# Ivan De MartinoUniversidad de Salamanca · Department of Fundamental Physics

Ivan De Martino

PhD in Fundamental Physics and Mathematics

## About

97

Publications

5,927

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1,255

Citations

Citations since 2017

Introduction

Additional affiliations

September 2020 - present

September 2019 - August 2020

October 2018 - September 2019

Education

October 2007 - June 2009

October 2002 - May 2007

## Publications

Publications (97)

The Galactic Center (GC) of the Milky Way, thanks to its proximity, allows to perform astronomical observations that investigate physical phenomena at the edge of astrophysics and fundamental physics. As such, it offers a unique laboratory to probe gravity, where one can not only test the basic predictions of general relativity (GR), but is also ab...

We have investigated whether the Scalar-Tensor-Vector Gravity theory (STVG) may explain the kinematic of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. STVG modifies General Relativity by adding extra scalar and vector fields with the main aim of replacing dark matter in astrophysical self-gravitating systems. The weak-field limit of STVG brings a Yukawa-like...

We have investigated whether the Scalar-Tensor-Vector Gravity (STVG) theory may explain the kinematic of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. STVG modifies general relativity by adding extra scalar and vector fields with the main aim of replacing dark matter in astrophysical self-gravitating systems. The weak-field limit of STVG brings a Yukawa-like...

We investigate whether the oblate, spheroidal morphology of common dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph) may result from the slow relaxation of stellar orbits within a halo of Wave Dark Matter ($\psi$DM) when starting from an initial disk of stars. Stellar orbits randomly walk over a Hubble time, perturbed by the pervasive "granular" interference patter...

We derive new constraints on the dilaton parameter appearing in the spherically-symmetric black hole solution of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion gravity, by studying the geodesic motion of the S2 star in the Galactic Center. Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion black holes represent a compelling alternative to the standard black hole paradigm in General R...

We developed a numerical methodology to compute the fully-relativistic propagation time of photons emitted by a pulsar in orbit around a massive compact object, like the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* in the Galactic Center, whose gravitational field is described by a generic spherically symmetric space-time. Pulsars at the Galactic Center...

The Galactic Center of the Milky Way can serve as a test bench to
investigate physical phenomena at the edge of astrophysics and fundamental
physics. As such, it offers a unique laboratory to probe General Relativity, modified
theories of gravity, different paradigms of dark matter, and black hole mimickers. I will
provide a general overview of the...

We probe four cosmological models which, potentially, can solve the Hubble tension according to the dark energy equation of state. In this context, we demonstrate that the Einstein Telescope is capable of achieving a relative accuracy below 1% on the Hubble constant independently of the specific dark energy model. We firstly build mock catalogs con...

We derive new constraints on the dilaton parameter appearing in the spherically-symmetric black hole solution of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion gravity, by studying the geodesic motion of the S2 star in the Galactic Center. Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion black holes represent a compelling alternative to the standard black hole paradigm in General R...

We developed a numerical methodology to compute the fully-relativistic propagation time of photons emitted by a pulsar in orbit around a massive compact object, like the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* in the Galactic Center, whose gravitational field is described by a generic spherically symmetric space-time. Pulsars at the Galactic Center...

Dark matter is undoubtedly one of the fundamental, albeit unknown, components of the standard cosmological model. The failure to detect WIMPs, the most promising candidate particle for cold dark matter, actually opens the way for the exploration of viable alternatives, of which ultralight bosonic particles with masses $\sim 10^{-21}$ eV represent o...

The explicit derivation for the orbital precession of the S2 star in the Galactic Center in the Scalar-Tensor-Vector Gravity is discussed and compared with previous research. The two different predictions are validated by numerically integrating the geodesic equations for a test particle.

We investigate a nonsingular black hole spacetime representing a strong deformation of the Schwarzschild solution with mass M by an additional hair ℓ, which may be hierarchically larger than the Planck scale. The spacetime is an exact solution of Einstein’s equations sourced by an anisotropic fluid. The model presents a de Sitter core and O(ℓ2/r2)...

