Ivor Nissen

Ivor Nissen

Dr. rer. nat.

About

120
Publications
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389
Citations
Introduction
Underwater Information Management | Hydro acoustics | Modelling | ISO/IEC SC41 panel Underwater Internet of Things and Digital Twins (U - IoT)

Publications

Publications (120)
Article
Full-text available
Der Schallempfang im Meer wird signifikant von dynamischen Prozessen beeinflusst, die für den Empfang von Luftschall häufig keine wesentliche Rolle spielen. Diese Prozesse sind dabei zum einen eng mit der Dynamik des Meeres und zum anderen mit der Bewegung des Schallempfängers im Wasser verbunden. Die Schallgeschwindigkeit im Meer ist nicht homogen...
Conference Paper
Security in underwater networks is a crucial aspect to maintain correct network operations, but has only partially been investigated so far. Most of the applications of an underwater network are related to military or public safety scenarios, which should exhibit a high robustness to attacks and failures in order to avoid disastrous consequences ev...
Book
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Modellierung ist eine zentrale Fertigkeit, ein Modell ein Instrument, um beispielsweise Fragestellungen der physikalischen Akustik abzubilden, zu untersuchen und zu verstehen. Obwohl Modelle ganz unterschiedliche Fragestellungen in der physikalischen Akustik adressieren können, sind die zugrundeliegenden Modellierungsansätze und -philosophien häufi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Underwater acoustic networks are characterized by long propagation delays, low data rates and a strong channel variability, that can cause the disruption of acoustic links. For this reason, the underwater network envisioned in the EDA SALSA project adapts its network and physical layer parameters, such as routes to destination, modulation and codin...
Conference Paper
Eine erfolgreiche Authentifizierung innerhalb von Identifikationsprozessen ist immer mit dem Erstkontakt zum Fremden verbunden. Eine hierfür notwendige Nennung einer Losung respektive Parole bedarf einer sicheren Verbindung. Die gemeinsame Schlüsselabsprache bei diesem Erstkontakt ist die Achillesferse jeder Kommunikation mit symmetrischer oder asy...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
In the Annex I of the Protocol Additional I to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 : Regulations concerning identification, as amended on 30 November 1993 describe the electronic identification for medical transports, including hydro acoustics. Since JANUS (STANAG 4748) we have the technology to help. For an underwater JANUS transmission this identifica...
Article
Gedanken für ein maritimes Internet – of – Things (IoT) mittels Mehrzweckinfrastruktur : Die bekannte Faustregel 70-80-90 (70% Wasser bedeckt unsere Erde, 80% aller Menschen leben an der Küste und 90% des internationalen Handels werden über See transportiert) begünstigt im Küstenvorfeld unmittelbar die Bildung von Offshore-Infrastrukturen; zum Zwec...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
Drones or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are fundamentally changing aviation, therefore safety and security are top priorities. RemoteID is the ability of a drone in flight to provide identification and location information that can be received by other parties. This RemoteID helps the control station to find the drone when it appears to be flying...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
The table I in the ANEP-87, Edition A Version 1 of the STANAG 4748 "JANUS" from 24. March 2017 based on an User-Application-Class concept. The idea behind it will be presented in this two-pager.
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the influence of floating objects motion parameters on the hydroacoustic RGB classification method. The data analysis was obtained through in-situ measurements by the IGLOO sensor nodes. This hardware was engineered in the Polish Naval Academy as part of the European Defense Agency’s (EDA) project ‘SIRAMIS’, realized between 2...
Book
This book summarizes the latest research on cognitive network-layer methods and smart adaptive physical-layer methods in underwater networks. Underwater communication requires extend-able and delay-tolerant underwater acoustic networks capable of supporting multiple frequency bands, data rates and transmission ranges. The book also discusses a suit...
Chapter
Due to the ever-changing environmental conditions under water and the efficiency of the communication being dependent on this knowledge, reliable information and adaptivity to significant changes are vital for successful underwater communication . This chapter serves as an introduction to the book as a whole and aims at giving a basic insight into...
