J Scott Long

J Scott Long
Indiana University Bloomington | IUB

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Publications

Publications (89)
Article
Many research questions involve comparing predictions or effects across multiple models. For example, it may be of interest whether an independent variable’s effect changes after adding variables to a model. Or, it could be important to compare a variable’s effect on different outcomes or across different types of models. When doing this, marginal...
Article
Methods for group comparisons using predicted probabilities and marginal effects on probabilities are developed for regression models for binary outcomes. Unlike approaches based on the comparison of regression coefficients across groups, the methods we propose are unaffected by the scalar identification of the coefficients and are expressed in the...
Article
The WHO’s International Studies of Schizophrenia conclude that schizophrenia amay have a more benign course in “developing” societies than in the West. The authors focus on this finding’s most common corollary: cultural schemata are shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeins...
Article
Epidemiologic studies of sexual function problems in men have focused on the individual male and related sociodemographic characteristics, individual risk factors and lifestyle concomitants, or medical comorbidities. Insufficient attention has been given to the role of sexual and relationship satisfaction and, more particularly, to the perspective...
Article
Despite the growth of mixed methods, little attention has focused on the specific challenges of conducting mixed methods research on sexual experience and perceptions of sexuality. This paper’s purpose is to discuss the exploratory sequential design of, and methodological considerations originally arising from, a mixed methods pilot project that ex...
Article
The current research reports a dyadic analysis of sexual satisfaction, relationship happiness, and correlates of these couple outcomes in a large multinational dataset consisting of 1,009 midlife heterosexual couples (2,018 individuals) recruited in Japan, Brazil, Germany, Spain, and the United States (Heiman et al., 2011). Actor-Partner Interdepen...
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Full-text available
Objectives: We used the Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study to assess the core sentiments that represent consistent, salient public health intervention targets. Methods: Data from 16 countries employed a nationally representative sampling strategy, international collaboration for instrument development, and case vignettes with Diagnosti...
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Sexuality research focuses almost exclusively on individuals rather than couples, though ongoing relationships are very important for most people and cultures. The present study was the first to examine sexual and relationship parameters of middle-aged and older couples in committed relationships of 1-51 years duration. Survey research was conducte...
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Clinicians, advocates, and policy makers have presented mental illnesses as medical diseases in efforts to overcome low service use, poor adherence rates, and stigma. The authors examined the impact of this approach with a 10-year comparison of public endorsement of treatment and prejudice. The authors analyzed responses to vignettes in the mental...
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In the United States, considerable attention has been directed to sexual behaviors of black and white adolescents, particularly age at first sexual experience and the prevalence of teenage pregnancies. More limited attention has been paid to comparing established sexual relationships in these two racial groups. In this study, we used a national pro...
Article
The SPost user package (Long and Freese, 2006, Regression Models for Categorical Dependent Variables Using Stata [Stata Press]) is a suite of postestimation commands to compute additional tests and effects representations for a variety of regression models. To facilitate and automate the task of tabulating results from SPost commands for inclusion...
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The availability of cross-national survey data has grown exponentially in recent years. While much attention has been paid to increasing the comparability of indicators across countries, less has been done to increase the comparability of measurement models. This article examines the implicit assumptions of four different approaches to measurement...
Book
The Workflow of Data Analysis Using Stata, by J. Scott Long, is a productivity tool for data analysts. Long guides you toward streamlining your workflow, because a good workflow is essential for replicating your work, and replication is essential for good science. A workflow of data analysis is a process for managing all aspects of data analysis. P...
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This article describes both sociological and genetic theories of illness causation and derives propositions expected under each and under a transdisciplinary theoretical frame. The authors draw propositions from three theories -- fundamental causes, social stress processes, and social safety net theories -- and tailor hypotheses to the case of alco...
Article
Rapid changes in women's labor force participation, access to good jobs, and changing work-family pressures have altered the landscape of work and family life. We use logit negative binomial hurdle models to examine whether these countervailing trends have affected the physical health of women across four birth cohorts. Longitudinal data are used t...
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Self-reported discrimination is linked to diminished well-being, but the processes generating these reports remain poorly understood. Employing the life course perspective, this paper examines the correspondence between expected age preferences for workers and perceived age discrimination among a nationally representative sample of 7,225 working wo...
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The purpose of this study was to estimate educational differences in the prevalence and mortality consequence of physical vulnerability among older adults in the United States. Data came from the 1998 and 2000 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of community-based adults...
Article
The multinomial logit model is perhaps the most commonly used regression model for nominal outcomes in the social sciences. A concern raised by many researchers, however, is the assumption of the independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA) that is implicit in the model. In this article, the authors undertake a series of Monte Carlo simulations to...
Article
This presentation examines methods for interpreting regression models for categorical outcomes using predicted values. The talk begins with a simple example using basic commands in Stata. It builds on this example to show how more advanced programming features in Stata along with commands in Long and Freese's SPost package can be used in more compl...
