For example, eac...
Article
Physiological responses to persuasion can help to increase our understanding of persuasive processes, and thereby the effectiveness of persuasive interventions. However, a clear relationship between psychophysiology and persuasion is not yet established. This study investigates if peripheral physiology predicts persuasion effectiveness, and whether...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research has shown that personalizing persuasive technologies can increase their effectiveness and potentially leads to sustained behavioral change. Building on the success of the workshop in the past four years which attracted 100s of participants from over 20 different countries and led to a special issue, this year’s workshop will further advanc...
Chapter
Persuasive Technology (PT) as a field of research provides tremendous opportunities for helping people improve their health and wellbeing. This paper highlights opportunities for empowering rural female population through a simple text-based persuasive intervention. The study was performed in June 2019 in a remotely located population in North-East...
Chapter
Compromising smoking cessation applications’ effectiveness, many users relapse. We propose that long-term adoption of persuasive technology is (partly) dependent on users’ motivational orientation. Therefore, we studied the potential relationship between user’s achievement motivation and the long-term behavior change effectiveness of persuasive tec...
Conference Paper
The application of social robots has recently been explored in various types of educational settings including music learning. Earlier research presented evidence that simply the presence of a robot can influence a person’s task performance, confirming social facilitation theory and findings in human-robot interaction. Confirming the evaluation app...
Article
Full-text available
Persuasive interventions can lose their effectiveness when a person becomes reactant to the persuasive messages—a state identified by feelings of anger and perceived threat to freedom. A person will strive to reestablish their threatened freedom, which is characterized by motivational arousal. Research suggests that the motivational state of psycho...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropomorphism is generally defined as the attribution of human-like characteristics to social robots and other non-human objects. We argue that different researchers have different interpretations of this concept, leading to measuring instruments that focus on different subsets of human-like characteristics. In the current paper, we discuss thes...
Chapter
Various nonverbal behaviors – often referred to as nonverbal immediacy - of both human and virtual teachers have been shown to play a crucial role in student learning. However, past literature provides limited evidence of the effect of a virtual agent’s vocalization, as a nonverbal immediacy cue, on learning outcomes. Even less is known about the e...
Article
Full-text available
Research in the field of social robotics suggests that enhancing social cues in robots can elicit more social responses in users. It is however not clear how users respond socially to persuasive social robots and whether such reactions will be more pronounced when the robots feature more interactive social cues. In the current research, we examine...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To advance the research area of social robotics, it is important to understand the effect of different social cues on the perceived social agency to a robot. This paper evaluates three sets of verbal and nonverbal social cues (emotional intonation voice, facial expression and head movement) demonstrated by a social agent delivering several messages...
Article
Earlier research provides inconsistent evidence for effects of pedagogical agents on learning outcomes. We claim that the agent's instructional method helps to explain the inconsistency, with agents that offer behavioral modeling as an instructional method leading to better learning. We conducted two studies to investigate effects of the use of an...
Chapter
Virtual reality (VR) technology affords powerful influences on human behavior and thinking through symbiotic interaction between the VR environment and the human user. Earlier research indicated that in a real bookstore, a slight touch by the welcoming shop assistant on the shopper’s upper arm positively influenced consumer behavior. To investigate...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the dimensions and scope of persuasive technology and its potential to promote sustainable use of the environment surrounding us. Persuasive technology aims to bridge the gap between technological and psychological contributions to solving environmental problems by intervening in user‐system interactions that have environment...
Article
Full-text available
The growing interest in social robotics makes it relevant to examine the potential of robots as persuasive agents and, more specifically, to examine how robot characteristics influence the way people experience such interactions and comply with the persuasive attempts by robots. The purpose of this research is to identify how the (ostensible) gende...
Chapter
Full-text available
To optimize effectiveness of persuasive technology, understanding also psychophysiological processes of persuasion is crucial. The current research explored cardiovascular reactions to persuasive messages using four persuasion principles proposed by Cialdini (authority, scarcity, consensus, and commitment) in a laboratory experiment. The study had...
Chapter
Despite technological advancements in assistive technologies, studies show high rates of non-use. Because of the rising numbers of people with disabilities, it is important to develop strategies to increase assistive technology acceptance. The current research investigated the use of an artificial agent (embedded into a system) as a persuasive beha...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2018, held in Waterloo, ON, Canada, in April 2018. The 21 revised full papers and 4 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 59 submissions. The papers demonstrate how persuasive technologies can help sol...
