Ivana Grkovic

Ivana Grkovic
Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences | VIN · Department of Molecular Biology and Endocrinology

PhD

About

49
Publications
4,623
Reads
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321
Citations
Introduction
Purinergic signaling, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, CD73, glial cells
Additional affiliations
December 2017 - present
Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
June 2011 - December 2017
Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences
Position
  • Professor
January 2006 - present
University of Belgrade

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
D-galactose (d-gal) is broadly used in animal aging studies as its chronic administration mimics learning and memory impairments related to aging in humans. However, within the few studies that utilize chronic oral d-gal intake, none of them is focused on alteration in synaptic structure and function. We examined the effects of 6-weeks oral d-gal i...
Article
Full-text available
The present study demonstrates altered topographic distribution and enhanced neuronal expression of major adenosine-metabolizing enzymes, i.e. ecto-5ʹ-nucleotidase (eN) and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), as well as adenosine receptor subtype A2A in the hippocampus and cortex of male rats from early to late adulthood (3, 6, 12 and...
Article
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and other nucleotides and nucleosides, such as adenosine, are versatile signaling molecules involved in many physiological processes and pathological conditions in the nervous system, especially those with an inflammatory component. They can be released from nerve cells, glial cells, and vascular cells into the extra...
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Neurodegeneration implies progressive neuronal loss and neuroinflammation further contributing to pathology progression. It is a feature of many neurological disorders, most common being Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive stimulation which modulates excitability of stimulated brain areas...
Chapter
Extracellular purine nucleotides, such as adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), are important modulators of hippocampal function and plasticity. In the extracellular space, ATP is inherently short-lived molecule, which undergoes rapid enzymatic degradation to adenosine by ectonucleotidases. Given that ectonucleotidases have distinct and overlapping dist...
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Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 (NTPDase2) hydrolyzes extracellular ATP to ADP, which is the ligand for P2Y1,12,13 receptors. The present study describes the distribution of NTPDase2 in adult rat brains in physiological conditions, and in hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by trimethyltin (TMT). The study also describes the regu...
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The present study examined the involvement of purinergic signaling components in the rat model of hippocampal degeneration induced by trimethyltin (TMT) intoxication (8 mg/kg, single intraperitoneal injection), which results in behavioral and neurological dysfunction similar to neurodegenerative disorders. We investigated spatial and temporal patte...
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease caused by autoimmune-mediated inflammation in the central nervous system. Purinergic signaling is critically involved in MS-associated neuroinflammation and its most widely applied animal model—experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). A promising but poorly understood approach i...
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Astrocytes are the first responders to noxious stimuli by undergoing cellular and functional transition referred as reactive gliosis. Every acute or chronic disorder is accompanied by reactive gliosis, which could be categorized as detrimental (A1) of beneficial (A2) for nervous tissue. Another signature of pathological astrocyte activation is dist...
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Sustained activation of pro-apoptotic signaling due to a sudden and prolonged disturbance of cerebral blood circulation governs the neurodegenerative processes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats whose common carotid arteries are permanently occluded. The adequate neuroprotective therapy should minimize the activation of toxicity pathways and increa...
Chapter
17β-Estradiol (E2) is a potent steroid hormone of both gonadal and neuronal origin that exerts profound effects on neuroplasticity in several brain regions. Dendritic spine and synapse formation and rearrangements are modulated and mediated by estrogens. In this chapter, we highlighted the essential background concerning the effects of E2 on synapt...
Article
Astrocytes comprise a heterogenic group of glial cells, which perform homeostatic functions in the central nervous system. These cells react to all kind of insults by changing the morphology and function that result in a transition from the quiescent to a reactive phenotype. Trimethyltin (TMT) intoxication, which reproduces pathological events in t...
Article
Extracellular adenine nucleotides and nucleosides, such as adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine, are among least investigated signaling factors that participate in 17β-estradiol (E2)-mediated synaptic rearrangements in rodent hippocampus. Their levels in the extrasynaptic space are tightly controlled by ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosp...
Article
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) represents brief neurological dysfunction of vascular origin without detectable infarction. Despite major clinical relevance characterization of post-TIA molecular changes using appropriate experimental model is lacking and no therapeutic agent has been established yet. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) aros...
