Ivan Calandra

Ivan Calandra
Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum - Archaeological research institute | RGZ · MONREPOS Archaeological Research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution

Dr. rer. nat

About

68
Publications
13,170
Reads
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1,033
Citations
Citations since 2016
54 Research Items
813 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
Additional affiliations
September 2014 - September 2016
Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne
Position
  • ATER
September 2013 - August 2014
University of Franche-Comté
Position
  • ATER
December 2011 - August 2013
University of Burgundy
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
Traceological studies aim at the recognition and the identification of use-wear traces on artefacts to gain a functional interpretation of past human technologies. However, the development of use-wear traces is known to be dependent on different mechanics involved, such as those related to the contact materials, but also to the tool raw material an...
Article
Full-text available
The scale-sensitive fractal analysis (SSFA) of dental microwear textures is traditionally performed using the software Toothfrax. SSFA has been recently integrated to the software MountainsMap® as an optional module. Meanwhile, Toothfrax support has ended. Before switching to the new module, the outputs between the two software packages must be com...
Article
Quantification and automation represent important methodological developments in dental microwear analysis and in artifact microwear (use-wear) analysis in order to address the issues of subjectivity and reproducibility of the traditional methods, increase discrimination power, and improve pattern recognition. However, automatic and quantitative me...
Poster
Full-text available
Moulding using malleable polymerising materials such as silicone rubbers is a non-destructive, low-cost and quick method for documenting and replicating the form and/or surface topography of objects. Consequently, a range of specifically formulated silicones with varying properties such as curing time, polymerisation reaction, chemical stability, c...
Article
Full-text available
The Armenian highlands encompasses rugged and environmentally diverse landscapes and is characterized by a mosaic of distinct ecological niches and large temperature gradients. Strong seasonal fluctuations in resource availability along topographic gradients likely prompted Pleistocene hominin groups to adapt by adjusting their mobility strategies....
Article
Full-text available
Metrology has been successfully used in the last decade to quantify use-wear on stone tools. Such techniques have been mostly applied to fine-grained rocks (chert), while studies on coarse-grained raw materials have been relatively infrequent. In this study, confocal microscopy was employed to investigate polished surfaces on a coarse-grained litho...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter is a comprehensive overview about the development in the field of quantitative wear analysis during the last 20 years. It focuses on specific interdisciplinary approaches that either introduced new viewpoints or solved technical problems, and in particular guided our projects within the DFG research unit 771 at the University of Hambur...
Article
Full-text available
In prehistoric human populations, technologies played a fundamental role in the acquisition of different resources and are represented in the main daily living activities, such as with bone, wooden, and stone-tipped spears for hunting, and chipped-stone tools for butchering. Considering that paleoanthropologists and archeologists are focused on the...
Preprint
Cleaning stone tool surfaces is a common procedure in lithic studies. The first step widely applied at any archaeological site (and/or at field laboratories) is the gross removal of sediment from the surfaces of artifacts. Lithic surface alterations due to mechanical action applied in wet or dry cleaning regimes have never been examined at a micros...
Article
Cleaning stone tool surfaces is a common procedure in lithic studies. The first step widely applied at any archaeological site (and/or at field laboratories) is the gross removal of sediment from the surfaces of artifacts. Lithic surface alterations due to mechanical action applied in wet or dry cleaning regimes have never been examined at a micros...
Article
Full-text available
Experimentation has always played an important role in archeology, in particular to create reference collections for use-wear studies. Different types of experiments can answer different questions; all types should therefore be combined to obtain a holistic view. In controlled experiments, some factors are tested, while the other factors are kept c...
Article
Full-text available
Use-wear studies rely heavily on experiments and reference collections to infer the function of archeological artifacts. Sequential experiments, in particular, are necessary to understand how use-wear develops. Consequently, it is crucial to analyze the same location on the tool’s surface during the course of an experiment. Being able to relocate t...
Article
Full-text available
Dental and artifact microwear analyses have a lot in common regarding the questions they address, their developmental history and their issues. However, few paleontologists and archeologists are aware of this, and even those who are, do not take into account most of the methodological insights from the other field. In this focus article, we briefly...
Poster
Full-text available
Common approaches within archaeological traceological studies harness life-like experimentation, which changes the sample surfaces through use, followed by comparison with wear-patterns on archaeological specimens (Marreiros et al., 2015). The coexistence of multiple variables and human variability in actualistic experiments makes quantification an...
Article
Full-text available
Many archeologists are skeptical about the capabilities of use-wear analysis to infer on the function of archeological tools, mainly because the method is seen as subjective, not standardized and not reproducible. Quantitative methods in particular have been developed and applied to address these issues. However, the importance of equipment, acquis...
Data
Raw data, and RStudio project, R markdown scripts and HTML outputs of the statistical procedures. All files are available on Zenodo (DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2594755).
Data
Values of ISO 25178-2 parameters on the flint and quartzite samples (1st sheet), and of ISO 4287 Ra parameter on the roughness standard (2nd sheet). Units are given in the 3rd sheet.
