J. Cascalheira

J. Cascalheira
Universidade do Algarve | UALG · ICArEHB - Interdisciplinary Center for Archaeology and the Evolution of Human Behaviour

Ph.D.

About

106
Publications
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Publications

Publications (106)
Article
Recent studies on the Mesolithic shellmiddens of the Muge valley (Central Portugal) indicate that these sites must have had, by their size, aspect and integration in an increasing socially complex cultural system, a major impact on the landscape as monumental anthropogenic features. Their role as landmarks and, most probably, as centers for differe...
Article
This paper will focus on the ecology of the first Anatomically Modern Humans in SW Iberia based on the rock shelter of Vale Boi (Algarve, Portugal), a site with a long stratigraphic record starting with Late Middle Paleolithic followed by early Gravettian, Proto-Solutrean, Solutrean, and Magdalenian. Early Gravettian remains are present in various...
Article
The impact of North Atlantic Heinrich 2 event (HE2) (26.5–24.3 ka cal BP) in Iberia is currently attested by a set of high resolution deep-sea cores, confirming a record of increasing aridity, lowered temperatures, and important changes in the vegetation cover. In Portugal, a reasonable number of archaeological sites are dated to this time-span, wh...
Article
In this paper, we focused on shell bead production during the Upper Paleolithic at the site of Vale Boi in Southwestern Portugal as a means of understanding social visual transmission. Vale Boi has a long sequence dated to between c. 32 and 7 ka cal BP with well-preserved bone and shell assemblages from early Gravettian to Neolithic times. The arch...
Article
The coastal site of Vale Boi is unique in southern Portugal for its well-preserved and lengthy Upper Paleolithic cultural record. The archaeological context of Vale Boi suggests that the site was treated as a seasonal residential camp. Long-term exploitation of marine resources is indicated by marine shellfish remains and tentative evidence of fish...
Article
Full-text available
Species determination based on genetic evidence is an indispensable tool in archaeology, forensics, ecology, and food authentication. Most available analytical approaches involve compromises with regard to the number of detectable species, high cost due to low throughput, or a labor-intensive manual process. Here, we introduce “Species by Proteome...
Article
The use of bipolar (on anvil) methods for resource exploitation has been identified in the archaeological record from the late Pliocene through to the Holocene. During all phases of human evolution, bipolar knapping and wedging were applied by different hominin species in a wide range of ecological settings. Studies on lithic bipolar methods have m...
Article
Full-text available
Blinkhorn et al. 1 present a reanalysis of fossil and lithic material from Garrod's 1928 excavation at Shukbah Cave, identifying the presence of Nubian Levallois cores and points in direct association with a Neanderthal molar. The authors argue that this demonstrates the Nubian reduction strategy forms a part of the wider Middle Palaeolithic lithic...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptation to Late Pleistocene climate change is an oft-cited potential contributor to Neanderthal disappearance in Eurasia. Accordingly, research on Neanderthal behaviour-including subsistence strategies, mobility, lithic technology, raw material procurement and demography-often focuses on linking changes observable in the archaeological record to...
Article
Currently available data on the Pleistocene human occupation of the westernmost territories of Iberia attest to the presence of Middle Palaeolithic industries from c. 240 ka cal bp until c. 37 ka cal bp. Previous studies focusing on this time frame have suggested that Middle Palaeolithic populations were highly mobile and predominately utilised loc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Genetic species determination has become an indispensable tool in forensics, archaeology, ecology, and food authentication. The available methods are either suited for detecting a single taxon across many samples or for screening a wide range of species across a few samples. Here, we introduce "Species by Proteome INvestigation" (SPIN), a proteomic...
Article
Full-text available
Successive generations of hunter–gatherers of the Late Glacial and Early Holocene in Iberia had to contend with rapidly changing environments and climatic conditions. This constrained their economic resources and capacity for demographic growth. The Atlantic façade of Iberia was occupied throughout these times and witnessed very significant environ...
Article
This article, on the Early Neolithic pottery from the Cabeço da Amoreira shellmidden in the Muge region of central Portugal, presents a detailed review of the evidence to date and a systematic analysis of the decorative and mineralogical characteristics of the stratified and radiocarbon-dated ceramic assemblage. A homogenous pottery manufacturing t...
Article
Full-text available
Documenting the first appearance of modern humans in a given region is key to understanding the dispersal process and the replacement or assimilation of indigenous human populations such as the Neanderthals. The Iberian Peninsula was the last refuge of Neanderthal populations as modern humans advanced across Eurasia. Here we present evidence of an...
