Ivon Arroyo

Ivon Arroyo
University of Massachusetts Amherst | UMass Amherst · Computer Science (College of CS) and Teacher Education & Curriculum Studies (College of Education)

Ed.D., M.S.

About

107
Publications
41,024
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2,831
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2013 - present
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 1997 - present
University of Massachusetts Amherst

Publications

Publications (107)
Chapter
Full-text available
A major challenge for online learning systems is supporting students’ engagement. Online systems are sometimes boring, repetitive, and unappealing; external distractions often lead to off-task behavior, and a decline in learning. Student engagement and emotion are also tightly correlated with learning gains because emotion drives attention and atte...
Article
Full-text available
This emerging technology report introduces the WearableLearning (WL) platform as a tool to exercise computational thinking and STEM learning for 5-12th grade students through mobile technology-augmented active game play and game creation. Freely available at WearableLearning.org, it allows students and teachers to play, create, debug, and manage mu...
Conference Paper
Abstract— In this work, we propose a video-based transfer learning approach for predicting problem outcomes of students working with an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). By analyzing a student’s face and gestures, our method predicts the outcome of a student answering a problem in an ITS from a video feed. Our work is motivated by the reasoning th...
Article
Full-text available
This research presents the results of development and validation of the Cyclical Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) Simulation Model, a model of student cognitive and metacognitive experiences learning mathematics within an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). Patterned after Zimmerman and Moylan’s (2009) Cyclical SRL Model, the Simulation Model depicts a...
Chapter
Full-text available
While using online learning software, students demonstrate many reactions, various levels of engagement, and emotions (e.g. confusion, boredom, excitement). Having such information automatically accessible to teachers (or digital tutors) can aid in understanding how students are progressing, and suggest who and when needs further assistance. As par...
Chapter
Full-text available
While using online learning software, students demonstrate many reactions, various levels of engagement, and emotions (e.g. confusion, excitement, frustration). Having such information automatically accessible to teachers (or digital tutors) can aid in understanding how students progress and suggest when and who needs further assistance. We develop...
Article
Full-text available
Smith, H., Closser, A. H., Ottmar, E., & Arroyo, I. (2020). Developing mathematics knowledge and computational thinking through game play and design: A professional development program. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 20(4). Abstract. The Game Play and Design Framework is a project-based instructional method to engage teac...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the context of building an intelligent tutoring system (ITS), which improves student learning outcomes by intervention, we set out to improve prediction of student problem outcome. In essence, we want to predict the outcome of a student answering a problem in an ITS from a video feed by analyzing their face and gestures. For this, we present a n...
Chapter
Embodied cognition posits that the development of thinking skills is distributed among mind, senses, and the environment. Research in this field has resulted into the development of applications in different areas including mathematics. This paper reports one part of a larger series of studies on the design and implementation of embodied cognition-...
Chapter
We empirically investigate two methods for eliciting student emotion within an online instructional environment. Students may not fully express their emotions when asked to report on a single emotion. Furthermore, students’ usage of emotional terms may differ from that of researchers. To address these issues, we tested two alternative emotion self-...
Chapter
Full-text available
This research focuses on determining whether a student’s grit impacts their behavior within an intelligent tutoring system, towards developing better student models and feature sets that can help tutors predict student behavior and determine whether tutors might foster improvements in students’ grit, perseverance and recovery from failure. We use r...
Chapter
Full-text available
Games as a means of education have been starting to become more of an everyday reality. Not only are games used in classrooms, but they are used in industry to train soldiers, medical staff, and even surgeons. This paper focuses on physically active (i.e. embodied) multiplayer games as a means of education; not only by having students play, but als...
Chapter
Full-text available
Many intelligent tutors are not designed with English language learners (ELL) in mind. As a result, Hispanic ELL students, a large and underserved population in U.S. classrooms, may experience difficulty accessing the relevant tutor content. This research investigates how Hispanic and ELL students perceive the utility of and relate to animated peda...
Chapter
Full-text available
Our research uses game creation and play to explore methods for computational thinking assessment and practice in mathematics classrooms. We present the first iteration of this research that aims to evaluate the feasibility of using game creation with high school students. Students designed math-related games, modified the game to incorporate techn...
Article
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The Publisher regrets a spelling error in the family name of the third author. “Winslow Burelson” should be “Winslow Burleson”.
Conference Paper
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We present a new technology-based paradigm to support embodied mathematics educational games, using wearable devices in the form of SmartPhones and SmartWatches for math learning, for full classes of students in formal in-school education settings. The Wearable Learning Games Engine is web based infrastructure that enables students to carry one mob...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present results of a randomized controlled study that compared different types of affective messages delivered by pedagogical agents. We used animated characters that were empathic and emphasized the malleability of intelligence and the importance of effort. Results showed significant correlations between students who received more empathic mess...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Prior research indicates that students often experience negative emotions while using online learning environments, and that most of these negative emotions can have a detrimental impact on their behavior and learning outcomes. We investigate the impact of a particular intervention, namely face-to-face collaboration with a neighboring student, on s...
