Jaak Panksepp
In memory of

Jaak Panksepp
Washington State University | WSU · College of Veterinary Medicine

About

510
Publications
221,675
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
41,437
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2005 - present
Washington State University
Position
  • Professor and Baily Endowed Chair of Animal Well-Being Science
September 1972 - May 2003
Bowling Green State University
Position
  • Distinguished Research Professor, Emeritus
Description
  • Developed and Taught Affective Neuroscience. Most of the foundational research for "Affective Neuroscience" (Oxford, 1998) was conducted at BGSU

Publications

Publications (510)
Article
Full-text available
Octodon degus is a social caviomorph species that exhibits strong social bonds and robust distress responses to maternal separation. To understand the impact of early social isolation on social motivation, we investigated how social isolation during infancy, associated with repeated restricted interactions with mother and siblings, altered social m...
Article
Full-text available
Recent cross-species research has demonstrated that the neurohormone oxytocin plays a key role in social interaction and cognitive processing of others' emotions. Whereas oxytocin has been shown to influence social approach, trust, and bond formation, a potential role of the oxytocinergic system in blurring or enhancing the ability to differentiate...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated whether positive daily peer-interactions counteract the effects of isolation in Octodon degus. Twenty-five-day-old degus were either isolated (ISO), socially housed (SOCIAL), or isolated and allowed 1-hr daily peer interaction (PARTIAL-ISO). The animals were observed over 4 weeks. Just prior to isolation and after 2 weeks of individ...
Article
Full-text available
As Louis Sander understood, human infants are evolutionarily endowed with emotional minds that allow them to experience themselves as affectively vibrant creatures, who seek to be recognized as important players in the world. If so recognized, they experience themselves as positive individuals; if merely neglected as predetermined beings whose affe...
Article
Full-text available
Handling small animals such as rats can lead to several adverse effects. These include the fear of humans, resistance to handling, increased injury risk for both the animals and the hands of their handlers, decreased animal welfare, and less valid research data. To minimize negative effects on experimental results and human-animal relationships, re...
Article
Full-text available
Results of recent work from our labs and those of others have broadened perspectives on addiction beyond a human-specific, cognitive phenomenon. Addictive plant alkaloids are defensive compounds which have arisen to counter herbivory. With insects the true targets of the coevolutionary arms race, humans may be little more than collateral damage whe...
Article
Previous studies have found that high neuroticism, low agreeableness, as well as high anger are associated with vengefulness. The aim of the present study was to investigate these associations in more detail. For example, we have included the extent to which trait ANGER may be associated with vengefulness by using the Affective Neuroscience Persona...
Article
Full-text available
Psychologists usually considered the “Self” as an object of experience appearing when the individual perceives its existence within the conscious field. In accordance with such a view, the self-representing capacity of the human mind has been related to corticolimbic learning processes taking place within individual development. On the other hand,...
Article
Full-text available
Tramadol is widely prescribed for treating acute and chronic forms of pain. It is a weak mu-receptor opioid agonist and also increases concentrations of serotonin and noradrenaline within the limbic system of the brain. The therapeutic range of tramadol is relatively wide. Compared with other opioid agonists, there is little risk for developing tol...
Article
Full-text available
The present article highlights important concepts of personality including stability issues from the perspective of situational demands and stability over the life-course. Following this more introductory section, we argue why individual differences in primary emotional systems may represent the phylogenetically oldest parts of human personality. O...
Chapter
Primal emotional feelings are an optimal way to make scientific progress on the neural constitution of consciousness. Such research has revealed the existence of profound neuroanatomical and neurochemical homologies in the systems that control emotionality in mammalian and avian species. Wherever in their brains one applies localized Deep Brain Sti...
Article
Full-text available
Internet addiction represents an emerging global health issue. Increasing efforts have been made to characterize risk factors for the development of Internet addiction and consequences of excessive Internet use. During the last years, classic research approaches from psychology considering personality variables as vulnerability factor, especially i...
Article
Internet addiction represents an emerging global health issue. Increasing efforts have been made to characterize risk factors for the development of Internet addiction and consequences of excessive Internet use. During the last years, classic research approaches from psychology considering personality variables as vulnerability factor, especially i...
Article
Background: The present study investigated individual differences in the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS), representing measures of primary emotional systems, and depressive tendencies in two independent samples. Methods: In order to be able to find support for a continuum model with respect to the relation of strength in the cro...
Chapter
Full-text available
Affective shifts are critical factors in our decision-making with respect to all our survival concerns, including high cognitive ones such as those related to our economic investments and divestments. A critical emotional system, not commonly considered in neuroeconomics, is our primary process subcortical SEEKING system that regulates our explorat...
Chapter
During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed...