Article
Full-text available
In this report we present a dataset that combines multimodal biosignals and eye tracking information gathered under a human-computer interaction framework. The dataset was developed in the vein of the MAMEM project that aims to endow people with motor disabilities with the ability to edit and author multimedia content through mental commands and ga...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In many future social interactions between robots and humans, robots may need to convince people to change their behavior. People may dislike and resist such persuasive attempts, a phenomenon known as psychological reactance. This paper examines how reactance, measured in terms of negative cognitions and feelings of anger, is affected by the persua...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This dataset combines multimodal biosignals and eye tracking information gathered under a human-computer interaction framework. The dataset was developed in the vein of the MAMEM project that aims to endow people with motor disabilities with the ability to edit and author multimedia content through mental commands and gaze activity. The dataset inc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For healthy computer use, frequent, short breaks are crucial. This research investigated whether context-aware persuasive technology can identify opportune and effective moments (of high user motivation and ability to perform target behavior) for triggering short breaks fostering symbiotic interactions between e-Coaching e-Health technology and use...
Article
Cognitive factors, like beliefs, have been studied extensively as determinants of medication adherence, while affect associated with taking medicines has been studied much less. In the present study (N = 525), we investigated affect by assessing patients' first associations with taking their medicines. Results showed that these associations were re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For optimal human-robot interaction, understanding the determinants and components of anthropomorphism is crucial. This research assessed the influence of an agent's social cues and controlling language use on user's perceptions of the agent's expertise, sociability, and trustworthiness. In a game context, the agent attempted to persuade users to m...
Article
Medication non-adherence has been recognised as one of the major problems in health care that leads to preventable costs and hospitalisations. This study aimed to assess the role of affect in medication adherence. We propose a dual-process framework of medication adherence based on the reflective–impulsive model, which includes both cognitive and a...
Conference Paper
Educational robots are regarded as beneficial tools in education due to their capabilities of improving learning motivation. Using cognitive dissonance as a teaching tool has been popular in science education too. A considerable number of researchers have argued that cognitive dissonance has an important role in the student’s attitudes change. This...
Conference Paper
Based on conceptual change theory, cognitive dissonance is known as an important factor in conceptual change. Thus, those who design and build educational robots will need to understand how best to provide ways for robots to implicitly persuade students to change their bad attitudes when encountering a cognitively dissonant situation. Building on d...
Article
Colors of lighting feedback can have message-related associations helping users easily processing feedback messages. Study 1 showed more ease of processing only for participants receiving strongly-associated lighting feedback, as their processing times (of these feedback messages) were not increased by additional cognitive load. Also, lighting feed...
Article
This paper explores the relation between consistency of social cues and persuasion by an artificial agent. Including (minimal) social cues in Persuasive Technology (PT) increases the probability that people attribute human-like characteristics to that technology, which in turn can make that technology more persuasive (see e.g., Nass, Steuer, Tauber...
Conference Paper
Colors are widely used as feedback in ambient persuasive technology. In current research, we argue that the information that color-based feedback carries is highly context dependent. Two studies investigated effects of context (in which color-based feedback was presented) on user’s interpretation of feedback messages, and more importantly, on the e...
Conference Paper
A complex relationship exists between people’s cultural background and their general acceptance towards robots. Previous studies supported the idea that humans may accept more easily a robot that can adapt to their specific culture. However, it is not clear whether between two robots which are identified as foreign robots because of their verbal an...
Conference Paper
With the increasing demand for socially assistive robots in various domains, it becomes important to make robots that are able to start communication and attract people’s attention whenever necessary. Although verbal and non-verbal ways of communication have been studied before, adjusting them to changing situations of the environment is still a ch...
Article
Full-text available
Earlier theorizing suggested that an (artificial) agent that combines persuasive strategies will be more persuasive. Therefore, the current research investigated whether a robot that uses two persuasive strategies is more persuasive than a robot that uses only one. Two crucial persuasive strategies that humans use in face-to-face persuasion are gaz...
Article
Earlier research showed that artificial social agents can influence human behavior. This article argues that, especially under certain circumstances, people are sensitive to persuasion by (artificial) social agents. For example, when people feel socially excluded, they are motivated to increase their social connections with others. It was hypothesi...