Chapter
Adaptivity inside the network layer requires knowledge about the capabilities of partners as well as the knowledge of relative and absolute position and ranges. In the underwater environment air and space position systems are inoperable for the most part, which results in it being one of the most challenging research areas. In this chapter, the sta...
Chapter
The realization of centralized communication strategies underwater is very cost-intensive and not feasible due to the partly scattered network nodes. Each node must be able to distribute its messages directly. This chapter deals with different approaches to achieve this. First, we present the initial contact procedures proposed by CMRE for the NATO...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Unterwasserkommunikation (UWK) muss sich aufgrund des sogenannten und höchst variabelen SONAR-Wetters an unterschiedlichste akustische Kanalbedingungen anpassen. Dabei ist für autonome Kommunikationsnetzwerke die Herausforderung besonders hoch. Aufgrund der kleinen Ausmaße und Energievorräte in Floats, Glidern, AUVs und Tauchern auch bei Bodenknote...
Article
Full-text available
Acoustic underwater communication is a challenging task. For a reliable transmission, not only good channel estimation and equalization, but also strong error correcting codes are needed. In this paper, we present the results of the coding competition "Wanted: Best channel codes for short underwater messages" as well as our own findings on the infl...
Article
Strategy and tactics are determined by there being multiple alternative courses of action available. Strategy is hence the concatination of individual operations, the sequential execution of coordinated tactics, which may also include sacrifices, in other words non-optimalities. But what are good tactics for cooperative autonomous systems underwate...
Article
The performance of modern information systems in the hydrosphere is based on the robustness of the wireless underwater communication between the cooperative subsystems. It is strongly intertwined with the coordination reliability for sharing resources and common purposes. Secure underwater coordination is a key functionality (C4I-STAR). The physica...
Article
Full-text available
Acoustic underwater communication is a challenging task. For a reliable transmission, not only good channel estimation and equalization, but also strong error correcting codes are needed. In this paper, we present the results of the coding competition “Wanted: Best channel codes for short underwater messages” as well as our own findings on the infl...
Article
Full-text available
Uncooperative identification lies at the end of a long and complex process chain: from detection in time and space, to filtering for irrelevant signature characteristics – so-called false alarms – to reliable identification of an object. Yet, an alternative approach is also feasible.
Conference Paper
The performance of modern information systems in the hydrosphere is based on the robustness of the wireless underwater communication between the cooperative subsystems. It is strongly intertwined with the coordination reliability for sharing resources and common purposes. Secure underwater coordination is a key functionality (C4I-STAR). The physica...
Patent
Full-text available
The invention relates to a novel method for operating a transmitter of an underwater communication device. The method is to be designed such that a transmitted message can be received correctly by another underwater communication device with a high degree of probability. In the novel method, at least one transmission parameter of a transmitter (1)...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Im Unterwasserbereich steht man vor der Herausforderung, dass akustische Nachrichtenübermittlung einerseits nur kleinste Datenvolumen transportieren kann, andererseits die Sensoren aufgrund der Anzahl und Abtastrate um Größenordnungen umfangreiche Datenmengen generieren. Für eine Instant-Übermittlung muss daher verlustbehaftet komprimiert werden. D...
Article
Full-text available
Wide-sense stationary and uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS) assumptions are often applied for the statistical description of wireless communication channels. However, in the case of underwater acoustic channels the WSSUS model is of limited value. The degree of similarity of in-phase and quadrature components of the channel impulse response, measured...