Article
The Iberian Peninsula is considered one of the most well-suited regions in Europe to develop studies on the relationship between environmental changes and human adaptations across the Late Pleistocene. Due to its southwesternmost cul-de-sac position and eco-geographical diversity, Paleolithic Iberia was the stage of cyclical cultural/technological...
Article
On the Iberian Peninsula, abrupt climate shifts during the Late Pleistocene impacted human and natural systems. Our knowledge of human adaptive responses to these climatic perturbations has improved in recent years with the development of new radiocarbon techniques that have increased the temporal resolution of cultural chronologies. At the same ti...
Article
This study presents the analysis of the lithic assemblages from Layers 5 and 4E (Terrace) of the site of Vale Boi (southern Portugal) and Levels U and T from Lapa do Picareiro (central Portugal). We aimed to understand the technological patterns and raw material exploitation during the Gravettian-Solutrean transition in westernmost Iberia and test...
Poster
In order to better quantify the role of climate variability in southeastern Africa, and its impact on the evolution and spread of anatomically modern humans, our international and interdisciplinary team cored a series of coastal lakes during the summer of 2019. Here, we present data from lake Nyalonzelwe, one of many interdunal lakes present along...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of the first non-invasive stage of analysis of the Early Neolithic pottery assemblage from the shellmidden of Cabeço da Amoreira (Muge, Central Portugal). The assemblage of 201 pottery records was defined on the basis of strict stratigraphic and chronological criteria, supported by the available radiocarbon dates. Th...
Chapter
Full-text available
One of the main elements in prehistoric research is the study of settlement patterns. In the last five decades, stemming partially from Binford’s research on the topic, the idea of settlement patterns is based on site typology, including the traditional residential and logistic concepts. Both models of land use and exploitation are certainly marked...
Chapter
During the Pleistocene, hominins settled and adapted to a broad range of environments and territories using different types of foraging and mobility strategies. Most of these subsistence activities were temporary leaving ephemeral traces of their accomplishment or palimpsests resulting from repeated settlements of the same location. Thus far, the i...
Chapter
This study presents preliminary results from a technological analysis of lithic artefacts from the Mesolithic shellmidden of Cabeço da Amoreira (Muge, Portugal). The main goal was to understand the technological and raw material variability within the two main excavation areas of the site, in order to characterize the different occupation moments....
Article
Full-text available
Climate changes that occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) had significant consequences in human eco-dynamics across Europe. Among the most striking impacts are the demographic contraction of modern humans into southern refugia and the potential formation of a population bottleneck. In Iberia and southern France transformations also includ...
Chapter
In this paper, we focused on the production of shell beads during the Proto-Solutrean at the site of Vale Boi (southern Portugal), found during recent excavations of one of the loci called Terrace. Here, we recovered 14 perforated shells from three different species (Littorina sp., Theodoxus sp. and Antalis sp.) and, despite their quantity show a c...
Book
Full-text available
The book assembles new insights into humanity’s social, cultural and economic developments during the Last Glacial Maximum in Western Europe and adjacent regions. It gathers original, up-to-date research results on the Solutrean techno-complex, reflecting four major fields of research: data from current excavations; analysis of lithic assemblages;...
Article
Full-text available
Scaled or splintered pieces are one of the most common lithic artifact type in Upper Paleolithic assemblages throughout Europe, especially in its westernmost regions. Despite this, and even after one century of being identified, there is still no consensus on how to define, analyze, or interpret these tools. In western Iberia, there is a clear lack...
Presentation
Esta aula pretende apresentar o Projeto InMoz e a sua equipa. Este projeto tem como objetivo investigar as alterações ambientais ao longo do Quaternário na área Sudeste de Moçambique e os seus impactos na evolução humana. Assim, foi feita uma introdução sobre o que são paleoambientes e que fatores influenciam a sua evolução (e.g. alterações climáti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to better manage climate risks and to predict environmental resilience, first it is necessary to know about climate changes through time and how different environments react to those changes. However, most paleoenvironmental studies are concentrated in middle to high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. To better understand spatial climat...
Article
Full-text available
The onset of the Holocene is marked by new human ecological adaptations that are associated with the origins of the Mesolithic in the Atlantic Iberia coast. During the Mesolithic, shellmidden deposits become one of the most relevant and interesting prehistoric archeological contexts, interpreted has the result of intensive human ecological exploita...
