# J. David BrownNorth Carolina State University | NCSU · Department of Physics

J. David Brown

PhD

## About

73

Publications

4,197

Reads

**How we measure 'reads'**

A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more

8,580

Citations

Citations since 2017

Introduction

**Skills and Expertise**

## Publications

Publications (73)

Textbook treatments of classical mechanics typically assume that the Lagrangian is nonsingular. That is, the matrix of second derivatives of the Lagrangian with respect to the velocities is invertible. This assumption insures that (i) Lagrange's equations can be solved for the accelerations as functions of coordinates and velocities, and (ii) the d...

The geodesic deviation equation (GDE) describes the tendency of objects to accelerate towards or away from each other due to spacetime curvature. The GDE assumes that nearby geodesics have a small rate of separation, which is formally treated as the same order in smallness as the separation itself. This assumption is discussed in various papers but...

The Dirac–Bergmann algorithm is a recipe for converting a theory with a singular Lagrangian into a constrained Hamiltonian system. Constrained Hamiltonian systems include gauge theories—general relativity, electromagnetism, Yang–Mills, string theory, etc. The Dirac–Bergmann algorithm is elegant but at the same time rather complicated. It consists o...

The Dirac-Bergmann algorithm is a recipe for converting a theory with a singular Lagrangian into a constrained Hamiltonian system. Constrained Hamiltonian systems include gauge theories-general relativity, electromagnetism, Yang Mills, string theory, etc. The Dirac-Bergmann algorithm is elegant but at the same time rather complicated. It consists o...

The geodesic deviation equation (GDE) describes the tendency of objects to accelerate towards or away from each other due to spacetime curvature. The GDE assumes that nearby geodesics have a small rate of separation, which is formally treated as the same order in smallness as the separation itself. This assumption is discussed in various papers, bu...

The general relativistic theory of elasticity is reviewed from a Lagrangian, as opposed to Eulerian, perspective. The equations of motion and stress–energy–momentum tensor for a hyperelastic body are derived from the gauge–invariant action principle first considered by DeWitt. This action is a natural extension of the action for a single relativist...

We show that an effective particle Lagrangian yields the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon (MPD) equations. The spin of the effective particle is defined without any reference to a fixed body frame or angular velocity variable. We then demonstrate that a continuous body, defined by a congruence of world lines and described by a general action, can be rewr...

We present a new fully first order strongly hyperbolic representation of the
BSSN formulation of Einstein's equations with optional constraint damping
terms. We describe the characteristic fields of the system, discuss its
hyperbolicity properties, and present two numerical implementations and
simulations: one using finite differences, adaptive mes...

Moving puncture coordinates are commonly used in numerical simulations of black holes. Their properties for vacuum Schwarzschild black holes have been analyzed in a number of studies. The behavior of moving-puncture coordinates in spacetimes containing matter, however, is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the behavior of these coordin...

The generalized harmonic equations of general relativity are written in 3+1
form. The result is a system of partial differential equations with first order
time and second order space derivatives for the spatial metric, extrinsic
curvature, lapse function and shift vector, plus fields that represent the time
derivatives of the lapse and shift. This...

We study families of time-independent maximal and 1+log foliations of the
Schwarzschild-Tangherlini spacetime, the spherically-symmetric vacuum black
hole solution in D spacetime dimensions, for D >= 4. We identify special
members of these families for which the spatial slices display a trumpet
geometry. Using a generalization of the 1+log slicing...

An action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general
relativity is presented. The action is a functional of the spacetime metric and
the gauge source vector. An action principle for the Z4 formulation of general
relativity has been proposed recently by Bona, Bona--Casas and Palenzuela
(BBP). The relationship between the generaliz...

With the puncture method for black hole simulations, the second infinity of a wormhole geometry is compactified to a single "puncture point" on the computational grid. The region surrounding the puncture quickly evolves to a trumpet geometry. The computational grid covers only a portion of the trumpet throat. It ends at a boundary whose location de...

The Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) and standard gauge equations are written in covariant form with respect to spatial coordinate transformations. The BSSN variables are defined as tensors with no density weights. This allows us to evolve a given set of initial data using two different coordinate systems and to relate the results using th...

We provide a detailed analysis of several aspects of the turduckening technique for evolving black holes. At the analytical level we study the constraint propagation for a family of formulations of Einstein’s field equations and identify under what conditions the turducken procedure is rigorously justified and under what conditions constraint viola...

The ADM Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity with prescribed lapse and shift is a weakly hyperbolic system of partial differential equations. In general weakly hyperbolic systems are not mathematically well posed. For well posedness, the theory should be reformulated so that the complete system, evolution equations plus gauge conditions, i...