Article
Full-text available
Emotional facial expressions provide important insights into various valenced feelings of humans. Recent cross-species neuroscientific advances offer insights into molecular foundations of mammalian affects and hence, by inference, the related emotional/affective facial expressions in humans. This is premised on deep homologies based on affective n...
Article
The "affective" and "cognitive" neuroscience approaches to understanding emotion (AN and CN, respectively) represent potentially synergistic, but as yet unreconciled, theoretical perspectives, which may in part stem from the methods that these distinct perspectives routinely employ - one focusing on animal brain emotional systems (AN) and one on di...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated whether music-induced aesthetic “chill” responses, which typically correspond to peak emotional experiences, can be objectively monitored by degree of pupillary dilation. Participants listened to self-chosen songs versus control songs chosen by other participants. The experiment included an active condition where participants m...
Article
There is a longstanding tradition that connects temperament pathology and personality disorders. Emotions are the major constituents of temperament. In mammals, seven primary emotions have been identified: SEEKING, FEAR, CARE, RAGE, SADNESS/PANIC, LUST and PLAY. The study aimed at exploring the relationship between primary emotions and personality...
Poster
Understanding and responding to the wellbeing of an animal is an important task for captive wild animal caretakers and researchers. A holistic approach to animal welfare considers physical and psychological aspects, including an animal’s affective state. All vertebrates appear to have a capacity for primal affective feelings that serve an essential...
Article
Background: Positive emotions have been shown to induce resilience to depression and anxiety in humans, as well as increase cognitive abilities (learning, memory and problem solving) and improve overall health. In rats, frequency modulated 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (Hedonic 50-kHz USVs) reflect a positive affective state and are best elicite...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated for the first time the relative importance of genetics and environment on individual differences in primary emotionality as measured with the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS) by means of a twin-sibling study design. In N = 795 participants (n = 303 monozygotic twins, n = 172 dizygotic twins and n = 267...
Chapter
Full-text available
The scientific interest in caviomorph rodents as possible animal models for social and affective neuroscience is increasing in a remarkable way. The present contribution reviews the literature on the social behavior of caviomorph species, with an emphasis on domestic guinea pigs and Octodon degus. After providing an overview of the developmental mi...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to explore the relations between gambling, brain emotion systems, personality, self/other perception, and hopelessness in an Italian community. Dimensions of gambling, positive and negative emotions, self/other perception, personality and hopelessness were assessed in a community sample of 235 adults aged 19-59 years. Two...
Article
The diversity of factors that may contribute to autism is enormous. Some lead to therapeutic ideas, most do not. Our own early work focused on possible endogenous opioid excesses in the brain, which lead to the use of low doses of naltrexone (LDN, 0.25 mg/kg, every other day, orally administered). The history of such an intervention is summarized....
Article
The neural correlates of human emotions are easy to harvest. In contrast, the neural constitution of emotional feelings in humans has resisted systematic scientific analysis. This review summarizes how preclinical affective neuroscience initiatives are making progress in decoding the neural nature of such feelings in animal brains. This has been ac...
Article
Objective: Suicidal ideation and behavior currently have no quick-acting pharmacological treatments that are suitable for independent outpatient use. Suicidality is linked to mental pain, which is modulated by the separation distress system through endogenous opioids. The authors tested the efficacy and safety of very low dosages of sublingual bup...
Article
Full-text available
Preclinical animal models of psychiatric disorders are of critical importance for advances in development of new psychiatric medicine. Regrettably, behavior-only models have yielded no novel targeted treatments during the past half-century of vigorous deployment. This may reflect the general neglect of experiential aspects of animal emotions, since...
Article
Full-text available
Lane et al. are right: Troublesome memories can be therapeutically recontextualized. Reconsolidation of negative/traumatic memories within the context of positive/prosocial affects can facilitate diverse psychotherapies. Although neural mechanisms remain poorly understood, we discuss how nonlinear dynamics of various positive affects, heavily contr...
Article
Full-text available
Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that is active in the central nervous system and is generally considered to be involved in prosocial behaviors and feelings. In light of its documented positive effect on maternal behaviour, we designed a study to ascertain whether oxytocin exerts any therapeutic effects on depressive symptoms in women affected by materna...
Article
Full-text available
Although most aspects of world and self-consciousness are inherently subjective, neuroscience studies in humans and non-human animals provide correlational and causative indices of specific links between brain activity and representation of the self and the world. In this article we review neuroanatomic, neurophysiological and neuropsychological da...
Article
Major depressive disorder has been associated with abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (FC), especially in cognitive processing and emotional regulation networks. Although studies have found abnormal FC in regions of the default mode network (DMN), no study has investigated the FC of specific regions within the anterior DMN based on cyto...
