Itamar Gati

Itamar Gati
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | HUJI · Education and Psychology

BA, MA, PhD

About

138
Publications
76,628
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7,137
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1979 - present
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 1978 - August 1979
Stanford University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (138)
Article
Full-text available
Access to online career information increases the complexity of career decisions (choosing a major or job). When the number of alternatives is large, the first step is to compile a list of promising career alternatives for further exploration, often by using interest inventories (e.g., the Self-Directed Search). But what makes such a list useful? T...
Article
Attaining higher education continues to be important for successful integration into the 21st-century world of work. The goal of the present study was to develop and test a 5-dimensional model and a corresponding measure of individuals’ orientations toward higher education––the Higher Education Orientations (HEO) questionnaire. The proposed model c...
Article
Assessing the causes of career indecision is among the first steps in career counseling. Gati et al. (1996) proposed a multidimensional taxonomy of career indecision and developed the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), consisting of 10 scales that cohere into three higher-order clusters and a total score. However, studies inv...
Article
Diagnosing the causes of clients' career indecision is among the first steps in career counseling. The present study applied latent profile analysis to identify career indecision types using the 10 difficulty scale scores of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (Gati et al., 1996). In two random U.S. samples (Ntotal = 8,918; age ra...
Article
Career decision-making difficulties are the challenges encountered by individuals before, during, or after choosing one’s career. This study tested the associations between career decision-making difficulties and depression, anxiety, and stress, considering the career decision status of participants. Students in a precollege preparatory program fil...
Article
Career decision making is among the key notions in vocational psychology. At the core of career decision making is the process comprised of compiling a list of promising alternatives, confirming which are suitable to the individual, and, after comparing them, identifying the best one. This review begins by delineating career decision making, highli...
Chapter
As the 21th-century world of work is rapidly changing, and career transitions have become more frequent, decision-making and coping skills can help individuals manage these transitions successfully. The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate ways of facilitating individuals’ career transitions using a decision-theory viewpoint and coping-with- stres...
Article
This meta-analysis examined the association between two types of difficulties in career decision making-indecision and indecisiveness-and four types of self-evaluations: generalized self-efficacy, process-related self-efficacy, content-related self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Analyses were conducted on data from 86 studies (N = 54,160): Process-rela...
Article
Dysfunctional career decision-making beliefs can impede individuals' ability to make career decisions. The present research focused on evaluating the effectiveness of a group intervention aimed at facilitating the transition to civilian life of 1,194 young adults before discharge from military service using multivariate multilevel analysis. The res...
Article
Many individuals face difficulties when making a career decision. Gati, Krausz, and Osipow (1996) proposed a taxonomy that classifies career decision-making difficulties into three major clusters, which are further subdivided into 10 categories. Based on the proposed taxonomy, they developed the Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire (CD...
Article
Individuals are challenged by increasingly more career transitions in the 21st century. Each of these transitions entails making a career decision, typically by locating promising alternatives, collecting information about them, comparing the alternatives on the short list and choosing one. Finding the areas where individuals are experiencing diffi...
Article
The goal of the present research was to develop a model of work meaning, consisting of five orientations: job (financial compensation), career (advancement and influence), calling (prosocial duty), social embeddedness (belongingness), and busyness (filling idle time with activities). Two versions of the Work Orientation Questionnaire (WOQ), which m...
Article
The goal of the present research was to assess individuals' aspect-based career preference cohesiveness. Cohesive preferences are well-defined and focused, and high preference cohesiveness facilitates career decision-making. Career aspects are factors individuals consider during career decision making, such as what major to choose (e.g., length of...
Article
Dysfunctional beliefs are among the most prevalent, severe difficulties many individuals face in the process of making career decisions. The goal of the present study was to develop and test a new multidimensional measure of Dysfunctional Career Decision-Making Beliefs (DCB). The DCB questionnaire elicits individuals’ beliefs in five aspects of car...
Article
Full-text available
We tested the associations among the career decision-making difficulties, the career decision status, and either (a) the career decision-making profiles of 575 young adults, or (b) the coping strategies of 379 young adults. As hypothesized, a more advanced decision status was negatively associated with both career decision-making difficulties (η² =...
Article
The present research investigated which strategies Israeli young adults (N = 254) use to cope with their career indecision and the perceived effectiveness of these strategies. Their perceptions of the effectiveness of coping strategies were compared to the respective judgments of career counselors (N = 36). The similarity between the young adults’...
Article
Full-text available
Strategies for Coping with Career Indecision: Convergent, Divergent, and Incremental Validity Abstract The goal of the present research was to test the convergent and divergent validity of the Strategies for Coping with Career Indecision (SCCI) model and questionnaire (Lipshits-Braziler, Gati, & Tatar, 2015a), which comprises three main coping styl...
Article