To stuff a black hole. We analyze and apply an alternative to black hole excision based on smoothing the interior of black holes with arbitrary initial data, and solving the vacuum Einstein evolution equations everywhere. By deriving the constraint propagation system for our hyperbolic formulation of the BSSN evolution system we rigorously prove th...

The BSSN (Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura) formulation of the Einstein evolution equations is written in spherical symmetry. These equations can be used to address a number of technical and conceptual issues in numerical relativity in the context of a single Schwarzschild black hole. One of the benefits of spherical symmetry is that the numerica...

The moving puncture method is analyzed for a single, non-spinning black hole. It is shown that the puncture region is not resolved by current numerical codes. As a result, the geometry near the puncture appears to evolve to an infinitely long cylinder of finite areal radius. The puncture itself actually remains at spacelike infinity throughout the...

A new technique is presented for modifying the Einstein evolution equations off the constraint hypersurface. With this approach the evolution equations for the constraints can be specified freely. The equations of motion for the gravitational field variables are modified by the addition of terms that are linear and nonlocal in the constraints. Thes...

Numerical algorithms based on variational and symplectic integrators exhibit special features that make them promising candidates for application to general relativity and other constrained Hamiltonian systems. This paper lays part of the foundation for such applications. The midpoint rule for Hamilton's equations is examined from the perspectives...

In this paper, we describe in detail the computational algorithm used by our parallel multigrid elliptic equation solver with adaptive mesh refinement. Our code uses truncation error estimates to adaptively refine the grid as part of the solution process. The presentation includes a discussion of the orders of accuracy that we use for prolongation...

Einstein's theory of general relativity is written in terms of the variables obtained from a conformal--traceless decomposition of the spatial metric and extrinsic curvature. The determinant of the conformal metric is not restricted, so the action functional and equations of motion are invariant under conformal transformations. With this approach t...

Massive black holes (MBHs) that are believed to reside at the centers of all galaxies with bulges will form a binary and coalesce into each other following a galactic merger. The final stage of MBH binary evolution is a strong source of low frequency gravitational waves for the joint NASA/ESA LISA mission. The merging phase of the coalescence will...

We solve for single distorted black hole initial data using the puncture method, where the Hamiltonian constraint is written as an elliptic equation in R^3 for the nonsingular part of the metric conformal factor. With this approach we can generate isometric and non--isometric black hole data. For the isometric case, our data are directly comparable...

We present an algorithm for treating mesh refinement interfaces in numerical relativity. We detail the behavior of the solution near such interfaces located in the strong field regions of dynamical black hole spacetimes, with particular attention to the convergence properties of the simulations. In our applications of this technique to the evolutio...

We study the propagation of waves across fixed mesh refinement boundaries in
linear and nonlinear model equations in 1--D and 2--D, and in the 3--D Einstein
equations of general relativity. We demonstrate that using linear interpolation
to set the data in guard cells leads to the production of reflected waves at
the refinement boundaries. Implement...

Calculation of accurate waveforms generated by the sources likely to be detected by several worldwide gravitational wave (GW) observatories such as LIGO, VIRGO and LISA will play an essential role for the successful detection and interpretation of the signals. Such calculations involve the full Einstein equations in 3-D that must be solved to follo...

We investigate gravitational initial data using a new multigrid elliptic equation solver with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Our elliptic solver determines the grid resolution adaptively during the solution process, allowing us to handle efficiently the multiple length scales present in the initial data. Test results for Brill waves and black hole...

We carry out evolutions of a single black hole in 3-D with mesh
refinement. We evolve the black hole as a "puncture" using a BSSN system
with various slicing conditions. We explore the behavior of the solution
near the mesh refinement boundary, and the evolution of the puncture at
high resolution.

A core-collapse supernova might produce large amplitude gravitational waves if, through the collapse process, the inner core can aquire enough rotational energy to become dynamically unstable. In this report I present the results of 3-D numerical simulations of core collapse supernovae. These simulations indicate that for some initial conditions th...

Dynamical instability is shown to occur in differentially rotating polytropes with N = 3.33 and T/|W| 0.14. This instability has a strong m = 1 mode, although the m = 2, 3, and 4 modes also appear. Such instability may allow a centrifugally hung core to begin collapsing to neutron star densities on a dynamical timescale. The gravitational radiation...

We present a detailed examination of the variational principle for metric general relativity as applied to a quasilocal spacetime region (that is, a region that is both spatially and temporally bounded). Our analysis relies on the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and thereby assumes a foliation of into spacelike hypersurfaces Σ. We all...