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Full-text available
The prevalence of erectile difficulties (ED) and problems with rapid ejaculation (RE) were studied in a convenience sample of gay men (n = 1379) and an age-matched sample of heterosexual men (n = 1558). ED was reported more frequently by gay men and RE more frequently by heterosexual men. The heterosexual men were more likely to be in exclusive rel...
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We discuss methods for computing confidence intervals for predictions and discrete changes in predictions for regression models for categorical outcomes. The methods include endpoint transformation, the delta method, and bootstrap- ping. We also describe an update to prvalue and prgen from the SPost package, which adds the ability to compute confid...
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In this research we explored three aspects of personality relevant to sexual activity and sexual risk taking in heterosexual men. Men with low inhibition of sexual arousal in the face of risk (low SIS2) reported more partners with whom they use no condoms and more lifetime "one night stands." Men who experience increased sexual interest in states o...
Article
To strengthen the foundations for the use of survey-based measures of functional limitations and to explore associations between limitations in a variety of activities across the adult life course. Five panels of data from the young and mature women's cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys are used to (a) examine patterns of limitations in ac...
Article
Functional limitation is a central concept in the disability process, but its operationalization has varied widely, making it impossible to compare results across studies. Our goal is to systematically compare the effectiveness of alternative measures of functional limitations to predict disability and to provide guidelines for their standardizatio...
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This paper examined the relationship of three aspects of personality to sexual risk-taking in gay men: (1). sexual arousability, as propensity for sexual excitation, and propensity for inhibition of sexual arousal in the face of threat (measured by the Sexual Excitation, SES, and Sexual Inhibition, SIS1, SIS2, scales); (2). the relation between neg...
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Science is an institution with immense inequality in career attainments. Women and most minorities, as groups, have lower levels of participation, position, productivity, and recognition than do white men. Research in the sociology of science has focused on the degree to which different outcomes have resulted from universalistic and from particular...
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Full-text available
As a consequence of the impact of Viagra on male sexual dysfunction, considerable attention is now being paid to sexual dysfunctions in women, which might respond to pharmacological treatment. Should women's sexual problems be conceptualized in the same way as men's? The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of distress about sexuali...
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This paper reports on a study of individual variability in the relationship between negative mood and sexuality in men. Part 1 involves a questionnaire survey of 919 white heterosexual men, asking what typically happens to sexual interest and response when (a) depressed and (b) anxious/stressed, using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ). Tra...
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We were critical of Laumann, Paik, and Rosen’s (1999) study and are not surprised that they want to respond to ours. Our main concern with their study was with their use of the term “sexual dysfunction,” rather than “sexual problem” or “difficulty,” and their widely cited conclusion that 43% of American women have a “sexual dysfunction.” The dictio...
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The legal revolution highlighted by the quote from historian Margaret Rossiter grew out of the resurgence of the women’s movement in the late 1960s and dramatic changes in our society’s view of the role of women at home and in the workplace. The effects of these changes are reflected in the rapid and remarkable inereases in the presenee and partici...
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We use population projection methods to show how the age and sex structure of a field can severely limit women's representation in tenure-track and full professor positions. Our results illustrate the difficulties researchers face when they use data on representation to assess levels of discrimination against women in hiring and promotion.
Article
The post-estimation command prcounts for generating predicted probabilities after using poisson, nbreg, zip, and zinb is introduced and illustrated. Copyright 2001 by Stata Corporation.
Book
Regression Models for Categorical Dependent Variables Using Stata, 2nd Edition, by J. Scott Long and Jeremy Freese, shows how to fit and interpret regression models for categorical data with Stata. Nearly 50% longer than the previous edition, the book covers new topics for fitting and interpretating models included in Stata 9, such as multinomial p...
Article
Although Stata has made estimating regression models for categorical and count outcomes virtually as fast and easy as estimating the familiar regression model for continuous outcomes, interpreting the results from the former is complicated by the nonlinear relationship between the independent variables and the dependent quantities of interest (i.e....
Article
In the presence of heteroscedasticity, ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates are unbiased, but the usual tests of significance are generally inappropriate and their use can lead to incorrect inferences. Tests based on a heteroscedasticity consistent covariance matrix (HCCM), however, are consistent even in the presence of heteroscedasticity of an...
Article
fitstat is a post-estimation command that computes a variety of measures of fit for many kinds of regression models. It works after the following: clogit, cnreg, cloglog, intreg, logistic, logit, mlogit, nbreg, ocratio, ologit, oprobit, poisson, probit, regress, zinb, and zip. With the saving() and using() options, it can also be used to compare fi...
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There are several methods that can be used to effectively interpret the results of regression models for categorical dependent variables. Each of these methods requires the analyst to complete post estimation computations of the estimated parameters. Generally speaking, the estimated coefficients cannot be meaningfully interpreted without additiona...
Article
In the presence of heteroscedasticity, OLS estimates are unbiased, but the usual tests of significance are inconsistent. However, tests based on a het- eroscedasticity consistent covariance matrix (HCCM) are consistent. While most applications using a HCCM appear to be based on the asymptotic version of the HCCM, there are three additional, relativ...
