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J. Ryan Bellmore

J. Ryan Bellmore
US Forest Service, Juneau, Alaska, United States · Pacific Northwest Research Station

Doctor of Biology, Idaho State University

About

47
Publications
14,624
Reads
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936
Citations
Citations since 2016
36 Research Items
878 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
Additional affiliations
November 2015 - present
US Forest Service
Position
  • Research Fish Biolgist
March 2014 - November 2015
US Geological Survey
Position
  • Ecologist
May 2011 - March 2014
US Geological Survey
Position
  • Fisheries Biologist

Publications

Publications (47)
Article
Full-text available
Multiple restoration actions have been implemented in response to declining salmon populations. Among these is the addition of salmon carcasses or artificial nutrients to mimic marine-derived nutrients historically provided by large spawning runs of salmon. A key assumption in this approach is that increased nutrients will catalyze salmon populatio...
Article
Full-text available
A common goal of biological adaptation planning is to identify and prioritize locations that remain suitably cool during the summer. This implicitly devalues areas that are ephemerally warm, even if they are suitable most of the year for mobile animals. Here we develop an alternative conceptual framework, the growth regime, which considers seasonal...
Article
Full-text available
Food web analyses offer useful insights into understanding how species interactions, trophic relationships, and energy flow underpin important demographic parameters of fish populations such as survival, growth, and reproduction. However, the vast amount of food web literature and the diversity of approaches can be a deterrent to fisheries practiti...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change can act to facilitate or inhibit invasions of non‐native species. Here, we address the influence of climate change on control of non‐native common carp (hereafter, carp), a species recognized as one of the “world's worst” invaders across the globe. Control of this species is exceedingly difficult, as it exhibits rapid population grow...
Article
Full-text available
Mountain watersheds often contain a mosaic of glacier‐, snow‐, and rain‐fed streams that have distinct hydrologic, temperature, and biogeochemical regimes. However, as glaciers diminish and precipitation shifts from snow to rain, the physical and chemical characteristics that make glacial or snowmelt streams distinct from rain‐fed streams will fade...
Article
Meltwater contributions to watersheds are shrinking as glaciers disappear, altering the flow, temperature, and biogeochemistry of freshwaters. A potential consequence of this landscape change is that streamflow patterns within glacierized watersheds will become more homogenous, potentially altering the capacity of watersheds to support Pacific salm...
Article
Full-text available
Resource managers seek to thin second‐growth riparian forests to address multiple stream and riparian management objectives, including enhancing aquatic productivity via light‐mediated trophic pathways in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest (USA). However, such increases in aquatic productivity depend on complex food web dynamics that link riparian...
Article
Full-text available
Degraded floodplains and valley floors are restored with the goal of enhancing habitat for native fish and aquatic-riparian biota and the protection or improvement of water quality. Recent years have seen a shift toward "process-based restoration" that is intended to reestablish compromised ecogeomorphic processes resulting from site-or watershed-s...
Article
Models that assess the vulnerability of freshwater species to shifting environmental conditions do not always account for short-duration extremes, which are increasingly common. Life cycle models for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) generally focus on average conditions that fish experience during each life stage, yet many floods, low flows, and...
Article
Forested stream ecosystems involve complex physical and biotic pathways that can influence fish in numerous ways. Consequently, the responses of fish communities to disturbance can be difficult to understand. In this study, we employed a food web model that links biotic (e.g., physiology, predator–prey interactions) and abiotic (e.g., temperature,...
Chapter
The removal of dams from rivers has become a common and widespread practice in the United States and Europe. Although often initiated by factors like economics and safety, ecosystem restoration is often a desired benefit and outcome of dam removal. We describe the physical and ecological effects that the placement and removal of dams have on rivers...
Article
Full-text available
Forests provide a suite of goods and services that are vital to human health and livelihoods. Studies of ecosystem services, which frequently attempt to place a monetary value on forest processes and organisms, can help inform management decisions by providing a baseline for discussing the costs and benefits of different management options. A recen...
Article
Full-text available
Watershed assessments have become common for prioritizing restoration in river networks. These assessments primarily focus on geomorphic conditions of rivers but less frequently incorporate non-geomorphic abiotic factors such as water chemistry and temperature, and biotic factors such as the structure of food webs. Using a dynamic food web model th...