Article
Neither experimental psychology nor neuroscience has made much progress in understanding the constitution (the hard-problem) of consciousness, although affective issues are finally being intensively considered. Miskovic and colleagues provide a penetrating essay into the problem and the conceptual advances being made, without sufficient considerati...
Article
The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order...
Article
Mammalian brains contain at least 7 primal emotional systems - SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC and PLAY (capitalization reflects a proposed primary-process terminology, to minimize semantic confusions and mereological fallacies). These systems help organisms feel affectively balanced (e.g. euthymic) and unbalanced (e.g. depressive, irritable...
Article
Full-text available
Mammalian brains contain seven primary-process affective substrates for primal emotional feelings and behaviors. Scientific labels for these interactive systems are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC, and PLAY. Understanding these brain substrates could lead to new treatments of emotional disturbances that accompany mental illnesses. We summari...
Article
Future pre-clinical modeling of psychiatric disorders will need to take animal emotional feelings more seriously than in the past. In his target article, Myron Hofer summarizes a superb research program on the maternal regulation of infant physiologies, progressing toward a gradual opening of the Pandora's Box of animal affective phenomenal conscio...
Article
The brain has many deeply unconscious neural processes, but the realm of phenomenal consciousness (qualia) rather than “awareness” is the critical issue whether there is nothing relevant in mind while so-called “dynamically unconscious” processes are operating in the brain. Concepts such as “conscious awareness” are one step above phenomenal experi...
Article
Abundant evidence, often ignored in discussions of cognitive consciousness, is that raw affective experiences arise from diverse subcortical emotional, motivational (body homeostatic), and primal sensory systems (e.g., taste and smell). These primary-process affective systems that generate diverse types of valenced feelings may not be well describe...
Article
Based on evidence for brain affective systems, parceled into six distinct groups (Panksepp, 1998a), it was hypothesized that a great deal of personality variability would be related to strengths and weaknesses found in these six systems. If supported, this hypothesis would provide further evidence for the physiological bases of personality. Persona...
Article
Our basic thesis is that depression is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in mammalian brains, selected as a shutdown mechanism to terminate protracted separation distress (a prototype mammalian emotional state), which, if sustained, would be dangerous for infant mammals. However, this fundamental shutdown mechanism remains available to more mat...
Article
To investigate whether affective experience is linked to the neurodynamics of basic emotional systems, a novel mood-induction procedure was utilized to induce affective changes and observe the neural consequences. The internal motor imagery of laughter and crying (to evoke joy and sadness), along with the affectively neutral task of walk imagery, a...
Article
Based on an interdisciplinary perspective, we discuss how primary-process, anoetic forms of consciousness emerge into higher forms of awareness such as knowledge-based episodic knowing and self-aware forms of higher-order consciousness like autonoetic awareness. Anoetic consciousness is defined as the rudimentary state of affective, homeostatic, an...
Article
In the previous chapter, I summarized how the basic pre-clinical affective neuroscience view of emotional organization of the mammalian brain can facilitate our understanding of human emotional feelings. In this chapter, I will look at the clinical implications of this work, which are substantial, both in the arena of new medication development as...
Article
Cal Izard has provided psychology a robust vision of human emotional feelings. He has addressed the full spectrum of emotional-developmental-cognitive complexities entailed in clarifying seemingly impenetrable mysteries: How do we experience emotions and how do they guide cognitive development? Izard's developmental studies of infant minds integrat...
Article
In one experiment, we attempted to evaluate the role of hearing in juvenile play by inducing deafness in young rats using a single subcutaneous injection of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and kanamycin as described by Bryant et al. (1984). This treatment did not affect play, nor did a regimen of multiple injections. However, evaluation of auditory resp...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Preclinical models of human mood disorders commonly focus on the study of negative affectivity, without comparably stressing the role of positive affects and their ability to promote resilient coping styles. We evaluated the role of background constitutional affect of rats by studying the separation and reunion responses of infants from...
Article
The primal motivational systems of all mammals are constituted of the evolved affective brain networks that gauge key survival issues. However, since progress in functional neuroscience has historically lagged behind conceptual developments in psychological science, motivational processes have traditionally been anchored to behavioral rather than n...
Article
Full-text available
Although signs of empathy have now been well documented in non-human primates, only during the past few years have systematic observations suggested that a primal form of empathy exists in rodents. Thus, the study of empathy in animals has started in earnest. Here we review recent studies indicating that rodents are able to share states of fear, an...
Article
Early childhood autism is characterized by deficits in social approach and play behaviors, socio-emotional relatedness, and communication/speech abnormalities, as well as repetitive behaviors. These core neuropsychological features of autism can be modeled in laboratory rats, and the results may be useful for drug discovery and therapeutic developm...