Aims. It is well known that N -body simulations of ultralight bosons display the formation of a solitonic dark matter core in the innermost part of the halo. The scale-length of such a soliton depends on the inverse of the mass of the boson. On the other hand, the orbital motion of stars in the Galactic Center depends on the distribution of matter,...

We use the kinematic data of the stars in eight dwarf spheroidal galaxies to assess whether f(R) gravity can fit the observed profiles of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion of these systems without resorting to dark matter. Our model assumes that each galaxy is spherically symmetric and has a constant velocity anisotropy parameter β and constant...

We have explored a completely new and alternative way to restrict the parameter space of Horndeski theory of gravity. Using its Newtonian limit, it is possible to test the theory at a regime where, given its complexity and the small magnitude of the expected effects, it is poorly probed. At Newtonian level, it gives rise to a generalized Yukawa-lik...

We have explored a completely new and alternative way to restrict the parameter space of Horndeski theory of gravity. Using its Newtonian limit, it is possible to test the theory at a regime where, given its complexity and the small magnitude of the expected effects, it is poorly probed. At Newtonian level, it gives rise to a generalized Yukawa-lik...

We propose a novel nonsingular black-hole spacetime representing a strong deformation of the Schwarzschild solution with mass $M$ by an additional hair $\ell$, which may be hierarchically larger than the Planck scale. Our black-hole model presents a de Sitter core and $\mathcal{O}(\ell^2/r^2)$ slow-decaying corrections to the Schwarzschild solution...

The Galactic Center of the Milky Way, thanks to its proximity, allows to perform astronomical observations that investigate physical phenomena at the edge of astrophysics and fundamental physics. As such, our Galactic Center offers a unique laboratory to test gravity. In this review we provide a general overview of the history of observations of th...

We investigate the capability of Einstein Telescope to constrain the cosmological parameters of the non-flat ΛCDM cosmological model. Two types of mock datasets are considered depending on whether or not a short Gamma-Ray Burst is detected and associated with the gravitational wave emitted by binary neutron stars merger using the THESEUS satellite....

We use the kinematic data of the stars in eight dwarf spheroidal galaxies to assess whether $f(R)$ gravity can fit the observed profiles of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion of these systems without resorting to dark matter. Our model assumes that each galaxy is spherically symmetric and has a constant velocity anisotropy parameter $\beta$ and...

We probe four cosmological models which, potentially, can solve the Hubble tension according to the dark energy equation of state. In this context, we demonstrate that the Einstein Telescope is capable of achieving a relative accuracy below $1\%$ on the Hubble constant independently of the specific dark energy model. We firstly build mock catalogs...

We show that measuring the proper motion of ∼2000 stars within a dwarf galaxy, with an uncertainty of 1 km/s at most, can establish whether the Dark Matter (DM) density profile of the dwarf has a central core or cusp. We derive these limits by building mock star catalogues similar to those expected from future astrometric Theia-like missions and in...

We have used publicly available kinematic data for the S2 star to constrain the parameter space of MOdified Gravity. Integrating geodesics and using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm we have provided with the first constraint on the scales of the Galactic Centre for the parameter $\alpha$ of the theory, which represents the fractional increment...

We use the orbital motion of the star S2 around the supermassive black hole at the center of the Galaxy to narrow the allowed range for the mass of an ultralight boson. It is well known that ultralight bosons form a solitonic dark matter core in the innermost part of the halo. The scale length of such a soliton depends on the inverse of the mass of...

We investigate the capability of Einstein Telescope to constrain the cosmological parameters of the non-flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmological model. Two types of mock datasets are considered depending on whether or not a short Gamma-Ray Burst is detected and associated with the gravitational wave event using the THESEUS satellite. Depending on the mock da...