Conference Paper
A theory of cognition called embodied cognition believes that the development of thinking skills is distributed among mind, senses and the environment. Research into this field has resulted into the development of applications in different areas including Mathematics. This paper reports one part of a larger series of studies on the design and imple...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Students self-reported not only their emotional state, but also the causal attributions of their emotions. After coding emotions with internal references to self, and external references to the environment or domain, we examined how sub-groups of students based on internal/external attributions and above or below median performance differ in terms...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work addresses students’ open responses on causal attributions of their self-reported affective states. We use qualitative thematic data analysis techniques to develop a coding scheme by identifying common themes in students’ self-reported attributions. We then applied this scheme to a larger set of student reports. Analysis shows that student...
Article
Full-text available
Computational instruction provides engaging material for learners, personalizes instruction, assesses individual effort, and measures students' needs for assistance. Such instruction makes learning available and accessible, and therefore actionable. This paper describes two promising approaches for using digital instruction to personalize teaching....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research highlights that many students experience negative emotions during learning activities, and these can have a detrimental impact on behaviors and outcomes. Here, we investigate the impact of a particular kind of affective intervention, namely a learning dashboard, on two deactivating emotions: boredom and lack of excitement. The data comes f...
Article
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We address empirical methods to assess the reliability and design of affective self-reports. Previous research has shown that students may have subjectively different understandings of the affective state they are reporting [18], particularly among younger students[10]. For example, what one student describes as "extremely frustrating" another migh...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes research results based on multiple years of experimentation and real-world experience with an adaptive tutoring system named Wayang Outpost. The system represents a novel adaptive learning technology that has shown successful outcomes with thousands of students, and provided teachers with valuable information about students’...
Conference Paper
A variety of methodologies have been put forth to assess students’ affective states as they use interactive learning environments (ILEs) and intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), such as classroom observations and subjective coding, self-coding by students after replays, as well as self-reports of student emotion as students are using the learning en...
Article
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When designing adaptive tutoring systems, a myriad of psychological theories must be taken into account. Popular notion follows cognitive theory in supporting multi-channel processing, while working under assumptions that pedagogical agents and affect detection are of the utmost significance. However, motivation and affect are complex human charact...
Article
Knowledge tracing has been used to predict students' knowledge and performance for almost twenty years. Recently, researchers have become interested in looking at students' behaviors, especially those considered gaming behaviors. In this work, we attempt to leverage a variation of knowledge tracing to predict gaming behaviors without damaging the p...
Article
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We provide evidence of persistent gender effects for students using advanced adaptive technology while learning mathematics. This technology improves each gender’s learning and affective predispositions toward mathematics, but specific features in the software help either female or male students. Gender differences were seen in the students’ style...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a method for improving students’ help-seeking behavior by creating a teammate relationship between intelligent tutors and students. Help seeking in intelligent tutors involves student self-regulation as described in learning theory and can be explored from the perspective of social psychology. We describe an experiment in which...
Article
Full-text available
We report on two studies that suggest that showing reports of student progress at key moments of deactivating negative emotions (boredom or lack of excitement) can help improve students' affective state and learning behavior while using an adaptive math tutoring system. The studies involved 160 middle-school students in public schools in Arizona an...
Conference Paper
The LT4D workshop aims to provide a forum for a discussion of cross-cultural differences regarding the immersion of AIED systems and the rational introduction of learning technologies in the developing world. Focus of the workshop is to explicitly explore the economic, social, political and cultural constraints that shape affordances for learning t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Touch is a new and significantly different method of interacting with a computer and it is being adapted at a rapidly increasing rate with the introduction of the tablet computer. We log the characteristics of a student's touch interaction while solving math problems on a tablet. By correlating this data to high and low effort problem solving condi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Novel and simplified methods for determining low-level states of student behavior and predicting affective states enable tutors to better respond to students. The Many Eyes Word Tree graphics is used to understand and analyze sequential patterns of student states, categorizing raw quantitative indicators into a limited number of discrete sates. Use...
Conference Paper
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We analyze the relationship between a variety of affective constructs that have been researched, as it is not clear what is the breadth of affecitve variables to model --- which constructs are equivalent, related, or unrelated.
Conference Paper