Article
Full-text available
Streamflow controls many freshwater and marine processes, including salinity profiles, sediment composition, fluxes of nutrients, and the timing of animal migrations. Watersheds that border the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) comprise over 400,000 km2 of largely pristine freshwater habitats and provide ecosystem services such as reliable fisheries for local a...
Article
Full-text available
The introduction of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) into North American waterways has led to widespread alteration of aquatic ecosystems. Control of this invader has proven extremely difficult due to its capacity for rapid population growth. To help understand how Common Carp can potentially be controlled we developed a population dynamics model (Car...
Article
Full-text available
Forested landscapes support a diversity of ecological processes and organisms having direct value to society. Assessments placing monetary value on forest processes and organisms can help inform management actions affecting these ecosystem services. The temperate rain forest ecoregion along the west coast of North America is home to five species of...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The success or failure of fish populations in rivers is intimately linked to a complex and interconnected series of ecological interactions. This complexity can make it difficult to predict how organisms within river ecosystems will respond to management actions and other environmental changes. To aid in solving this dilemma, we constructed a food...
Article
Full-text available
One of the desired outcomes of dam decommissioning and removal is the recovery of aquatic and riparian ecosystems. To investigate this common objective, we synthesized information from empirical studies and ecological theory into conceptual models that depict key physical and biological links driving ecological responses to removing dams. We define...
Article
Full-text available
Quantifying the spatial and temporal dynamics of stream metabolism across stream networks is key to understanding carbon cycling and stream food web ecology. To better understand intra-annual temporal patterns of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and their variability across space, we continuously measured dissolved oxyg...
Technical Report
Full-text available
With the decline of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss), habitat restoration actions in freshwater tributaries have been implemented to improve conditions for juveniles. Typically, physical (for example, hydrologic and engineering) based models are used to design restoration alternatives with the assumption that biol...
Article
Full-text available
The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aqu...
Article
Full-text available
Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals...
Article
Full-text available
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is essential to the survival of almost all aquatic organisms. Here, we examine the possibility that abundant Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and low streamflow combine to create hypoxic events in coastal rivers. Using high-frequency DO time series from two similar watersheds in southeastern Alaska, we summarize DO regimes a...
Article
Full-text available
Restoration is frequently aimed at the recovery of target species, but also influences the larger food web in which these species participate. Effects of restoration on this broader network of organisms can influence target species both directly and indirectly via changes in energy flow through food webs. To help incorporate these complexities into...
Technical Report
The Community for Data Integration (CDI) continued to experience success in fiscal year 2015. The CDI community members have been sharing, learning, and collaborating through monthly forums, workshops, working groups, and funded projects. In fiscal year 2015, CDI coordinated 10 monthly forums with 16 different speakers from the U.S. Geological Surv...
Article
Full-text available
Managers make decisions regarding if and how to remove dams in spite of uncertainty surrounding physical and ecological responses, and stakeholders often raise concerns about certain negative effects, regardless of whether these concerns are warranted at a particular site. We used a dam-removal science database supplemented with other information s...
Article
Full-text available
Aging infrastructure coupled with growing interest in river restoration has driven a dramatic increase in the practice of dam removal. With this increase, there has been a proliferation of studies that assess the physical and ecological responses of rivers to these removals. As more dams are considered for removal, scientific information from these...
Article
Full-text available
Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to <10% of their historical abundance, with subsequent declines of marine derived nutrients once provided by large salmon runs. We explored whether...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The removal of dams has recently increased over historical levels due to aging infrastructure, changing societal needs, and modern safety standards rendering some dams obsolete. Where possibilities for river restoration, or improved safety, exceed the benefits of retaining a dam, removal is more often being considered as a viable option. Yet, as th...
