J. Emmett Duffy

J. Emmett Duffy
Smithsonian Institution · Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network

PhD

About

261
Publications
208,148
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
35,783
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 1994 - September 2015
Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Position
  • Glucksman Professor of Marine Science

Publications

Publications (261)
Article
Conservation efforts have traditionally addressed the threat of biodiversity loss by prioritizing regions and habitats with high endemic species richness. However, species‐poor habitats often harbour distinct, valuable and/or functionally unique species that contribute to regional diversity. In the tropical marine realm, the ‘mangrove‐seagrass‐cora...
Article
Full-text available
Distribution of Earth’s biomes is structured by the match between climate and plant traits, which in turn shape associated communities and ecosystem processes and services. However, that climate–trait match can be disrupted by historical events, with lasting ecosystem impacts. As Earth’s environment changes faster than at any time in human history,...
Article
Although eusocial animals often achieve ecological dominance in the ecosystems where they occur, many populations are unstable, resulting in local extinction. Both patterns may be linked to the characteristic demography of eusocial species—high reproductive skew and reproductive division of labor support stable effective population sizes that make...
Article
Full-text available
The roles of marine microbiomes in disease remain poorly understood due, in part, to the challenging nature of sampling at appropriate spatiotemporal scales and across natural gradients of disease throughout host ranges. This is especially true for marine vascular plants like eelgrass ( Zostera marina ) that are vital for ecosystem function and bio...
Article
Full-text available
Early naturalists suggested that predation intensity increases toward the tropics, affecting fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes by latitude, but empirical support is still limited. Several studies have measured consumption rates across latitude at large scales, with variable results. Moreover, how predation affects prey community com...
Article
Early naturalists suggested that predation intensity increases toward the tropics, affecting fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes by latitude, but empirical support is still limited. Several studies have measured consumption rates across latitude at large scales, with variable results. Moreover, how predation affects prey community com...
Article
Early naturalists suggested that predation intensity increases toward the tropics, affecting fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes by latitude, but empirical support is still limited. Several studies have measured consumption rates across latitude at large scales, with variable results. Moreover, how predation affects prey community com...
Article
People depend on biodiversity—the heart of healthy ecosystems—in many ways and every day of our lives. Yet usable knowledge of marine life is a missing link in the way we have designed marine observing and information systems. We lack critical biodiversity information to inform sustainable development from local levels to global scales—information...
Article
Full-text available
Ocean warming endangers coastal ecosystems through increased risk of infectious disease, yet detection, surveillance, and forecasting of marine diseases remain limited. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows provide essential coastal habitat and are vulnerable to a temperature‐sensitive wasting disease caused by the protist Labyrinthula zosterae. We ass...
Article
Marine Life 2030 is a programme endorsed by the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (the Ocean Decade) to establish a globally coordinated system that delivers knowledge of ocean life to those who need it, promoting human well-being, sustainable development, and ocean conservation. It is an open network to unite exist...
Article
Full-text available
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a key tool for achieving goals for biodiversity conservation and human well-being, including improving climate resilience and equitable access to nature. At a national level, they are central components in the U.S. commitment to conserve at least 30% of U.S. waters by 2030. By definition, the primary goal of an MPA...
Article
Full-text available
While considerable evidence exists of biogeographic patterns in the intensity of species interactions, the influence of these patterns on variation in community structure is less clear. Studying how the distributions of traits in communities vary along global gradients can inform how variation in interactions and other factors contribute to the pro...
Article
Full-text available
Changing biodiversity alters ecosystem functioning in nature, but the degree to which this relationship depends on the taxonomic identities rather than the number of species remains untested at broad scales. Here, we partition the effects of declining species richness and changing community composition on fish community biomass across >3000 coral a...
Article
Full-text available
Maintaining healthy, productive ecosystems in the face of pervasive and accelerating human impacts including climate change requires globally coordinated and sustained observations of marine biodiversity. Global coordination is predicated on an understanding of the scope and capacity of existing monitoring programs, and the extent to which they use...
