Jaakko Tuomilehto

Jaakko Tuomilehto
Danube University Krems · Department for Clinical Neurosciences and Preventive Medicine

M.D., M.A., Ph.D.

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2,014
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235,580
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Publications

Publications (2,014)
Article
Background and aims Circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined to what extent lifestyle intervention aiming to prevent T2D interacts with this association and how BCAA concentrations change during the intervention. Materials and methods We comprised trajectory clusters by k-mea...
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Background and aims Psychosocial factors may affect adherence to lifestyle interventions and lifestyle changes. The role of psychosocial factors in dementia prevention needs more research. We aimed at clarify the issue in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER). Methods The population includ...
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Background COVID-19 severity varies widely. Although some demographic and cardio-metabolic factors, including age and obesity, are associated with increasing risk of severe illness, the underlying mechanism(s) are uncertain. Subjects/methods In a meta-analysis of three independent studies of 1471 participants in total, we investigated phenotypic a...
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Background: The association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and care costs in people at risk for cognitive decline is not well understood. Studying this association could reveal the potential benefits of increasing HRQoL and reducing care costs by improving cognition. Objective: In this exploratory data analysis we investigated th...
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to estimate the potential cost-effectiveness of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) program. Methods: A life-time Markov model with societal perspective, simulating a cohort of people at risk of dementia reflecting usual care and the FINGER progr...
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The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the associations between albuminuria and fasting (FPG), 1 h post-load (1 h PG) and 2 h post-load plasma glucose (2 h PG) in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A total of 496 people free of known diabetes (mean age 72 years) participated in the examinations including the OGTT with plasma gluco...
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Objective: The optimal screening strategy for dysglycemia (including type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is debated. We tested the hypothesis that measures of insulin resistance by HOMA indexes may constitute good screening methods. Research design and methods: Insulin, C-peptide, glycat...
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Few randomized controlled trials (RCT) that have thus far been published have not unequivocally found that early postpartum lifestyle intervention can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) . The aim of the present large-scale, long-term RCT was to assess whether an early postpartum lif...
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Very few studies have assessed short-term and long-term cardiovascular effects of an early postpartum lifestyle intervention among women with gestational diabetes mellitus and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to examine whether an early postpartum 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention can lead to weight loss and improve cardiovascular...
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There is a wide variation in the development and course of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men, which confirms the need for prospective studies. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among the general male population at the baseline (n = 359) and in a follow-up survey (n = 218) 12 years later. The prospective 12-year study included 189 men. ED was a...
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Context Waist circumference (WC) is used in screening for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) based on its association with cardiometabolic risk. This might apply differently in ethnically different populations. Associations with other measures are also unclear. Objective To investigate the association between neck circumference (NC), WC, WC:hip circumf...
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Depression and cognition are associated, but the role of depressive symptoms in lifestyle interventions to prevent dementia needs further study. We investigated the intervention effect on depressive symptoms and their associations with cognition in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER; NCT0...
Preprint
Hypertension is a leading cause of premature death affecting more than a billion individuals worldwide. Here we report on the genetic determinants of blood pressure (BP) traits (systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure) in the largest single-stage genome-wide analysis to date (N = 1,028,980 European-descent individuals). We identified 2,103 independ...
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical ocular surface characteristics in a population-based sample of Finnish elderly people. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 601 subjects (335 females, 266 males) born between the years 1933-1956 and living in Savitaipale, Finland. Ocular surface health was evaluated using a comp...
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Introduction Peptide markers of inflammation have been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The role of upstream, lipid-derived mediators of inflammation such as eicosanoids, remains less clear. The aim of this study was to examine whether eicosanoids are associated with incident type 2 diabetes. Research design & methods In the FIN...
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Background: Ramadan is the sacred month of the Islamic Hijri (lunar) calendar, and during this entire month, healthy adult Muslims abstain from eating and drinking from dawn to sunset. Muslims with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) who choose to fast during Ramadan encounter major risks such as hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, deh...
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Introduction: Lifetime exposure to occupational complexity is linked to late-life cognition, and may affect benefits of preventive interventions. Methods: In the 2-year multidomain Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), we investigated, through post hoc analyses (N = 1026), the association o...
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Objective: The corticotropin-releasing factor neuropeptides (corticotropin-releasing hormone [CRH] and urocortin [UCN]-1,2,3) and spexin contribute to the regulation of energy balance and inhibit food intake in mammals. However, the status of these neuropeptides in children with overweight has yet to be elucidated. This study investigated the effe...
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OBJECTIVE To examine the previously unknown long-term association between gut microbiome composition and incident type 2 diabetes in a representative population cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We collected fecal samples from 5,572 Finns (mean age 48.7 years; 54.1% women) in 2002 who were followed up for incident type 2 diabetes until 31 Decemb...
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Aims: Joint prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and dementia could reduce the burden of both conditions. The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) demonstrated a beneficial effect on cognition (primary outcome) and we assessed the effect of this lifestyle intervention on incident CVD (p...