Article
Full-text available
Theory states that both the spatial complexity of landscapes and the strength of interactions between consumers and their resources are important for maintaining biodiversity and the balance of nature. Spatial complexity is hypothesized to promote biodiversity by reducing the potential for competitive exclusion; whereas, models show that weak troph...
Conference Paper
Fish migrations connect aquatic habitats around the world, and interactions and mortality associated with these extends their ecological influence to terrestrial habitats as well. In temperate settings, dramatic examples include the spawning migrations and mass mortality of anadromous species (e.g., Pacific salmon, steelhead and lamprey), but many...
Raw Data
This database is the result of an extensive literature search aimed at identifying documents relevant to the emerging field of dam removal science. In total the database contains 179 citations that contain empirical monitoring information associated with 130 different dam removals across the United States and abroad. Data includes publications thro...
Article
Full-text available
The geomorphic template of streams and rivers exerts strong controls on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. However, relationships between stream geomorphology and ecosystem structure and function are not always clear and have not been investigated equally across spatial scales. In montane regions, rivers often alternate between canyo...
Article
Full-text available
In stream ecosystems, Pacific salmon deliver subsidies of marine-derived nutrients and disturb the stream bed during spawning. The net effect of this nutrient subsidy and physical disturbance on biological communities can be hard to predict and is likely to be mediated by environmental conditions. For periphyton, empirical studies have revealed tha...
Article
Full-text available
Although numerous studies have attempted to place species of interest within the context of food webs, such efforts have generally occurred at small scales or disregard potentially important spatial heterogeneity. If food web approaches are to be employed to manage species, studies are needed that evaluate the multiple habitats and associated webs...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Model simulations of biotic communities emphasize the importance of trophic interaction strengths (IS) between consumers and resources. However, parameterizing these models has been restricted by a lack of empirical food web data. Moreover, neither empirical studies nor mathematical models of food webs have yet to fully...
Article
Full-text available
Pre-restoration studies typically focus on physical habitat, rather than the food-base that supports aquatic species. However, both food and habitat are necessary to support the species that habitat restoration is frequently aimed at recovering. Here we evaluate if and how the productivity of the food-base that supports fish production is impaired...
Conference Paper
Fisheries professionals are often directed to use an “ecosystem approach” when assessing alternative recovery strategies for fish populations; however, the information necessary to do so is often lacking. As a result, evaluations of most recovery actions are based on measurements of physical habitat (e.g., pool area, wood abundance, etc.), largely...
Article
Investigations of a fish kill at an irrigation reservoir in the Deschutes River basin, Oregon, documented at least 153 dead largescale suckers Catostomus macrocheilus, all heavily infected with large Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda). Moribund fish nearshore were similarly infected, with no evidence of secondary disease or infection. Morbidity and mort...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Dam removal is rapidly emerging as an important river restoration strategy both in the United States and globally. In the United States alone, over 1,350 dams have now been purposefully removed, including several larger dams (>10 meters in height). Associated with these removals, there is a growing body of scientific literature that allows us to take stock of how rivers are responding. Over the last two decades there have been more than 125 published studies associated with over 100 dam removals reporting the effects of these place-based river restoration experiments. The increase in dam removals and concomitant dam removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Taking stock of how rivers are responding is important because many older, aging, or poorly functioning dams still remain in the U.S. and abroad, and thus, removals are likely to continue—possibly at an accelerated rate. Emerging questions and lessons learned from dam removals are also important because dam building is on the rise in developing nations. Knowledge of ecological and physical responses to dam removal can inform dam emplacement decisions about where and how dams are built, so negative outcomes can be avoided or minimized.
Project
We are using water quality and salmon count data from two streams in southeastern Alaska to assess the extent to which high spawning salmon density and decreasing river discharge can lead to bouts of hypoxia. In addition to summarizing field measurements, we have employed a simulation model coupling salmon respiration and oxygen reaeration to illuminate mechanisms leading to hypoxia.