Despite the huge improvements guaranteed by future GRAVITY observations of the S0-2 star, these will not be able to unveil the fundamental nature, whether black hole or wormhole, of the central supermassive object. Nevertheless, observing stars orbiting closer to the central gravitational source could allow to distinguish between the black hole and...

Despite the huge improvements guaranteed by future GRAVITY observations of the S0-2 star, these will not be able to unveil the fundamental nature, whether black hole or wormhole, of the central supermassive object. Nevertheless, observing stars orbiting closer to the central gravitational source could allow to distinguish between the black hole and...

We have used publicly available kinematic data for the S2 star to constrain the parameter space of MOdified Gravity. Integrating geodesics and using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm, we have provided the first constraint on the scales of the Galactic Centre for the parameter α of the theory, which represents the fractional increment of the grav...

In this paper, we introduce the post-Minkowskian approximation of energy-momentum-squared gravity (EMSG). This approximation is used to study the gravitational energy flux in the context of EMSG. As an application of our results, we investigate the EMSG effect on the first time derivative of the orbital period of the binary pulsars. Utilizing this...

In this paper, we introduce the post-Minkowskian approximation of Energy-Momentum-Squared Gravity (EMSG). This approximation is used to study the gravitational energy flux in the context of EMSG. As an application of our results, we investigate the EMSG effect on the first time derivative of the orbital period of the binary pulsars. Utilizing this...

We have obtained the first constraint of the parameter space of Scalar-Tensor-Vector-Gravity using the motion of the S2-star around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way, and we did not find any serious tension with General Relativity. We used the Schwarzschild-like metric of Scalar-Tensor-Vector-Gravity to predict the orbital...

Despite the huge improvements guaranteed by future GRAVITY observations of S0-2 star, these will not be able to unveil the fundamental nature, whether black hole or wormhole, of the central supermassive object. Nevertheless, observing stars orbiting closer to the central gravitational source could allow to distinguish between the black hole and wor...

The GRAVITY Collaboration achieved the remarkable detection of the orbital precession of the S2 star around the Galactic centre supermassive black hole, providing yet another proof of the validity of the General Relativity. The departure from the Schwarzschild precession is encoded in the parameter $f_{\rm SP}$ which multiplies the predicted genera...

We have shown the potential of next-generation astrometric satellites for distinguishing between a cusp and a core in the dark matter density profile. This goal can be achieved with the measure of the proper motions of at least 6000 stars within a nearby dwarf galaxy with an accuracy of 1 km~s$^{-1}$ at most. We have built mock star catalogues simi...

We have obtained the first constraint of the parameter space of Scalar-Tensor-Vector-Gravity using the motion of the S2-star around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way, and we did not find any serious tension with General Relativity. We used the Schwarzschild-like metric of Scalar-Tensor-Vector-Gravity to predict the orbital...

The GRAVITY Collaboration detected the orbital precession of the S2 star around the central supermassive black hole, providing yet another proof of the validity of the General Relativity. The departure from the Schwarzschild precession is encoded in the parameter f_{SP} which multiplies the predicted general relativistic precession. Such a paramete...

Dark matter as a Bose-Einstein condensate, such as the axionic scalar field particles of String Theory, can explain the coldness of dark matter on large scales. Pioneering simulations in this context predict a rich wave-like structure, with a ground state soliton core in every galaxy surrounded by a halo of excited states that interfere on the de B...

In Cosmology and in Fundamental Physics there is a crucial question like: where the elusive substance that we call Dark Matter is hidden in the Universe and what is it made of? that, even after 40 years from the Vera Rubin seminal discovery [ 1 ] does not have a proper answer. Actually, the more we have investigated, the more this issue has become...

In Cosmology and in Fundamental Physics there is a crucial question like: where the elusive substance that we call Dark Matter is hidden in the Universe and what is it made of?, that, even after 40 years from the Vera Rubin seminal discovery does not have a proper answer. Actually, the more we have investigated, the more this issue has become stron...