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The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortins (UCNs) have been implicated in energy homeostasis and the cellular stress response. However, the expression of these neuropeptides in children remains unclear. Therefore, we determined the impact of obesity on their expression in 40 children who were normal weight, overweight, and had obesity...
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Genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WCadjBMI, WHRadjBMI), but it remains unclear whether these SNPs relate to change in WCadjBMI or WHRadjBMI with lifestyle intervention. We hypothesized that polygenic scores (...
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Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes, and retinal microaneurysms (MA) are one of the first detected abnormalities associated with DR. We recently showed elevated serum triglyceride levels to be associated with the development of MA in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). The purpose of this met...
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Given the unprecedented global pandemic of obesity, a better understanding of the etiology of adiposity will be necessary to ensure effective management of obesity and related complications. Among the various potential factors contributing to obesity, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress refers to a state of excessive protein unfolding or misfolding t...
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Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) is a randomized trial that showed beneficial effect on cognition with a 2‐year multidomain lifestyle intervention. During the post‐intervention follow‐up, COVID19 pandemic emerged resulting in lockdown and reduced services. Our aim is to investigate how lif...
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Given the complex and multi‐factorial aetiology of dementia, preventive interventions targeting several risk‐factors simultaneously and tailored on specific risk‐profiles are likely to be most beneficial. To date, trials testing lifestyle‐ and vascular‐based multidomain interventions for dementia and cognitive decline prevention have shown inconsis...
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Higher occupational complexity has been associated with better cognition in late life, but associations with brain changes remain unclear. We assessedwhether occupational complexity was associated with baseline brain structural MRI measures and PIB‐PET amyloid burden in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Di...
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Objective . The strongest locus which associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) by the common variant rs7903146 is the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene ( TCF7L2 ). We aimed to quantify the interaction of diet/lifestyle interventions and the genetic effect of TCF7L2 rs7903146 on glycemic traits, body weight, or waist circumference in overweight or obe...
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The association between lifestyle practices, obesity and increased BP are under-investigated. We aimed to investigate this association to identify the factors associated with hypertension and prehypertension in Saudis. Non-diabetic adults were recruited from public healthcare centers using a cross-sectional design. Recruits were interviewed using a...
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Introduction: Lifestyle interventions may prevent cognitive decline, but the sufficient dose of intervention activities and lifestyle changes is unknown. We investigated how intervention adherence affects cognition in the FINGER trial (pre-specified subgroup analyses). Methods: FINGER is a multicenter randomized controlled trial examining the ef...
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Aims We describe a 22-year prospective observational population-based study that determined the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and intermediate hyperglycaemia (IH), obesity, hypertension, and disorders of lipid metabolism in a middle-age population in the Finnish municipality of Savitaipale. Methods 1151 people participated in t...
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Steroid receptor RNA activator 1 (SRA1) is involved in pathophysiological responses of adipose tissue (AT) in obesity. In vitro and animal studies have elucidated its role in meta-inflammation. Since SRA1 AT expression in obesity/type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relationship with immune-metabolic signatures remains unclear, we assessed AT SRA1 express...
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The neuropeptide urocortin 3 (UCN3) has a beneficial effect on metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. It has been reported that UCN3 regulates insulin secretion and is dysregulated with increasing severity of obesity and diabetes. However, its function in the adipose tissue is unclear. We investigated the overex...
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Executive Summary This document updates the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of diabetes. It prioritizes clinical care and guides health professionals in choosing appropriate treatments at the time of diabetes diagnosis, and provides practical guidance to clinicians in assigning a type of diabetes to individuals at the time of di...
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We investigated the effect of a multidomain lifestyle intervention on the risk of dementia estimated using the validated CAIDE risk score (post-hoc analysis). The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) is a 2-year randomized controlled trial among 1,260 at-risk older adults (60–77 years). Differ...
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Lifestyle intervention, combining calorie restriction and physical activity to induce weight loss, is the frontline treatment for overweight or obesity and well-known to reduce waist circumference (WC). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with WC adjusted for body mass index (WCad...
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The CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia) Risk Score is a validated tool estimating dementia risk. It was previously associated with imaging biomarkers. However, associations between dementia risk scores (including CAIDE) and dementia-related biomarkers have not been studied in the context of an intervention. This study investigat...
Preprint
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Homeostatic control of blood glucose requires different physiological responses in the fasting and post-prandial states. We reasoned that glucose measurements under non-standardised conditions (random glucose, RG) may capture diverse glucoregulatory processes more effectively than previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of fasting glycaemia...
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Abstract Objective: One-hour plasma glucose (1-h PG) during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is an accurate predictor of type 2 diabetes. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the optimum cutoff of 1-h PG for detection of type 2 diabetes using 2-h PG as the gold standard. Research design and methods: We included 15 studies with 35,551 pa...
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Background Evidence for the effects of exercise and dietary interventions on cognition from long-term randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in large general populations remains insufficient. Objective The objective of our study was to investigate the independent and combined effects of resistance and aerobic exercise and dietary interventions on cog...
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Objective: Prospective associations between n-3 fatty acid biomarkers and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk are not consistent in individual studies. We aimed to summarize the prospective associations of biomarkers of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with T2D risk through an...