Data
Descriptive statistics of ISO 25178-2 parameters from both objectives on the flint and quartzite samples (1st sheet), and of ISO 4287 Ra parameter on the roughness standard (2nd sheet). n = sample size, min = minimum, max = maximum, SD = standard deviation.
Data
Python script and results of the Bayesian Multi-factor ANOVA. All files are available on Zenodo (DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2594746).
Data
PDF export of the results of the ConfoMap template applied to all analyzed surfaces. Editable *.mnt files (which include the unprocessed surfaces) are available on Zenodo (DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1479117).
Data
Raw data, and RStudio project, R markdown scripts and HTML outputs of the statistical procedures. All files are available on Zenodo (DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2594755).
Data
Python script and results of the Bayesian Multi-factor ANOVA. All files are available on Zenodo (DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2594746).
Data
Values of ISO 25178-2 parameters on the flint and quartzite samples (1st sheet), and of ISO 4287 Ra parameter on the roughness standard (2nd sheet). Units are given in the 3rd sheet.
Data
Descriptive statistics of ISO 25178-2 parameters from both objectives on the flint and quartzite samples (1st sheet), and of ISO 4287 Ra parameter on the roughness standard (2nd sheet). n = sample size, min = minimum, max = maximum, SD = standard deviation.
Data
Video of the procedure to adhere the beads onto the sample. The video has been accelerated for convenience; the whole procedure was performed in approximately 2 min and 12 s.
Data
PDF export of the results of the ConfoMap template applied to all analyzed surfaces. Editable *.mnt files (which include the unprocessed surfaces) are available on Zenodo (DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1479072)
Data
Descriptions of the ISO 25178-2 parameters applied to all surfaces. [The original file is in XLSX format but it is not allowed on RG. Feel free to ask for the raw data, or download them from Springer at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12520-019-00801-y]
Data
Descriptive statistics of ISO 25178-2 parameters on both microscopes. n = sample size, min = minimum, max = maximum, SD = standard deviation.
Data
Raw data, and R markdown scripts and HTML outputs of the statistical procedures. All files are available on Zenodo (DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2578975).
Poster
Full-text available
Common approaches within archaeological use-wear studies harness life-like experimentation, which changes the sample surfaces through use, followed by comparison with wear-patterns on archaeological specimens. The coexistence of multiple variables and human variability in actualistic experiments makes quantification and interpretation of results ch...
Poster
Full-text available
Interpreting how tool production and use might have varied through time and space is one of the main research areas for investigating the evolution of human behavior, for which functional studies are of major importance. From the current state-of-the-art in use-wear analysis, researchers rely on experimental replication of past potential uses in or...
Poster
Full-text available
Investigating how artifacts were produced and used in the past by humans is one of the key research areas in the study of human behavioral evolution. Although use-wear studies have shown promising results, a lot of criticism has been raised regarding standardization and reproducibility. Here we focus on three aspects of data acquisition and analysi...
Poster
Full-text available
Understanding artifact variability, and especially the role of different raw materials and their possible use by past humans, is one of the most debated topics in Pleistocene archaeo logy. Functional studies are critical to determine artifact use, and thus to address fundamental questions about the evolution of human behaviour. The new Laboratory f...
Article
Full-text available
Mammal teeth have evolved morphologies that allow for the efficient mechanical processing of different foods, therefore increasing dietary energy uptake for maintenance of high metabolic demands. However, individuals masticate foods with biomechanical properties at odds with the optimal function of a given tooth morphology. Here, we investigate too...
Article
Full-text available
In mammals, tooth function, and its efficiency, depends both on the mechanical properties of the food and on chewing dynamics. These aspects have rarely been studied in combination and/or at the intraspecific level. Here we applied 3D dental surface texture analysis to a sample of field voles (Microtus agrestis) trapped from Finnish Lapland at diff...
Article
Neoecology and paleoecology both seek to answer the same questions, albeit using different material, at different time scales and with different limitations. Nevertheless, too often, neoecologists neglect paleoecology, and paleoecologists only use neoecology as a baseline for actualism. One reason for this is the lack of tools that can be applied t...
Article
Plant–herbivore interactions are hypothesized to drive vole population cycles through the grazing-induced production of phytoliths in leaves. Phytoliths act as mechanical defences because they deter herbivory and lower growth rates in mammals. However, how phytoliths impair herbivore performance is still unknown. Here, we tested whether the amount...
Article
Full-text available
In the Arctic, food limitation is one of the driving factors behind small mammal population fluctuations. Active throughout the year, voles and lemmings (arvicoline rodents) are central prey in arctic food webs. Snow cover, however, makes the estimation of their winter diet challenging. We analyzed the isotopic composition of ever-growing incisors...