Patent
Full-text available
Sendeverfahren und Empfangsverfahren zur verschleierten Unterwasser-Telefonie, und entsprechende Sender, Empfänger und Computerprogrammprodukte. Mit dem neuen Verfahren soll eine robuste und echtzeitfähige Unterwasser-Kommunikation mit einer hohen Verschleierungwirkung erzielt werden. Die Schritte des Sendeverfahrens sind: a) Aufnahme einer Sprachn...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a new approach for the data compression and clustering of one-third octave spectrum by using "acoustical colors". Using in-situ measurements by the IGLOO-sensor nodes it can show that this approach allows a clustering of the colors for a quick look classification. This is helpful using wireless acoustical transmissions with re...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Wie koordinieren sich Robotorteams, wenn die Absprache im Medium stark gestört ist? Dieser Beitrag zur Kooperation autonomer Teams unter Wasser ist als Gemeinschaftsarbeit der Verfasser aus einem Bachelorpraktikum hervorgegangen. Aus der Sicht der angehenden Wirtschaftsinformatiker werden die notwendigen Nachrichteninhalte und minimalsten Prozessab...
Presentation
Full-text available
W ramach programu „Katedra AdHoc” gość Wydziału Nawigacji i Uzbrojenia Okrętowego, dr Ivor Nissen, oprócz cyklu zajęć dla studentów studiów wojskowych kierunku nawigacja, wygłosił 29 marca br. wykład na temat „Underwater communication - heterogenous networking”. Prelegent jest pracownikiem Wehrtechnische Dienststelle für Schiffe und Marinewaffen, M...
Patent
Full-text available
The invention relates to a sensor device (10) for being deposited on the seabed, comprising the following characteristics: a) the sensor device (10) comprises a holder device (15) having a controllable release (16); b) the holder device (15) is designed in such a way that the sensor device (10) can be secured to an autonomous underwater vehicle (30...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In diesem Beitrag wird die Verwendung von digitalen Markierungen in Form von Pre- und Postambeln bei der analogen akustischen Sprachübertragung im Unterwasserbereich eingeführt, ähnlich der Quindar-Töne der NASA. Diese Erweiterung gestattet es, 80 Jahre nach den ersten analogen Sprachübertragungen in der Kieler Förde, den Schallkanal zu vermessen,...
Presentation
Full-text available
GERTRUDE - 80 years underwater telephony: 100 years ago, a great step for underwater telegraphy (U.T.) was done in Kiel, Twenty years later, the transmission of voice via underwater telephony (UT) followed. In this paper, the first steps are covered with historical documents, ranging to the latest developments of Software Defined Radios are present...
Article
Full-text available
The underwater acoustical channel is time-variant, and even on small time scales there is often existing no 'acoustical frozen ocean'. Popular is the use of WSSUS-channel transmission modeling (Wide-Sense Stationary Uncorrelated Scattering) for the stochastic description of bandpass signals in GSM mobile phones with moving participants; since this...
Article
Full-text available
Performances of underwater acoustic communication (UAC) systems are strongly related to specific propagation conditions of the underwater channel. Due to their large variability, there is a need for adaptive matching of the UAC systems signaling to the transmission properties of the channel. This requires a knowledge of instantaneous channel charac...
Conference Paper
We consider a range estimation algorithm based on the time-of-arrival differences between multipath replicas of a signal transmitted by an anchor node of known location to a silent node that needs to localize itself. We consider the geometry of the problem in the simplified case of a constant sound speed profile (SSP), and argue that the more reali...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Populär ist die Nutzung der WSSUS-Übertragungskanal-Modellierung (Wide-Sense Stationary Uncorrelated Scattering) zur stochastischen Beschreibung der Übertragung von Bandpasssignalen im GSM-Mobilfunk, da diese Annahme die Modell-Dimension halbiert. Für Unterwasserschallanwendungen wie Detektion, Navigation und Kommunikation liefert dieser Ansatz nur...