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While the Arabian population has a high prevalence of metabolic disorders, it has not been included in global studies that identify genetic risk loci for metabolic traits. Determining the transferability of such largely Euro-centric established risk loci is essential to transfer the research tools/resources, and drug targets generated by global stu...
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Aims The Finnish National Diabetes Prevention Program (FIN-D2D) was the first large-scale diabetes prevention program in a primary health care setting in the world. The risk reduction of type 2 diabetes was 69% after one-year intervention in high-risk individuals who were able to lose 5% of their weight. We investigated long-term effects of one-yea...
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Population specific associations between cardiovascular disease with various risk factors including pre-hypertension and hypertension were reported. We aimed to investigate the association of higher than optimal blood pressure with measures of dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, and markers of inflammation in non-diabetic Saudi adults hoping to improve curr...
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Background Very few studies have explored the patterns of cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics in midlife and late life in relation to risk of dementia. We examined the associations of composite CVH metrics from midlife to late life with risk of incident dementia. Methods and findings This cohort study included 1,449 participants from the Finnish C...
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The Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Incidence of Dementia (CAIDE) risk score was the first validated risk score estimating dementia risk based on a midlife risk profile. This exploratory study investigated associations of change in CAIDE score with change in neuroimaging biomarkers: brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Pittsburgh comp...
Article
Life‐long mental stimulation through occupational complexity has been associated with late‐life cognition and might affect the rate of cognitive changes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing preventive interventions for dementia. The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER, ClinicalTrials...
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Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) is a multi‐center, randomized trial that showed beneficial effect on cognition with a multi‐domain lifestyle intervention including nutritional guidance. The aim here is to investigate how dietary changes are maintained after the active intervention period,...
Article
Cardiometabolic risk factors in middle age have been associated with late‐life risk of dementia. The associations of cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics in midlife and old age with late‐life risk of dementia need to be clarified in cohort studies. We sought to examine the associations of CVH metrics from mid‐ to late‐life with risk of incident deme...
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Dietary components such as berries and fruits are part of the recommended Nordic diet, and are considered having health‐enhancing characteristics. A randomized multi‐center and multi‐domain lifestyle intervention trial FINGER has shown benefits on cognition with dietary guidance, exercise, cognitive training and vascular risk management. Here, we i...
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Background Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with aging and dementia. Impact of lifestyle changes on LTL, and relation to cognition and genetic susceptibility for dementia has not been investigated in randomised controlled trials (RCT). Methods Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability...
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Objective: Study the association of dietary habits and other indicators of lifestyle with dysglycemia in Saudi adults. Methods : In a cross-sectional design, data were obtained from 1403 Saudi adults (⩾20 years), not previously diagnosed with diabetes. Demographics, lifestyle variables and dietary habits were obtained using a predesigned questionna...
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Background: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in adults in Kuwait. Methods: The Kuwait Diabetes Epidemiology Program was a nationally representative, cross-sectional study of diabetes and obesity in Kuwait conducted between 2011 and 2014. The survey sampled 4937 adults in Kuwait aged 20 years or more and rec...
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ABSTRACT Objecti ve: Study the association of dietary habits and other indicators of lifestyle with dysglycemia in Saudi adults. Methods : In a cross-sectional design, data were obtained from 1403 Saudi adults (⩾20 years), not previously diagnosed with diabetes. Demographics, lifestyle variables and dietary habits were obtained using a predesigned...
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Purpose: The suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) has two main splice variants including a membrane bound (ST2) form, which activates the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and a secreted soluble form (sST2), which acts as a decoy receptor for ST2 ligand, interleukin (IL)-33. The...
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Objective: We examined the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) markers and fasting serum immunoreactive insulin (FIRI) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Subjects and methods: This study comprised Periods I and II from January 2007 to May 2009, and from June 2009 to December 2011, respectively. After excluding people...
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Introduction: To evaluate the single association of postpartum β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR), as well as different combinations of postpartum β-cell dysfunction, IR, obesity, and a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with postpartum type 2 diabetes risk. Research design and methods: The study included 1263 women with...
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Background: frailty syndrome is common amongst older people. Low physical activity is part of frailty, but long-term prospective studies investigating leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during the life course as a predictor of frailty are still warranted. The aim of this study is to investigate whether earlier life LTPA predicts frailty in olde...
Preprint
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COVID-19 severity has varied widely, with demographic and cardio-metabolic factors increasing risk of severe reactions to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the underlying mechanisms for this remain uncertain. We investigated phenotypic and genetic factors associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 ( ACE2 ),...
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Full-text available
Diet and other lifestyle habits have been reported to contribute to the development of dyslipidemia in various populations. Therefore, this study investigated the association between dyslipidemia and dietary and other lifestyle practices among Saudi adults. Data were collected from adults (≥20 years) not previously diagnosed with diabetes in a cros...
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Background: The oldest old is the fastest growing age group worldwide and the most prone to severe disability, especially in relation to loss of cognitive function. Improving our understanding of the predictors of cognitive, physical and psychosocial wellbeing among the oldest old can result in substantial benefits for the individuals and for the...