Most nearby classical dwarf galaxies are now known to be surrounded by large halos of stars extending to over $2~{\rm kpc}$, adding to the puzzling properties of these dark matter dominated galaxies. Here we show that simulations of dark matter as a Bose Einstein condensate, $\psi$DM, predict large halos surrounding a soliton core with a marked den...

Cosmic history can be traced considering further curvature contributions inside the gravitational action. Assuming that standard General Relativity can be extended by other curvature invariants, we discuss the possibility that an action containing higher-order curvature terms can fit, in principle, the whole universe evolution. In particular, a the...

The cold dark-matter model successfully explains both the emergence and evolution of cosmic structures on large scales and, when we include a cosmological constant, the properties of the homogeneous and isotropic Universe. However, the cold dark-matter model faces persistent challenges on the scales of galaxies. Indeed, N-body simulations predict s...

The large dark cores of common dwarf galaxies are unexplained by the standard heavy particle interpretation of dark matter. This puzzle is exacerbated by the discovery of a very large but barely visible, dark matter dominated galaxy Antlia II orbiting the Milky Way, uncovered by tracking star motions with the Ĝaia satellite. Although Antlia II has...

Dark matter as a Bose-Einstein condensate, such as the axionic scalar field particles of String Theory, can explain the coldness of dark matter on large scales. Pioneering simulations in this context predict a rich wave-like structure, with a ground state soliton core in every galaxy surrounded by a halo of excited states that interfere on the de B...

The lack of detection of supersymmetric particles is leading to look at alternative avenues for explaining dark matter's effects. Among them, modified theories of gravity may play an important role accounting even for both dark components needed in the standard cosmological model. Scalar-Tensor-Vector Gravity theory has been proposed to resolve the...

A wavelike solution for the non-relativistic universal dark matter (wave-DM) is rapidly gaining interest, following pioneering simulations of cosmic structure as an interference pattern of coherently oscillating bosons. A prominent solitonic standing wave is predicted at the center of every galaxy, representing the ground state solution of the coup...

In this paper, we study the Jeans analysis in the context of energy–momentum-squared gravity (EMSG). More specifically we find the new Jeans mass for non-rotating infinite mediums as the smallest mass scale for local perturbations that can be stable against its own gravity. Furthermore, for rotating mediums, specifically for rotating thin disks in...

In this paper, we study the Jeans analysis in the context of energy-momentum-squared gravity (EMSG). More specifically we find the new Jeans mass for non-rotating infinite mediums as the smallest mass scale for local perturbations that can be stable against its own gravity. Furthermore, for rotating mediums, specifically for rotating thin disks in...

The standard cosmological model has been constrained with unprecedented accuracy. Nevertheless, we are facing off new challenges. The lack of detection of Dark Matter has opened to the "no-WIMP" era. I will introduce a relatively new paradigm for Dark Matter based on ultra-light particles and explain how to probe it with the current and forthcoming...

We analyze axion-photon mixing in the framework of quantum field theory. The condensate structure of the vacuum for mixed fields induces corrections to the oscillation formulae and leads to non-zero energy of the vacuum for the component of the photon mixed with the axion. This energy generates a new effect of the vacuum polarization and it has the...

The standard cosmological model has been constrained with unprecedented accuracy. Nevertheless, we are facing off new challenges. The lack of detection of Dark Matter and Dark Energy have opened to new paths. On one side, we are entering the "no-WIMP" era. On the other side, explaining the accelerated expansion of the Universe may require an extens...

The study of the dynamics of a two-body system in modified gravity constitutes a more complex problem than in Newtonian gravity. Numerical methods are typically needed to solve the equations of geodesics. Despite the complexity of the problem, the study of a two-body system in f (R) gravity leads to a new exciting perspective hinting the right stra...