Article
Full-text available
Herbivores, omnivores, and predators transfer energy and structure the communities of many coastal marine ecosystems, and the intensity with which they consume prey and contribute to ecosystem functioning varies substantially among habitats over short time periods. Whether generalities across habitats might emerge for longer time series and using s...
Article
Full-text available
To better understand the decline of one of earth’s most biodiverse habitats, coral reefs, many survey programs employ regular photographs of the benthos. An emerging challenge is the time required to annotate the large volume of digital imagery generated by these surveys. Here, we leverage existing machine-learning tools (CoralNet) and develop new...
Article
Full-text available
Marine multicellular organisms host a diverse collection of bacteria, archaea, microbial eukaryotes, and viruses that form their microbiome. Such host-associated microbes can significantly influence the host’s physiological capacities; however, the identity and functional role(s) of key members of the microbiome (“core microbiome”) in most marine h...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the ecological interactions that enhance the resilience of threatened ecosystems is essential in assuring their conservation and restoration. Top‐down trophic interactions can increase resilience to bottom‐up nutrient enrichment, however, as many seagrass ecosystems are threatened by both eutrophication and trophic modifications, unde...
Article
Full-text available
Seagrass meadows are valued coastal habitats that provide ecological and economic benefits around the world. Despite their importance, many meadows are in decline, driven by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. While these declines have been well documented in some regions, other locations (particularly within the tropics) lack long-term monitoring...
Article
Human activities degrade and fragment coastal marine habitats, reducing their structural complexity and making habitat edges a prevalent seascape feature. Though habitat edges frequently are implicated in reduced faunal survival and biodiversity, results of experiments on edge effects have been inconsistent, calling for a mechanistic approach to th...
Article
Full-text available
The global distribution of primary production and consumption by humans (fisheries) is well-documented, but we have no map linking the central ecological process of consumption within food webs to temperature and other ecological drivers. Using standardized assays that span 105° of latitude on four continents, we show that rates of bait consumption...
Preprint
Eusocial animals often achieve ecological dominance in the ecosystems where they occur, a process that may be linked to their demography. That is, reproductive division of labor and high reproductive skew in eusocial species is predicted to result in more stable effective population sizes that may make groups more competitive, but also lower effect...
Article
Coordinating the Implementation of Mangrove and Seagrass Essential Observations: A joint GOOS/MBON community outreach workshop to implement EOV/EBVs (Sea Plants Workshop), Consortium for Ocean Leadership; Washington, D.C., 10–11 June 2019
Article
Full-text available
The significance of symbioses between eukaryotic hosts and microbes extends from the organismal to the ecosystem level and underpins the health of Earth’s most threatened marine ecosystems. Despite rapid growth in research on host-associated microbes, from individual microbial symbionts to host-associated consortia of significantly relevant taxa, l...
Preprint
Full-text available
The significance of mutualisms between eukaryotic hosts and microbes extends from the organismal to the ecosystem level, and mutualistic symbioses underpin the health of Earth’s most threatened marine ecosystems. Despite rapid growth in research on host-associated microbes (microbiomes), very little is known about their interactions for the vast ma...
Preprint
Full-text available
The significance of mutualisms between eukaryotic hosts and microbes extends from the organismal to the ecosystem level, and mutualistic symbioses underpin the health of Earth’s most threatened marine ecosystems. Despite rapid growth in research on host-associated microbes (microbiomes), very little is known about their interactions for the vast ma...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs are in global decline. Reversing this trend is a primary management objective but doing so depends on understanding what keeps reefs in desirable states (ie “functional”). Although there is evidence that coral reefs thrive under certain conditions (eg moderate water temperatures, limited fishing pressure), the dynamic processes that pro...
Article
Full-text available
Development of global ocean observing capacity for the biological EOVs is on the cusp of a step-change. Current capacity to automate data collection and processing and to integrate the resulting data streams with complementary data, openly available as FAIR data, is certain to dramatically increase the amount and quality of information and knowledg...
Article
Full-text available
In coastal waters around the world, the dominant primary producers are benthic macrophytes, including seagrasses and macroalgae, that provide habitat structure and food for diverse and abundant biological communities and drive ecosystem processes. Seagrass meadows and macroalgal forests play key roles for coastal societies, contributing to fishery...
Article
Full-text available