Preprint
Scaled or splintered pieces are one of the most common lithic artifacts type in Upper Paleolithic assemblages throughout Europe, especially in its westernmost regions. Despite this, and even after one century of being identified there is still no consensus on how to define, analyze or interpret these tools. In western Iberia, there is a clear lack...
Research
Full-text available
From 12th to 14th of October 2017, around 70 researchers from several countries met in Faro to discuss current and future research on the Solutrean, a cultural phase of the Last Glacial Maximum in Europe. To this end, 50 presentations and posters provided insights into ongoing research in Western Europe and beyond.The excursion headed to the import...
Article
Southeast Africa has become an important region for understanding the development of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Anatomically Modern Humans. Due to its location between east and southern Africa, Mozambique is a key region for evaluating the development of Homo sapiens and the MSA across Africa. Here, we present the first results of lithic analys...
Preprint
One of the main elements in prehistoric research is the study of settlement patterns. In the last five decades, stemming partially from Binford’s research on the topic, the idea of settlement patterns is based on site typology, including the traditional residential and logistic concepts. Both models of land use and exploitation are certainly marked...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on preliminary fieldwork at the Later Stone Age site of Txina-Txina in Mozambique. Excavation yielded a long stratigraphic sequence, a large lithic assemblage, a unique decorated gastropod shell fragment and two ostrich eggshell beads—the first of their type recovered from a Stone Age context in Mozambique.
Article
Full-text available
Apesar de existirem algumas referências a grutas no Algarve em documentos anteriores à Idade Contemporânea, foi no dealbar da segunda metade do século XIX que surgiram as primeiras descrições de feição científica, pela obra do geólogo Charles Bonnet. O presente artigo trata as duas cavidades rochosas naturais descritas pelo referido investigador, P...
Article
Recent cross‐disciplinary research in the Iberian Peninsula has revealed a synchronous pattern between rapid climate change and widespread cultural modifications during the Late Paleolithic. The beginning and development of each traditionally defined techno‐complex is thought to be associated with different environmental conditions. A main contrast...
Article
Researchers have long debated the impact of climate change on human culture and particularly in hunter-gatherer societies. Climate drifts, particularly abrupt ones, have been continuingly seen as major prompts for rapid technological and cultural innovation. Recent advances in paleoclimatic reconstructions and ongoing developments in the quality an...
Article
During the 2014 archaeological campaign in the Mesolithic shell midden of Cabeço da Amoreira (Muge, Central Portugal) a concentration over a small area, approximately 1m², of faunal remains with a single taxon (red deer), lithics, charcoal and fire-cracked rocks was identified in one of the shell-rich layers of the mound.Here we present the results...
Article
This paper introduces a new freeware digital system, based on Google/Android platforms, designed to be a fully integrated and customizable solution to record, manage, and share archaeological survey data. The core of the system is two custom smartphone/tablet applications, through which surveyors are able to retrieve geographical coordinates and re...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents new models on the origin, speed and mode of the wave-of-advance leading to the definitive occupation of Europe’s outskirts by Anatomically Modern Humans, during the Gravettian, between c. 37 and 30 ka ago. These models provide the estimation for possible demic dispersal routes for AMH at a stable spread rate of c. 0.7 km/year, w...
Article
Emily Lena Jones . In Search of the Broad Spectrum Revolution in Paleolithic Southwest Europe (Springers Briefs in Archaeology. Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht & London: Springer, 2016, 91pp., 17 figs, 15 tables, pbk, ISBN 978-3-319-22350-6, eBook, ISBN 978-3-319-22351-3, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-22351-3) - Volume 20 Issue 2 - João Cascalheira
Poster
Full-text available
In the framework of the project ”Stone Age Vilankulos: Modern Human Origins Research South of the Rio Save, Mozambique” a geoarchaeological survey was conducted in 2016 aiming to better understand the environmental history and landscape evolution of the study area including the environmental context of human occupation. During the survey, 23 sedime...
Article
It is now rather evident that, concomitant with the advent, growth and disappearance of the traditionally defined Western European Upper Paleolithic techno-complexes, a series of discrete eco-cultural niches would have existed within Iberia. Vale Boi, and its surroundings, may represent one of these niches, since its lengthy and fairly complete arc...
Article
Evidence for the first Neolithic population in central Portugal dates to as early as c. 7600 cal BP. These first farmers were exogenous groups arriving to the Atlantic coast from the Mediterranean Sea. For a few centuries there seems to have occurred an overlap in the region between the Mesolithic Muge hunter-gatherers and the regional early Neolit...