The study of the dynamics of a two-body system in modified gravity constitutes a more complex problem than in Newtonian gravity. Numerical methods are typically needed to solve the equations of geodesics. Despite the complexity of the problem, the study of a two-body system in $f(R)$ gravity leads to a new exciting perspective hinting the right str...

Decaying Dark Energy models modify the background evolution of the most common observables, such as the Hubble function, the luminosity distance and the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature–redshift scaling relation. We use the most recent observationally-determined datasets, including Supernovae Type Ia and Gamma Ray Bursts data, along with H (...

A wavelike solution for the non-relativistic universal dark matter (wave-DM) is rapidly gaining interest, following distinctive predictions of pioneering simulations of cosmic structure as an interference pattern of coherently oscillating bosons. A prominent solitonic standing wave is predicted at the center of every galaxy, representing the ground...

We find the generalized version of the Toomre's criterion for the stability of a rotating thin disk in the context of Eddington inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity which possesses one free parameter $\chi$. To do so we use the weak field limit of the theory and find the dispersion relation for the propagation of matter density waves on the surface...

We find the generalized version of the Toomre's criterion for the stability of a rotating thin disk in the context of Eddington inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity which possesses one free parameter χ. To do so we use the weak field limit of the theory and find the dispersion relation for the propagation of matter density waves on the surface of a...

We find the generalized version of the Toomre's criterion for the stability of a rotating thin disk in the context of Eddington inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity which possesses one free parameter χ. To do so we use the weak field limit of the theory and find the dispersion relation for the propagation of matter density waves on the surface of a...

The {\it concordance} cosmological model has been successfully tested throughout the last decades. Despite its successes, the fundamental nature of dark matter and dark energy is still unknown. Modifications of the gravitational action have been proposed as an alternative to these dark components. The straightforward modification of gravity is to g...

Alternative theories of gravity may serve to overcame several shortcomings of the standard cosmological model but, in their weak field limit, they must recover General Relativity to match the tight constraints at Solar System scale. Therefore, testing such alternative models at scale of stellar systems could give a unique opportunity to confirm or...

The cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm successfully explains the cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshifts. However, it fails when probing the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. Moreover, the lack of experimental detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) favors...

Light Axionic Dark Matter, motivated by string theory, is increasingly favored for the "no-WIMP era". Galaxy formation is suppressed below a Jeans scale, of $\simeq 10^8 M_\odot$ by setting the axion mass to, $m_B \sim 10^{-22}$eV, and the large dark cores of dwarf galaxies are explained as solitons on the de-Broglie scale. This is persuasive, but...

We analyze the stability of self-gravitating systems which dynamics is investigated using the collisionless Boltzmann equation, and the modified Poisson equation of Eddington-inspired Born-Infield gravity. These equations provide a description of the Jeans paradigm used to determine the critical scale above which such systems collapse. At equilibri...

We used the data on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies measured by the Planck satellite and a sample of X-ray selected clusters with spectroscopically measured redshifts to probe the standard cosmological model and the underlying theory of gravity. To avoid antenna beam effects, we brought all the maps to the same resolu...

Light Axionic Dark Matter, motivated by string theory, is increasingly favored for the ”no-WIMP era”. Galaxy formation is suppressed below an Jeans scale, of $simeq 10^8 M_odot$ by setting the axion mass to, $m_B sim 10^{-22}$eV, and the large dark cores of dwarf galaxies are explained as solitons on the de-Broglie scale. The oscillating field pres...

Here, we demonstrate that the predicted thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (TSZ) profile of galaxy clusters, in both $f(R)$ and MOG theories, agrees with the observed profile when their Intra Cluster gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium within the modified Newtonian potential. There is no need to introduce a dominant DM component. We particularize our analysis...

Using Planck satellite data, we construct SZ gas pressure profiles for a large, volume-complete sample of optically selected clusters. We have defined a sample of over 8,000 redMaPPer clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), within the volume-complete redshift region 0.100 < z < 0.325, for which we construct Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect...