Article
GAUSS can be used in a variety of ways for statistical computing. Most simply, it is an interactive matrix calculator It is also a standard statistical package in which you specify the data variables, and type of analysis and let the program do the computations. And, finally, GAUSS is a powerful matrix programming language that is ideal for statist...
Article
Full-text available
Science is an institution with immense inequality in career attainments. Women and most minorities, as groups, have lower levels of participation, position, productivity, and recognition than do white men. Research in the sociology of science has focused on the degree to which different outcomes have resulted from universalistic and from particular...
Article
Introduction - Kenneth A Bollen and J Scott Long Multifaceted Conceptions of Fit in Structural Equation Models - J S Tanaka Monte Carlo Evaluations of Goodness-of-Fit Indices for Structural Equation Models - David W Gerbing and James C Anderson Some Specification Tests for the Linear Regression Model - J Scott Long and Pravin K Trivedi Bootstrappin...
Article
Advancement in rank is critically important to the career of an academic scientist, and the highly visible nature of the event makes it ideal for studying stratification in science. Concern with universalistic factors in promotion has prompted debates over two issues. First, why do female scientists advance more slowly than male scientists, and why...
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Full-text available
A great deal of recent work in econometrics has focused on the development of tests to detect violations of the assumptions of ordinary least squares regression. These tests are referred to collectively as specification tests. This article evaluates some important and computationally convenient specification tests for the normal regression model as...
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Satisfactory and robust explanations of sex differences in scientific productivity remain elusive. This article provides a multidimensional, longitudinal description of the productivity of male and female biochemists. Several findings have implications for explaining differences in productivity. Sex differences in the numbers of publications and ci...
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The sociology of science has clearly established the presence of sex differences in scientific productivity and position. This article examines the processes leading to the lower productivity of female scientists at the completion of their doctoral training. Collaboration with the mentor is found to be the most important factor affecting productivi...
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Incl. bibliographical references
Article
Multinomial logit analysis is a statistical technique for relating a set of continuous or discrete independent variables to a categorical dependent variable. The availability of statistical software and the publication of review articles dealing with logit analysis has resulted in increasing applications of the model. These applications have been l...
Article
The mentor plays an important role in initiating a process of cumulative advantage for the student. Our analyses present a clear and systematic pattern of effects of the mentor on the careers of biochemists. The influence of the mentor begins with collaboration, which is the single most important factor affecting the student's predoctoral productiv...
Article
Since Goodman's introduction of log-linear models to social scientists in 1972, the technique has become a basic tool. Applications have been limited, however, by a serious misunderstanding of the interpretation of parameters in log-linear models. The problem arises from attempts to interpret the parameters as though they are similar to regression...
Article
The hypothesis of cumulative advantage is widely accepted in the sociology of science, but empirical tests have been few and equivocal. One approach, originated by Allison and Stewart (1974), is to see whether inequality of productivity and recognition increases as a cohort of scientists ages. This paper extends their work by examining true cohorts...
Article
Conclusion With the research byLong, Allison andMcGinnis, Cole andCole, an-Garfield an initial understanding of the consequences of multiple authorship for empirical studies of science is emerging.9 It is too early to suggest, asLong andMcGinnis do, that indices which disgegard multiple authorship are without serious short-comings. The best advise...
Article
The careers of 557 biochemists are studied in order to answer the following questions: Who gets postdoctoral training and why? How does such training affect subsequent employment opportunities? Does postdoctoral training increase later research productivity? Results show that predoctoral research productivity has no effect on who gets postdoctoral...
Article
An earlier study found that while a scientist's productivity does not affect the prestige of the academic position obtained, the prestige of the position does affect later productivity. In this paper consideration of contextual effects is broadened to include differing organizational contexts of scientific employment. Chances of obtaining employmen...
Article
This paper explores the possible measurable effects of mentors (major professors) on the subsequent productivity of the mentor's students. Also asked is whether there are benefits to the productive scientist who acts as a mentor. Analysis is based on a population of male biochemists (N=66) who obtained their doctorates in 1957, 1958, 1962, and 1963...
Article
This paper examines the interrelationship between scientific productivity and academic position, two key dimensions of the scientific career. Contrary to the results of most earlier studies, the effect of departmental location on productivity is found to be strong, whereas the effect of productivity on the allocation of positions is found to be wea...
Article
This paper reviews Joreskog's model for the analysis of covariance structures by first introducing the simpler case of confirmatory factor analysis. The mathematical results necessary for estimation and hypothesis testing are presented in a way which should be more accessible to sociologists than the original sources. The usefulness of Joreskog's t...
Article
should be used as a text in graduate-level courses on sturctural equation models to augment the standard textbooks (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Full-text available
Let G(β) be some function, such as predicted probabilities from a logit or ordinal logit model. The Taylor series expansion of G(b β) is G(b β )= G(β )+( b β − β)0G0(β )+( b β − β)0G00(β∗)(b β − β)/2 (2) ≈ G(β )+( b β − β)0G0(β) , where G0(β) and G00(β) are matrices of first and second partial derivatives with respect to β, β∗ is some value between...