A rapidly rotating, axisymmetric star can be dynamically unstable to an m=2 "bar" mode that transforms the star from a disk shape to an elongated bar. The fate of such a bar-shaped star is uncertain. Some previous numerical studies indicate that the bar is short lived, lasting for only a few bar-rotation periods, while other studies suggest that th...

Action functionals describing relativistic perfect fluids are presented. Two of these actions apply to fluids whose equations of state are specified by giving the fluid energy density as a function of particle number density and entropy per particle. Other actions apply to fluids whose equations of state are specified in terms of other choices of d...

Consider the definition E of quasilocal energy stemming from the Hamilton-Jacobi method as applied to the canonical form of the gravitational action. We examine E in the standard "small-sphere limit," first considered by Horowitz and Schmidt in their examination of Hawking's quasilocal mass. By the term "small sphere" we mean a cut S(r), level in a...

We present spherically symmetric black hole solutions for Einstein gravity coupled to anisotropic matter. We show that these black holes have arbitrarily short hair, and argue for stability by showing that they can arise from dynamical collapse. We also show that a recent "no short hair" theorem does not apply to these solutions.

Black hole entropy is derived from a sum over boundary states. The boundary states are labeled by energy and momentum surface densities, and parametrized by the boundary metric. The sum over state labels is expressed as a functional integral with measure determined by the density of states. The sum over metrics is expressed as a functional integral...

Pair creation of electrically charged black holes and its dual process, pair creation of magnetically charged black holes, are considered. It is shown that the creation rates are equal provided the boundary conditions for the two processes are dual to one another. This conclusion follows from a careful analysis of boundary terms and boundary condit...

We define the energy of a perfectly isolated system at a given retarded time
as the suitable null limit of the quasilocal energy $E$. The result coincides
with the Bondi-Sachs mass. Our $E$ is the lapse-unity shift-zero boundary value
of the gravitational Hamiltonian appropriate for the partial system $\Sigma$
contained within a finite topologicall...

This work closes certain gaps in the literature on material reference systems in general relativity. It is shown that perfect fluids are a special case of DeWitt's relativistic elastic media and that the velocity--potential formalism for perfect fluids can be interpreted as describing a perfect fluid coupled to a fleet of clocks. A Hamiltonian anal...

Path integral methods are used to derive a general expression for the entropy of a black hole in a diffeomorphism invariant theory. The result, which depends on the variational derivative of the Lagrangian with respect to the Riemann tensor, agrees with the result obtained from Noether charge methods by Iyer and Wald. The method used here is based...

It is shown that in the instanton approximation the rate of creation of black holes is always enhanced by a factor of the exponential of the black hole entropy relative to the rate of creation of compact matter distributions (stars). This result holds for any generally covariant theory of gravitational and matter fields that can be expressed in Ham...

The coupling of the metric to an incoherent dust introduces into spacetime a privileged dynamical reference frame and time foliation. The comoving coordinates of the dust particles and the proper time along the dust worldlines become canonical coordinates in the phase space of the system. The Hamiltonian constraint can be resolved with respect to t...

The connection is established between two different action principles for perfect fluids in the context of general relativity. For one of these actions, $S$, the fluid four--velocity is expressed as a sum of products of scalar fields and their gradients (the velocity--potential representation). For the other action, ${\bar S}$, the fluid four--velo...

The first objective of this article is to show that the black hole partition function can be placed on a firm logical foundation by enclosing the black hole in a spatially finite "box" or boundary. The presence of the box has the effect of stabilizing the black hole and yields a system with a positive heat capacity. The second objective of this art...

Simple calculations indicate that the partition function for a black hole is defined only if the temperature is fixed on a finite boundary. Consequences of this result are discussed. (Contribution to the Proceedings of the Lanczos Centenary Conference.)

The idea that spacetime points are to be identified by a fleet of clock--carrying particles can be traced to the earliest days of general relativity. Such a fleet of clocks can be described phenomenologically as a reference fluid. One approach to the problem of time consists in coupling the metric to a reference fluid and solving the super--Hamilto...

We investigate the thermodynamical properties of black holes in (3+1) and (2+1) dimensional Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant. In each case, the thermodynamic internal energy is computed for a finite spatial region that contains the black hole. The temperature at the boundary of this region is defined by differentiating the ene...

The authors have recently proposed a ``microcanonical functional integral" representation of the density of quantum states of the gravitational field. The phase of this real--time functional integral is determined by a ``microcanonical" or Jacobi action, the extrema of which are classical solutions at fixed total energy, not at fixed total time int...