In its weak field limit, Scalar-tensor-vector gravity theory introduces a Yukawa-correction to the gravitational potential. Such a correction depends on the two parameters, $\alpha$ which accounts for the modification of the gravitational constant, and $\mu^{*-1}$ which represents the scale length on which the scalar field propagates. These paramet...

We have constrained the spatial variation of the fine structure constant using multi-frequency measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect of 618 X-ray selected clusters. Although our results are not competitive with the ones from quasar absorption lines, we improved by a factor 10 and ~2.5 previous results from Cosmic Microwave Background...

We propose an improved methodology to constrain spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies. We use the {\it Planck} 2013 data to measure the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect at the location of 618 X-ray selected clusters. We then use a Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to obtain the temperature of the Cosmic Micro...

We propose an improved methodology to constrain spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies. We use the Planck 2013 data to measure the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect at the location of 618 X-ray selected clusters. We then use a Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to obtain the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave B...

We determine the relation between the Comptonization parameter predicted using X-ray data YC, Xray and the X-ray luminosity LX, both magnitudes derived from ROSAT data, with the Comptonization parameter YC, SZ measured on Planck 2013 foreground cleaned Nominal maps. The 560 clusters of our sample includes clusters with masses M ≥ 1013M⊙, one order...

The poster refers to the full article entitled ”Constraining spatial variations of the fine structure constant using clusters of galaxies and Planck data”, 2016, arXiv:1605.03053

In the weak field limit, analytic $f(R)$ models of gravity introduce a Yukawa-like correction to the Newtonian gravitational potential. These models have been widely tested at galactic scales and provide an alternative explanation to the dynamics of galaxies without Dark Matter. We study if the temperature anisotropies due to the thermal Sunyaev-Ze...

Over the past decades, General Relativity and the concordance ΛCDM model have been successfully tested using several different astrophysical and cosmological probes based on large datasets ({\it precision cosmology}). Despite their successes, some shortcomings emerge due to the fact that General Relativity should be revised at infrared and ultravio...

We constrain the deviation of adiabatic evolution of the Universe using the data on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies measured by the Planck satellite and a sample of 481 X-ray selected clusters with spectroscopically measured redshifts. To avoid antenna beam effects, we bring all the maps to the same resolution. We use...

here are several approaches to extend General Relativity in order to explain the phenomena
related to the Dark Matter and Dark Energy. These theories, generally called Extended Theories of
Gravity, can be tested using observations coming from relativistic binary systems as PSR J0348 +0432. Using a class of analytical f(R)-theories, one can construc...

Using the Post-Keplerian parameters to obtain, in the Minkowskian limit we obtain constraints on f(R)-theories of gravity from the first time derivative of the orbital period of a sample of binary stars. In the approximation in which the theory is Taylor expandable, we can estimate the parameters of an an analytic f(R)-theory, and fulfilling the ga...

Analytical $f(R)$-gravity models introduce Yukawa-like corrections to the
Newtonian potential in the weak field limit. These models can explain the
dynamics of galaxies and cluster of galaxies without requiring dark matter. To
test the model, we have computed the pressure profile of 579 X-ray galaxy
clusters assuming the gas is in hydrostatic equil...

Models of f(R) gravity that introduce corrections to the Newtonian potential in the weak field limit are tested at the scale of galaxy clusters. These models can explain the dynamics of spiral and elliptical galaxies without resorting to dark matter. We compute the pressure profiles of 579 galaxy clusters assuming that the gas is in hydrostatic equ...

Models of f(R) gravity that introduce corrections to the Newtonian potential in the weak field limit are tested at the scale of galaxy
clusters. These models can explain the dynamics of spiral and elliptical galaxies without resorting to dark matter. We compute
the pressure profiles of 579 galaxy clusters assuming that the gas is in hydrostatic equ...