Article
Newly colonised, isolated habitats, like islands, provide diverse niches to be filled and are prone to facilitate ecological separation which might lead to an adaptive radiation. Examples of such radiations can be found in the Mediterranean for the genera Candiacervus (Crete), Nesogoral (Sardinia) and Hoplitomeryx (Gargano). A different strategy to...
Article
Evolution in isolated island has shaped a variety of endemic taxa with outstanding characteristics. Amongst them is the extinct bovid genus Myotragus, endemic to Mallorca and Menorca Island, for which six succeeding species have been described: M. palomboi, M. pepgonellae, M. antiquus, M. kopperi, M. batei and M. balearicus. Myotragus has developed...
Article
Large herbivorous mammals have evolved chewing systems capable of processing a large variety of structurally diverse foods. Three-dimensional (3D) surface texture parameters are applied to investigate wear mechanisms related to tooth morphology, food source, and chewing dynamics. We tested 46 industrial 3D surface texture parameters for their capab...
Article
Full-text available
The major evolutionary events that characterize the Precambrian-Cambrian transition are accompanied by profound ecological changes in the composition of benthic communities, the nature of the substrate, and the occupation of marine ecospace. The increased animal activity on and within the substrate is attested to by numerous trace fossils, such as...
Article
Mammals inhabit all types of environments and have evolved chewing systems capable of processing a huge variety of structurally diverse food components. Surface textures of cheek teeth should thus reflect the mechanisms of wear as well as the functional traits involved. We employed surface textures parameters from ISO/DIS 25178 and scale-sensitive...
Article
Mammals inhabit all types of environments and have evolved chewing systems capable of processing a huge variety of structurally diverse food components. Surface textures of cheek teeth should thus reflect the mechanisms of wear as well as the functional traits involved. We employed surface textures parameters from ISO/DIS 25178 and scale-sensitive...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to estimate changes in feeding preferences of the proboscidean species Gomphotherium subtapiroideum (Schlesinger 1917) by means of dental microwear analyses. The dietary changes are first evaluated through the ontogeny of this species, between juveniles and adults, and are then studied through geological time, from ea...
Article
Full-text available
Although low in diversity, megaherbivores (mammals weighting over 10(3) kg) and especially proboscideans have a powerful impact on the structure and dynamics of present-day ecosystems. During the Neogene (23 to 2.6 Ma) of Europe, the diversity and geographic distribution of these megaherbivores was much greater. Nonetheless, their role in past ecos...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Archived project
Project
This project investigates Late Pleistocene human – environmental interactions and seasonal mobility in a mountainous environment in the Southern Caucasus. This will be achieved through excavations at the open-air Middle Paleolithic (MP) site of Kalavan 2 (Armenia). Kalavan 2 is currently the only MP open-air locality in the Southern Caucasus with a stratified sequence that preserves faunal remains and lithic artifacts in association. Situated at 1640 masl, the site is ideally positioned for testing hypotheses on elevation-dependent seasonal mobility and subsistence strategies over repeated occupations in a single locale. The site of Kalavan 2 is situated ca. 8 km north of the current shores of Lake Sevan and 70 km northeast of Yerevan. Initially, the site was excavated by an Armenian – French expedition that exposed horizons of MP stone artifacts and animal remains distributed over at least four meters of stratified fluvial-alluvial deposits (Ghukasyan et al. 2011). In 2017 and 2018, renewed excavations at Kalavan 2 by the Armenian and Monrepos (Germany) research group exposed spatially at least three archeological layers in these deposits. All excavated layers yielded low densities of artifacts and well-preserved faunal remains indicating short occupational events. Kalavan 2 preserves evidence of hominin behavior at a high level of temporal resolution that is seldom visible at MP archaeological sites. A main goal of the current research is therefore to contextualize this evidence using multiple paleoenvironmental proxies and attempt to investigate seasonal patterns of hominin mobility and land use. The main aim of future fieldwork will be to expand the diachronic perspective at Kalavan 2 by additional excavation of further archeological horizons. This will involve exposing a large surface, to enable detailed spatial analysis of artifacts and faunal remains, and to enlarge the lithic artifact and faunal sample assemblages. These efforts will allow us to test whether or not we can identify the preservation of discrete subsistence activity areas. Kalavan 2 provides an exceptional opportunity to test hypotheses on subsistence strategies and elevation dependent annual mobility cycles that allowed hunter-gatherer populations to cope with seasonally changing resource availability, and persist in a rugged and environmentally diverse landscape. Such behavioral resolution is rarely visible archaeologically in Middle Paleolithic contexts. The proposed project is a step towards advancing an in-depth understanding of regional subsistence, mobility, and land-use patterns in the Southern Caucasus. This region at the crossroads of Eurasia was a paraglacial refugium for flora, fauna and possibly human populations, yet its role in Pleistocene human dispersals and behavioral evolution is still unresolved. Establishing a chronologically and environmentally contextualized database of regional hunter-gatherer behavior is crucial for ultimately elucidating Late Pleistocene hominin population dynamics. This project is supported by the Gerda Henkel Stiftung and Leakey Foundation.