Chapter
Full-text available
Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal dis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the European Defence Agency project Robust Acoustic Communications in Underwater Networks (RACUN), aimed at demonstrating underwater acoustic communications and networking for tactical and security-related scenarios such as intelligence, mine counter-measures, and antisubmarine warfare. The project involved communications among...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of digital underwater acoustic communication offers a wide range of improvements regarding the execution and outcome of military procedures and applications. Due to a higher degree of automatism and less need of human interaction or individual experiences, operational procedures can - on one hand - be simplified and - on the other hand - be...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The preparation of robust maritime coalition network projects depends strongly on relevant scenarios for operational use and the corresponding system requirements. Ad-hoc, robust, and multipurpose operations with interacting stationary and moving platforms are needed, to establish general communication-, cooperation-and coordination capabilities. D...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present a performance evaluation of two underwater network protocols, named GUWMANET and Dflood. The protocols were tested at sea during the final demonstration of the EDA project Robust Acoustic Communication in Underwater Networks (RACUN). The project started in 2010 with the goal to develop and demonstrate the capabilities of a...
Article
Full-text available
The performance of collaborating information systems in the hydrosphere is based on the robustness and tolerance of the wireless communication task. It is strongly intertwined with the cooperation and coordination reliability under water for sharing resources and common purposes. Key technology and bottleneck is the physical layer communication in...
Book
Full-text available
Models are one of the main instruments in scientific research. Disciplines have developed a different model understanding of the notion, function and purpose. We thus need a systematic approach in order to understand, to build and to use a model. This book gives an insight into the discipline modelling know-how in Kiel and is a first starting point...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Unterwasserkommunikation spielt nicht nur im militärischen Bereich eine immer größere Rolle, sondern auch bei zivilen Anwendungen. Dabei sollen getauchte Einheiten oder Unterwassersensoren untereinander und mit der Oberfläche vernetzt werden. Kommunikation in Unterwassernetzwerken kann aufgrund der hohen Absorption von elektromagnetischen Wellen in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Das digitale Unterwasserkommunikationsverfahren JANUS befindet sich derzeit in der Standardisierung. Der für die Nutzung von JANUS zur digitalen Übertragung vorgesehene Frequenzbereich überschneidet sich mit dem von der analogen Unterwassersprachkommunikation nach STANAG 1074 genutzten. Für die Teilnehmer der Sprachkommunikation ergibt sich dadurch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Akustische Burst-Kommunikation bietet sich in kabellosen mobilen Unterwasser-Kommunikationsnetzwerken (UW-MANET) an, da durch die kurze Transmissionszeit wenige Kollisionen entstehen, zudem die autonomen Geräte wenig Energie verbrauchen. Durch die natürlich vorgegebene frequenzabhängige Absorption im Wasser existiert für eine gegebene maximale Reic...
Article
The performance of collaborating information systems in the hydrosphere is based on the robustness and tolerance of the wireless underwater communication task. It is strongly intertwined with the cooperation and coordination reliability for sharing resources and common proposes. In this article, we introduce the advantages of digital underwater net...
Conference Paper
The recent years increasing interest for research on underwater communication and networking has sparked the interest for a software defined modem (SDM). This concept has been realized on a sophisticated hardware platform, which is provided in form of the commercially available develogic Hydro-Acoustic Modem HAM.Base. This is a small sized, energy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are currently no digital underwater communications standards. In this paper we describe JANUS, a simple multiple-access acoustic protocol designed and tested by the NATO Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE) over the past 6 years that provides a basic and robust tool for collaborative underwater communications. JANUS is in p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Am 26. Februar 2010 wurde der Arbeitskreis als Austauschplattform von Wissenschaft und Wirtschaft in Kiel, als dem frühen Zentrum der Unterwasserkommunikation, gegründet. Beteiligt sind in dem Kooperationsnetzwerk des Maritimen Cluster Norddeutschland sieben Firmen und fünf Institutionen. Die Thematik einer kabellosen Unterwasserkommunikation und -...
Poster
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Generic UnderWater Application Language (GUWAL)is a data format for various underwater applications with 120 request groups, 120 data reply and 32 command groups, each with 32 single parcel types and a string message with 16 characters. The design concept of GUWAL is to preprocess and compress data before transmitting them over low-capacity acousti...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we discuss the performance of different network protocols for RACUN, a European Defence Agency project with the objective of demonstrating ad hoc underwater networks for multiple purposes related to security. The RACUN network is designed for long-range communications over areas of large size, hence a very important role is played by...