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Full-text available
Purinergic signaling is the main synaptic and non-synaptic signaling system in brain. ATP acts as a fast excitatory transmitter, while adenosine sets a global inhibitory tone within hippocampal neuronal networks. ATP and adenosine are interconnected by ectonucleotidase enzymes, which convert ATP to adenosine. Existing data point to the converging r...
Article
Enzyme histochemistry is a valuable histological method which provides a connection between morphology, activity, and spatial localization of investigated enzymes. Even though the method relies purely on arbitrary evaluations performed by the human eye, it is still wildly accepted and used in histo(patho)logy. Texture analysis emerged as an excelle...
Article
Excessive glutamate efflux and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) over-activation represent well-known hallmarks of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, still, expression of proteins involved in this aspect of I/R pathophysiology show inconsistent data. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been proposed as potent NMDAR modulator...
Article
Background: Extracellular adenine nucleotides and nucleosides, such as ATP and adenosine, are among the most recently identified and least investigated diffusible signaling factors that contribute to the structural and functional remodeling of the brain, both during embryonic and postnatal development. Their levels in the extracellular milieu are...
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17β-Estradiol (E2) rapidly, by binding to membrane estrogen receptors, activates cell signaling cascades which induce formation of new dendritic spines in the hippocampus of males as in females, but the interaction with other metabolic processes, such as extracellular adenine nucleotides metabolism, are currently unknown. Extracellular adenine nucl...
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Although a substantial number of pre-clinical and experimental studies have investigated effects of 17β-estradiol, its precise molecular mechanism of action in the early state of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion remains controversial. The present study attempted to verify whether post-ischemic estradiol treatment (33.3 μg/kg for seven consecutive day...
Article
17β-estradiol (E2) crucially affects several processes in the hippocampus of both sexes. E2 acts upon estradiol receptors ERα and ERβ, influencing target gene expression and/or modulates intracellular signaling cascades. Another potent modulator of hippocampal function is nucleoside adenosine, the final product of ectonucleotidase cascade, enzymes...
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The present study attempted to investigate how chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) and repeated low-dose progesterone (P) treatment affect gene and protein expression, subcellular distribution of key apoptotic elements within protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk) signal transduction pathways, as well as neurodegen...
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Although dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) analog with profound effects on energy metabolism, immune system, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is widely used therapeutically, its impact on the brain is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of repeated low-dose DEX administration...
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To study time-dependent and gender-specific intracellular and biochemical mechanisms that lead to neurodegeneration due to moderate but persistent reduction of cerebral blood flow, adult male and female Wistar rats were divided into two main groups - controls that underwent sham operation and animals subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of co...
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Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (e-5NT), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked membrane protein, catalyzes a conversion of AMP to adenosine, which influences nearly every aspect of brain physiology, including embryonic and postnatal brain development. The present study aimed to investigate a pattern of expression, activity and kinetic properties of e-5NT in t...
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Although the model of cerebral hypoperfusion in rats has been a matter of many investigations over the years, the exact intracellular and biochemical mechanisms that lead to neuron loss and memory decline have not been clearly identified. In the current study, we examined whether cerebral hypoperfusion causes changes in hippocampal protein expressi...
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Our earlier studies found that in vitro estradiol modulates mitochondrial Ca2+ transport in discrete brain regions. The present study examined the role of estradiol receptors (ERs) in estradiol-induced inhibition of Ca2+ efflux from synaptosomal mitochondria isolated from rat caudate nuclei and brain stems. Radioactively labeled CaCl2 (0.6-0.75 mu...
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Ionizing radiation is commonly used in the treatment of brain tumors but it can impair cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. Since cognitive dysfunctions are predominantly result of cell death by apoptosis in hippocampal cells, in this study we analyzed acute effects of cranial gamma-irradiation (10 Gy) on expression of proapoptotic mol...
Article
Synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX), a highly potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent, is widely used in treatments of brain cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The objective of the current study was to determine whether a low-dose subchronic DEX treatment (100 μg/kg for 8 consecutive days) exerts long-term effects o...
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Extracellular nucleotides affect female reproductive functions, fertilization, and pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate biochemical characteristics of ATP and ADP hydrolysis and identify E-NTPDases in myometrial cell membranes from Wistar albino rats. The apparent K (m) values were 506.4 ± 62.1 and 638.8 ± 31.3 μM, with a calculated...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the rapid non-genomic effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) on Ca(2+) transport in mitochondria isolated from the nerve terminals (synaptosomes) of caudate nuclei (NC) and brain stems (BS) of ovariectomised female rats. In physiological conditions no effect of E2 on Ca(2+) influx into synaptosomal mitochondria through ru...
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Recent studies reported that exposure of juvenile rats to cranial irradiation affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stability, leading to its activation along with radiation-induced inflammation. In the present study, we hypothesized whether inflammatory reaction in the CNS could be a mediator of HPA axis response to cranial irradiation...
Article
The aim of the work was to investigate the interaction between borate capped gold nanoparticles (NPs) and the rat brain synaptosomal plasma membranes (SPM), as well as the effects of these NPs on SPM Na + /K + -ATPase and Mg 2+ -ATPase activity. The changes in the UV-vis spectra of NPs and SPM assembly suggested the agglomeration and precipitation...
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Full-text available
A family of enzymes named ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDases) catalyzes the termination of ATP and ADP actions. Three different NTPDases (NTPDase 1–3), differing in their preference for a substrate, have been localized in the brain of adult mammals. The goal of our study was to clarify ATP and ADP hydrolyzing activities and k...
Article
Our results, as well as those of others, have indicated that 17β-estradiol (E2) exerts its nongenomic effects in neuronal cells by affecting plasma membrane Ca(2+) flux. In neuronal cells mitochondria possess Ca(2+) buffering properties as they both sequester and release Ca(2+). The goal of this study was to examine the rapid non-genomic effect of...
Article
Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73; EC 3.1.3.5, e-5NT) is regarded as the key enzyme in the extracellular formation of adenosine, which acts as a neuromodulator and important trophic and homeostatic factor in the brain. In the present study, we have investigated e-5NT activity, kinetic properties concerning AMP hydrolysis and the enzyme protein abundance i...
Article
Ecto-5-nucleotidase (CD73; EC 3.1.3.5, e-5NT) is regarded as the key enzyme in the extracellular formation of adenosine, which acts as a neuromodulator and important trophic and homeostatic factor in the brain. In the present study, we have investigated e-5NT activity, kinetic properties concerning AMP hydrolysis and the enzyme protein abundance in...
Article
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acute restraint stress on rat brain synaptosomal plasma membrane (SPM) ecto-nucleotidase activities at specific stages of postnatal development (15-, 30-, 60- and 90-day-old rats) by measuring the rates of ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis 1, 24 and 72 h post-stress. At 1 h after stress NTPDase an...
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The aim of this study was to examine in vitro chelator’s ability to prevent copper�induced inhibition of rat myometrial ecto-ATPase activity. The effects of increasing CuSO4 concentrations, in the absence and presence of 1 mmol/l EDTA, showed sigmoidal and complete inhibition relative to the control enzyme activity. IC50 values, 1.15 × 10–4 and 1.7...
Article
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Cell membrane is highly sensitive to irradiation which, acting directly or indirectly, may disturb functions of constitutive proteins including membrane enzymes. Plasma membrane surface-located enzyme chain of ecto-nucleotide triphospho diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) and 5′-nucleotidase are involved in termination of cell purinergic signalization b...
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The role of membrane-bound estradiol in modulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ flux in nerve endings isolated from rat brain stem was examined. Physiological concentrations of 17β-estradiol bind specifically to isolated mitochondria (Bmax 33.8 ± 2.5 fmoles estradiol/mg of protein, Km 0.185 ± 0.006 nmoles/l free estradiol). At concentrations ranging from...
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The effects of ethanol on epilepsy are very complex. Ethanol can have depressant as well as excitatory effect on different animal models of epilepsy. Systemic administration of homocysteine can trigger seizures. The aim of the present study was to examine the changes of total spectral power density after ethanol alone and together with homocysteine...
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Full-text available
Glucocorticoids, essential for normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, exert their action on the hippocampus through two types of corticosteroid receptors: the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Recent studies report that exposure of juvenile rats to cranial irradiation adversely affects HPA axi...

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