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This paper identifies constraints that shape the use of learning technologies in the developing world. It provides examples of existing hardware and software teaching environments, including some that personalize teaching material based on inferences about students' knowledge, wearable learning materials that teach within more informal environments...
Conference Paper
4-coach Mathematics Active Learning Intelligent Tutoring sYstem (4MALITY) is a web-based intelligent tutoring system for 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students who are learning math content from the state of Massachusetts (USA) required curriculum framework. The goal of 4MALITY is to personalize help for students by offering them problem-solving strategi...
Conference Paper
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This qualitative study presented high school students' help-seeking behavior and how they interacted with hints while they solved math problems on an intelligent tutoring system for math.
Conference Paper
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Many children's games have a universal, cross- cultural appeal and have been played for hundreds of years, suggesting a developmental need for them. This paper presents a framework for leveraging this appeal and longevity by developing cognitive games based on popular playground games. This framework employs technology to maintain the physicality a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report on the reactions of males and female students to the presence of animated pedagogical agents that provided emotional and motivational support. One hundred high school students used agents embedded in an Intelligent Tutoring System for Mathematics and randomized controlled evaluations compared students with and without learning companions....
Chapter
Full-text available
Once a tutoring system is able to detect students’ emotions, it is not obvious how to change the tutor’s behavior to leverage this emotion detection for the benefit of the student. For instance, if students state that they are excited, then providing harder problems may be appropriate in one case, while providing actions to calm them down so that t...
Article
Full-text available
This article integrates research in intelligent tutors with psychology studies of memory and math fluency (the speed to retrieve or calculate answers to basic math operations). It describes the impact of computer software designed to improve either strategic behavior or math fluency. Both competencies are key to improved perlormance and both addres...
Article
Full-text available
If computers are to interact naturally with humans, they should recognize students’ affect and express social competencies. Research has shown that learning is enhanced when empathy or support is provided and that improved personal relationships between teachers and students leads to increased student motivation.1-4 Therefore, if tutoring systems c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe a data mining technique for the discovery of student behavior patterns while using a tutoring system. Student actions are logged during tutor sessions. The actions are categorized, binned and symbolized. The resulting symbols are arranged sequentially, and examined by a motif discovery algorithm to detect repetitive patterns, or motifs,...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter describes the automatic recognition of and response to human emotion within intelligent tutors. Tutors can recognize student emotion with more than 80%accuracy compared to student self-reports, using wireless sensors that provide data about posture, movement, grip tension, facially expressed mental states and arousal. Pedagogical agent...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent progress has been made by using sensors with Intelligent Tutoring Systems in classrooms in order to predict the affective state of students users. If tutors are able to interpret sensor data with new students based on past experience, rather than having to be individually trained, then this will enable tutor developers to evaluate various me...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report the results of a randomized controlled evaluation of the effectiveness of pedagogical agents as providers of affective feedback. These digital learning companions were embedded in an intelligent tutoring system for mathematics, and were used by approximately one hundred students in two public high schools. Students in the control group di...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We studied the effectiveness of a math fact fluency tool integrated with an intelligent tutor as a means to improve student performance in math standardized tests. The study evaluated the impact of Math Facts Retrieval Training (MFRT) on 250 middle school students and analyzed the main effects of the training by itself and also as a supplement to t...
Article
Full-text available
Three studies were conducted with middle school students to evaluate a web-based intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for arithmetic and fractions. The studies involved pre and post test comparisons, as well as group comparisons to assess the impact of the ITS on students' math problem solving. Results indicated that students improved from pre to post...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the use of wireless sensors to recognize student emotion and the use of pedagogical agents to respond to students with these emotions. Minimally invasive sensor technology has reached such a maturity level that students engaged in classroom work can us sensors while using a computer-based tutor. The sensors, located on each of...
Conference Paper
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In this paper we explore ndings from three experiments that use minimally invasive sensors with a web based geometry tutor to create a user model. Minimally invasive sensor technology is mature enough to equip classrooms of up to 25 students with four sensors at the same time while using a computer based intelligent tutoring system. The sensors, wh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the use of sensors in intelligent tutors to detect students' affective states and to embed emotional support. Using four sensors in two classroom experiments the tutor dynamically collected data streams of physiological activity and students' self-reports of emotions. Evidence indicates that state-based fluctuating student emot...
Article
Full-text available
Theories and technologies are needed to understand and integrate the knowledge of student affect (e.g., frustration, motivation and self-confidence) into learning models. Our goals are to redress the cognitive versus affective imbalance in teaching systems, develop tools that model student affect and build tutors that elicit, measure and respond to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We researched the impact of gendered pedagogical agents