Conference Paper
Thanks to the ubiquity of wireless network, location has become an easily available resource to exploit when sending purchase recommendations. We rely on Fogg’s Behavior model (FBM; Fogg, 2009) and on previous research to study whether the appearance of such recommendations when the user spatially approaches a target item improves the recommendatio...
Conference Paper
In this paper we propose a new perspective on persuasive technology: Persuasive effects of a group of artificial agents. We argue that while effects of single social agents have been corroborated, understanding of persuasion by multiple agents in a group setting is very limited. In the current research, we argue that conformity effects could occur...
Conference Paper
In this paper we propose a new perspective on persuasive technology: Comfort-Experience-Based Persuasive Technology. We argue that comfort experiences have a dominant influence on people’s (energy consumption) behavior. In the current research, we argue that room lighting can influence heating-related comfort experiences (by emitting a ‘warm’ versu...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We examined whether participants would trust an agent that was similar to them more than an agent that was dissimilar to them. Background: Trust is an important psychological factor determining the acceptance of smart systems. Because smart systems tend to be treated like humans, and similarity has been shown to increase trust in humans...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to the multidisciplinary character of interaction design and Human- Technology Interaction (HTI), the type of the department that runs interaction design or HTI education typically has a major influence on the education, the courses and the students. We have explored these differences by co-organizing a course together, combining teachers and s...
Article
Full-text available
Current self-report medication adherence measures often provide heavily skewed results with limited variance, suggesting that most participants are highly adherent. This contrasts with findings from objective adherence measures. We argue that one of the main limitations of these self-report measures is the limited range covered by the behaviors ass...
Chapter
Social robots may provide a solution to various societal challenges (e.g. the aging society, unhealthy lifestyles, sustainability). In the current contribution, we argue that crucial in the interactions of social robots with humans is that social robots are always created to some extent to influence the human: Persuasive robots might (very powerful...
Article
Personalization and behavior changeDigital behavior intervention is a growing area of research which investigates how interactive systems can encourage and support people to change their behavior. Personalization plays an important role in this, as the most effective persuasive and motivational strategies are likely to depend on user characteristic...
Conference Paper
In this paper we analyze the role of negative feedback as provided by artificial agents. We examine the hypothesis that negative feedback offers substantial potential to enhance persuasive interventions aimed to change behavior. This hypothesis is tested based on a review of several studies using the same experimental paradigm that includes a virtu...
Conference Paper
Earlier research indicated that ambient persuasive lighting can have persuasive effects on energy-efficiency behavior. However, why would this kind of ambient feedback be effective? The current research investigated the influence of the strength of associations (of colors used for giving feedback) on the effectiveness of ambient feedback. Two color...
Conference Paper
Persuasive agents may function as a tool to induce changes in human behavior. Research has shown that human-likeness of such agents influences their effectiveness. Besides characteristics of the agent, other characteristics may also have strong influences on persuasive agents’ effectiveness. One such characteristic is social exclusion. When people...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The more avatars are being perceived as likable and trustworthy, the more successful they will be in persuading people to change their attitudes and behavior. Research has shown that both mimicry and facial similarity may increase likability and trustworthiness of avatars. In this paper, we will provide a short guide on how to implement mimicry and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In human-robot interaction research, much attention is given to the extent to which people perceive humanlike attributes in robots. Generally, the concept anthropomorphism is used to describe this process. Anthropomorphism is defined in different ways, with much focus on either typical human attributes or uniquely human attributes. This difference...
Article
In this paper, it is researched to what extend truck drivers are willing to improve their anticipation behavior. For the purpose of this research, anticipation behavior is characterized by anticipation distance: the distance to a stopping point (e.g. roundabout), at which the accelerator pedal is released. A larger anticipation distance yields a lo...
Article
Full-text available
As witnessed in several behavioural studies, a complex relationship exists between people’s cultural background and their general acceptance towards robots. However, very few studies have investigated whether a robot’s original language and gesture based on certain culture have an impact on the people of the different cultures. The purpose of this...
Article
Affective robots and embodied conversational agents require convincing facial expressions to make them socially acceptable. To be able to virtually generate facial expressions, we need to investigate the relationship between technology and human perception of affective and social signals. Facial landmarks, the locations of the crucial parts of a fa...