Presentation
Full-text available
Southeast Africa has become an important region to better understand the development of Middle Stone Age and Anatomically Modern Humans. In the last decade, Mozambique and Malawi have received some attention from various researchers, probably because they are between the earliest finds of Anatomically Modern Humans in the Omo Kibish formation and t...
Poster
Full-text available
The central question of this poster focus on the identification of settlement patterns by communities that inhabited the Lunho valley region from c. 300 to c. 20 thousand years ago. Specifically, we tried to identify and characterize the settlement dynamics of each cultural phase (MSA and LSA), in order to verify the existence of resilience or rupt...
Article
Located between modern-day South Africa and Tanzania, both of which have well-known and extensive Stone Age records, Mozambique's Stone Age sequence remains largely unknown in the broader context of African Pleistocene prehistory. Such lack of data occurs despite the key geographical location of the country, in southern Africa at the southeastern t...
Chapter
Unlike other Gravettian contexts in Southern Iberian Peninsula, the Early Gravettian lithic assemblage from the archaeological site of Vale Boi (SW Portugal ) is characterized by the absence of typical backed points, such as Gravettian and Microgravette points. Instead, backed technology is present in the unusual form of bipointed double backed bla...
Article
Full-text available
Under the auspices of the Portuguese colonial government, Lereno Barradas and Santos Júnior (coordinator of the Anthropological Mission of Mozambique) carried out several archaeological field surveys from 1936 to 1956 that resulted in a data set that includes a total of close to 90 sites, mostly attributed to the Stone Age. This early research adde...
Article
The environmental shifts during the Late Pleistocene had major influences in the landscape and, consequently, in the available resources. This had direct impact on human behavior and ecology, requiring people to constantly adjust to new economical conditions. In coastal areas, the retreat of the shoreline during the colder phases might have made av...
Article
Full-text available
Located between modern-day South Africa and Tanzania, both of which have well-known and extensive Stone Age records, Mozambique's Stone Age sequence remains largely unknown in the broader context of African Pleistocene prehistory. Such lack of data occurs despite the key geographical location of the country, in southern Africa at the southeastern t...
Poster
Full-text available
The interpretation of Stone Age settlement patterns in the Lunho valley based on GIS and quantitative analysis to explore a series of simple but important issues in relation to GIS-led survey and to visibility and patterning of archaeological data. We draw on information collected during archaeological field survey, and consider the spatial distrib...
Poster
Full-text available
Located between modern-day South Africa and Tanzania, both of which have well-known and extensive Stone Age records, Mozambique and its Stone Age sequence remain largely unknown in the broader context of African Pleistocene prehistory. This is in spite of the country’s critical position linking southern and eastern Africa, and of its clear potentia...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The human skeletons recovered from the Muge shell middens constitute one of the largest collections in Europe with more than 300 individuals. One of these middens, Cabeço da Amoreira shell mound was identified in 1864 by Carlos Ribeiro. The site produced a total of 47 skeletons during the excavations carried out by Mendes Côrrea, Jean Roche and Rol...
Article
Full-text available
The Solutrean techno-complex has gained particular significance over time for representing a clear demographic and techno-typological deviation from the developments occurred during the course of the Upper Paleolithic in Western Europe. Some of Solutrean's most relevant features are the diversity and techno-typological characteristics of the lithic...
Presentation
Full-text available
Located between modern-day South Africa and Tanzania, both of which have well-known and extensive Stone Age records, Mozambique and its Stone Age sequence remained largely unknown in the broader context of African Pleistocene prehistory. This is in spite of the country’s critical position linking southern and eastern Africa, and of its clear potent...
Poster
Full-text available
Recent studies on the Mesolithic shellmiddens of the Muge valley (Portugal) indicate that these sites must have had, by their size, aspect and integration in an increasing socially complex cultural system, a major impact on the landscape as monumental anthropogenic features. Their role as landmarks and, most probably, as centers for different socia...
Article
In Western Europe, the Upper Paleolithic is marked by clear regional and diachronic technological differences. Some of these are most likely related with human adaptations to the Late Pleistocene environmental shifts. In this paper we focus on the rapid climatic change events and their influence on the Iberian regional ecology and vegetation cover....
Presentation
Full-text available
Os resultados cartográficos apresentados são um primeiro passo para a investigação e conhecimento em Moçambique do padrão de povoamento e a emergência dos homens anatomicamente modernos.
Poster
Full-text available
This poster reports on the preliminary results of one of the recently discovered and tested locations, the Chicaza rockshelter, situated in the Chitete river valley at c. 45 km from the Malawi Lake shore.