The gravitational field in a spatially finite region is described as a microcanonical system. The density of states [nu] is expressed formally as a functional integral over Lorentzian metrics and is a functional of the geometrical boundary data that are fixed in the corresponding action. These boundary data are the thermodynamical extensive variabl...

The authors have introduced recently a ``microcanonical functional integral" which yields directly the density of states as a function of energy. The phase of the functional integral is Jacobi's action, the extrema of which are classical solutions at a given energy. This approach is general but is especially well suited to gravitating systems becau...

The quasilocal energy of gravitational and matter fields in a spatially bounded region is obtained by employing a Hamilton-Jacobi analysis of the action functional. First, a surface stress-energy-momentum tensor is defined by the functional derivative of the action with respect to the three-metric on ${}^3B$, the history of the system's boundary. E...

We establish that in the functional-integral expression for the grand partition function, the thermodynamic properties of a charged, rotating black hole are derived from a complex geometry. The corresponding real ‘‘thermodynamical’’ action is constructed explicitly.

A spherical charged black hole in thermal equilibrium is considered from
the perspective of a grand canonical ensemble in which the electrostatic
potential, temperature, and surface area are specified at a finite
boundary. A correspondence is established between the boundary-value
data of a well-posed problem in a finite region of Euclidean spaceti...

The path integral for minisuperspace models of cosmology is defined as a sum over Lorentzian geometries, and is a Green function for the Wheeler-DeWitt operator. It is shown to be a symmetric function of the initial and final configurations, and its real part is a solution to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. The Lorentzian path integral is computed exp...

By including gravitation as described by general relativity as a part of a thermo-dynamic system, we have obtained formal path integral representations of partition func-tions for various ensembles including that appropriate to the microcanonical ensemble. This is possible because the boundary conditions for certain well posed Euclidean problems in...

A minisuperspace model of general relativity with a positive cosmological constant coupled to a perfect isentropic fluid is presented. The classical equations of motion are solved for a tunneling solution that consists of a Euclidean instanton of the wormhole type, connected to Lorentzian Robertson-Walker universes. The path integral is then define...

This paper treats the metric of a rotating hole (or star) by a method that leads to a complex metric. Its corresponding real thermodynamical action is obtained, and it is indicated how this action is to be used in a well-posed variational principle whose extrema capture the properties of physical rotating black holes. This final step includes an ex...

We argue that the usual action principle of general relativity, applied to spacetimes with closed spatial geometries, should be regarded as analogous to Jacobi's form of the principle of stationary action, in which the energy rather than a physical time is fixed. Following the paradigm of quantization based on Jacobi's action for a nonrelativistic...

A classical wormhole solution is constructed for gravity couples to a positive energg, maplese scalar field. We examine carefully the definitions of euclideanization, and find that this solution is equivalent to the wormhole previously obtained for gravity coupled to an antisymmetric, two-index gauge potential, which is locally dual to the scalar f...

The quantum creation of closed membranes by totally antisymmetric tensor and gravitational fields is considered in arbitrary space-time dimension. The creation event is described by instanton tunneling. As membranes are produced, the energy density associated with the antisymmetric tensor fielld decreases, reducing the effective value of the cosmol...

A dynamical process is described in which the cosmological constant is netralized through the quantum creation of closed membranes by totally antisymmetric tensor and gravitational fields.

It is shown that the global charges of a gauge theory may yield a nontrivial central extension of the asymptotic symmetry algebra already at the classical level. This is done by studying three dimensional gravity with a negative cosmological constant. The asymptotic symmetry group in that case is eitherR×SO(2) or the pseudo-conformal group in two d...

It is shown that the analog of the black hole exists in two-dimensional gravity. It is given by a metric which solves the vacuum field equation (constant curvature) everywhere except on a singular line. This geometry possesses an event horizon. There is as well an analog of Hawking radiation with temperature proportional to the strength (mass) of t...

The canonical formulation of field theory on open spaces is considered. It is proved, under appropriate assumptions, that the Poisson bracket of two differentiable generators is also a differentiable generator.

The effect of 1.6‐MeV‐electron irradiation on the infrared properties of high‐purity quartz crystals has been studied. The infrared bands assciated with OH<sup>-</sup> impurities in SiO 2 crystals are strongly temperature dependent and must be studied at 77 K or below. Prolonged electron irradiation at low temperature suppresses all of the OH<sup>-...

## Projects

Project (1)

The Dirac--Bergmann algorithm is a recipe for translating a singular Lagrangian system into a constrained Hamiltonian system. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive treatment of the Dirac--Bergmann algorithm in the context of an example problem.