Patent
Full-text available
Offenlegungsschrift (21) Aktenzeichen: 10 2013 006 141.5 (22) Anmeldetag: 10.04.2013 (43) Offenlegungstag: 16.10.2014 (51) Int Cl.: H04L 1/08 (2006.01) (71) Anmelder: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, vertreten durch das Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, dieses vertreten durch das Bundesamt für Ausrüstung, Informationstechnik und Nutzung der Bundeswehr...
Article
The terrestrial communication enables Internet-based, comprehensive and system-wide telecommunication services. However, these bandwidth-intensive developments fail for the underwater area – why? The purpose of this article is to provide first approach to a possible key solution for robust point to point acoustic communication in an underwater envi...
Book
Full-text available
Der Fachausschuss (FA) Akustik der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Wehrtechnik e. V. (DWT) hat vom 17. bis 20. September 2012 am GEOMAR – Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung, Kiel eine wissenschaftliche Tagung mit dem Thema Schall und Schwingungen, Wellen und Turbulenz in sensibler Umgebung mit maritimem Schwerpunkt durchgeführt. Traditionell tagte der...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Emmissionskontrolle (EMCON) unter Wasser ist bei der steigenden hydroakustischen Nutzung des Meeres ein sinnvoller Beitrag -auch für die Unterwasserkommunikation. Ist man in der Vergangenheit von Punkt-zu-Punkt-Verbindungen zwischen getauchten Teilnehmern ausgegangen, so stehen heute Netzwerke im Fokus, bei denen jede Form der En-ergieeintragung de...
Chapter
Routing is a fundamental network primitive in any wireless network. Given typical transmit power constraints, it is very unlikely that all nodes in a network are within the transmit range of one another. For this reason, many messages may have to be relayed towards their destination through multiple hops. Other than the clear advantages this strate...
Chapter
In this chapter, we describe methods to ensure reliable information delivery to higher layers at the sink(s), while keeping overhead, retransmissions, and discarded information as low as possible. The basic mechanism to achieve this is typically ARQ (automatic repeat request), but many variants and additional mechanisms can be used.
Chapter
Medium access control (MAC), also known as multiple access control, is a sublayer of the data link layer and manages access to the medium. In underwater networks, MAC protocols orchestrate the access to the acoustic communication channel. Without MAC, collisions of unsolicited modem signals may greatly degrade the overall network performance. The b...
Chapter
The actual need for time synchronization within an underwater acoustic network is not always present. It can be argued that given a network with an operation time of hours or a few days, any standard equipment will have a clock drift that is negligible given most applications and network protocol stacks. Given this argument, synchronization of cloc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Underwater networks move more and more into the focus of the research community, especially for military purposes. They enable the full integration of underwater components like submarines or sensor platforms into maritime Network Centric Warfare (NCW). Nevertheless, most of the scientific work was done in physical layer methods and medium access p...
Chapter
Full-text available
In time based multiple access a underwater network node uses for a transmission the complete bandwidth for a certain time period. As a result, the signals are more resistant to frequency ‐ selective fading than in frequency based multiple access strategies like FDMA. Multiple transmissions have to be done one after another to avoid collisions due t...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we discuss the performance of multi-path routing techniques in underwater acoustic networks applied to an intruder detection scenario. We assume that a network of submarine sensors is deployed close to a surveilled harbor, with the task to detect outbound surface boats. The communications take place in the 4 to 8 kHz band, in order t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Insbesondere bei Unterwasseranwendungen im Küstenvorfeld (litteral waters) erfahren Sendesignale durch den ausgeprägten und schnell variierenden Mehrwegeeinfluß Überlagerungen mit verschiedensten durch Bodenreflektionen unvorhersehbaren Phasendrehungen, die gerade bei kohärenter Unterwasserkommunikation im Empfänger durch Kanalschätzmethoden derzei...