Developing enduring capacity to monitor ocean life requires investing in people and their institutions to build infrastructure, ownership, and long-term support networks. International initiatives can enhance access to scientific data, tools and methodologies, and develop local expertise to use them, but without ongoing engagement may fail to have...
Article
Despite the importance of coastal ecosystems for the global carbon budgets, knowledge of their carbon storage capacity and the factors driving variability in storage capacity is still limited. Here we provide an estimate on the magnitude and variability of carbon stocks within a widely distributed marine foundation species throughout its distributi...
Article
Full-text available
Measurements of the status and trends of key indicators for the ocean and marine life are required to inform policy and management in the context of growing human uses of marine resources, coastal development, and climate change. Two synergistic efforts identify specific priority variables for monitoring: Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) through th...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community-led open-source database of biodiversity time se...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community-led open-source database of biodiversity time se...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community led open-source database of biodiversity time se...
Article
Full-text available
Sustained observations of marine biodiversity and ecosystems focused on specific conservation and management problems are needed around the world to effectively mitigate or manage changes resulting from anthropogenic pressures. These observations, while complex and expensive, are required by the international scientific, governance and policy commu...
Article
Full-text available
Eusociality, one of the most complex forms of social organization, is thought to have evolved in several animal clades in response to competition for resources and reproductive opportunities. Several species of snapping shrimp in the genus Synalpheus, the only marine organisms known to exhibit eusociality, form colonies characterized by high reprod...
Data
R script for reproducing analyses and figures. (R)
Data
Estimated path coefficients from structural equation models fit to each Synalpheus species. Operators denote: ~ = regression, ~~ = correlation. Estimated unstandardized (Unstd.) and standardized (Std.) path coefficients, and p-values for each correlation. (XLSX)
Data
Raw data for specimen measurements and calculations. (CSV)
Data
Mean values for calculated variables. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community-led open-source database of biodiversity time se...
Article
Form–function relationships in plants underlie their ecosystem roles in supporting higher trophic levels through primary production, detrital pathways, and habitat provision. For widespread, phenotypically-variable plants, productivity may differ not only across abiotic conditions, but also from distinct morphological or demographic traits. A singl...
Article
Full-text available
Latitudinal gradients in species interactions are widely cited as potential causes or consequences of global patterns of biodiversity. However, mechanistic studies documenting changes in interactions across broad geographic ranges are limited. We surveyed predation intensity on common prey (live amphipods and gastropods) in communities of eelgrass...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence from insects and vertebrates suggests that cooperation may have enabled species to expand their niches, becoming ecological generalists and dominating the ecosystems in which they occur. Consistent with this idea, eusocial species of sponge-dwelling Synalpheus shrimps from Belize are ecological generalists with a broader host breadth and h...
Article
Full-text available
Among the most enduring ecological challenges is an integrated theory explaining the latitudinal biodiversity gradient, including discrepancies observed at different spatial scales. Analysis of Reef Life Survey data for 4127 marine species at 2406 coral and rocky sites worldwide confirms that the total ecoregion richness peaks in low latitudes, nea...
Article
More than 500 controlled experiments have collectively suggested that biodiversity loss reduces ecosystem productivity and stability. Yet the importance of biodiversity in sustaining the world's ecosystems remains controversial, largely because of the lack of validation in nature, where strong abiotic forcing and complex interactions are assumed to...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have examined the combined effects of nutrients (bottom-up control) and consumers (top-down control) on ecosystem structure and functioning. While it is recognized that both can have important effects, there remains a limited understanding of how their relative importance shifts across large spatial scales where consumer functional...
Article
Molecular markers are powerful tools for studying patterns of relatedness and parentage within populations and for making inferences about social evolution. However, the development of molecular markers for simultaneous study of multiple species presents challenges, particularly when species exhibit genome duplication or polyploidy. We developed mi...
Article
New tools, such as passive acoustic monitoring, can be helpful for measuring levels of biodiversity in habitats that are otherwise difficult to sample. Here, we tested the utility of acoustic measurements in shallow coastal waters by conducting short-term simultaneous bioacoustic and biodiversity surveys in four habitat types on the Caribbean coast...