Career aspects (e.g., work environment, using verbal ability, length of training, teamwork) are an elaboration and extension of vocational interests. Aspect-based preferences can serve individuals and their career counselors only if they are reliable and stable. Study 1 estimated the two-week test–retest reliability of 213 college freshmen's prefer...
Article
Full-text available
Depression has detrimental effects on broad areas of functioning. However, its association with career decision-making factors has been largely unexplored. In the present study, we focused on the association between career decision-making difficulties, career-decision status, and career-preference crystallization, on the one hand, and depression, o...
Article
Recently, Lipshits-Braziler, Gati, and Tatar (2015a) proposed a model of strategies for coping with career indecision (SCCI), comprising three main types of strategies: Productive coping, Support-seeking, and Nonproductive coping. Using a two-wave longitudinal design (30-week time lag), the effects of these strategies on career decision status and...
Article
Assessing individuals' career decision-making difficulties and career decision-making profile (style) allows counselors to help them make better career decisions. The present study focused on the associations between the Career Decision-Making Profiles (CDMP) questionnaire and the Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ) in four lar...
Article
Making career decisions is often difficult and challenging, and one way to advance in the process is to seek help. The present research focused on the various sources of support young adults tend to look for when making their career decision and the factors that affect their actual use of these sources. Study 1 elicited the self-reported help-seeki...
Article
The present research focused on the various types of support young adults consider using when making career decisions and located factors that affect their intentions to seek help. Career decision-making difficulties (assessed by the Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire), self-reported intentions to seek help, and career decision statu...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine the internal consistency and test-retest reliability, the internal structure, and construct validity of the Chinese version of the Emotional and Personality-Related Career Difficulties questionnaire (EPCD). Based on a sample of 540 Chinese university students, high-reliability coefficients for the ove...
Article
The goal of this study was to develop and test a theoretical model of Strategies for Coping with Career Indecision (SCCI). The proposed model consists of 14 categories that represent three major coping clusters—Productive coping, Support-seeking, and Nonproductive coping. The major concepts of the model were adopted from coping theories (Frydenberg...
Chapter
The issue of social justice has been at the background of career counselling in both theory and practice from the early days of our profession (for reviews, see Fouad, Gerstein, & Toporek, 2006; Hartung & Blustein, 2002; O’Brien, 2001; Pope, Briddick, & Wilson, 2013; Savickas, 2009). As it is commonly understood, social justice refers to the distri...
Article
Career-related preferences (e.g., team work, independence, length of training, income), which are an elaboration and extension of vocational interests, are one of the cornerstones that guide individuals to promising occupations recommended for further exploration. These preferences are informative and can serve individuals and their career counselo...
Article
Career-related preferences (e.g., team work, independence, length of training, income), which are an elaboration and extension of vocational interests, are one of the cornerstones that guide individuals to promising occupations recommended for further exploration. These preferences are informative and can serve individuals and their career counselo...
Article
Career indecision may be the primary reason people go to career counselors. Much effort has been exerted to identify and investigate the causes of clients' career decision-making difficulties. With the aim of facilitating clients' career decision making, the use of career indecision assessments can promote the effectiveness and efficiency of face-t...
Article
Full-text available
Both career-related developmental indecision and chronic indecisiveness are manifested in the difficulties individuals experience when choosing a career. Developmental career indecision is often regarded as a normal stage that many individuals undergo, regardless of individual differences in various personality factors. Testing this premise was the...
Article
The current study mapped the career decision-making difficulties and career decision self-efficacy of 1315 young veterans who participated in a 5-day workshop aimed at facilitating their transition to civilian life. A pre- and post-test comparison showed that participation in the workshop reduced (d = 0.57) the participants' career decision-making...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated a new model for characterizing the way individuals make career decisions (career decision-making profiles [CDMP]). Using data from 285 students in a preacademic program, the present study assessed the association of the CDMP's dimensions with the Emotional and Personality-related Career decision-making Difficulties qu...
Article
The present research focused on gender differences in career preferences, comparing those in 2010 with those in 1990 (as reported by Gati, Osipow, & Givon, 1995). The tested hypothesis was that gender differences in aspect-based career preferences (e.g., income, teamwork, professional advancement, length of training) would have decreased over the p...
Article
A sample of 182 young adults about to choose their college major were randomly assigned to 2 guidance methods aimed at facilitating choosing among promising career alternatives: Table-for-Choice and Circles-for-Choice. Table-for-Choice was perceived as more effective, but individuals' confidence in their choice was higher in the Circles-for-Choice...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of the present study was to investigate the distinctions between career indecision and indecisiveness. The different patterns of the associations between career indecision and indecisiveness, on one hand, and personality traits, career decision-making self-efficacy, perceived social support, and emotional intelligence, on the other, were s...
Article
Career decisions are among the most complex and significant decisions individuals make during their lifetime. Many people face difficulties in making such decisions, and hence seek help. Indeed, career indecision is regarded as one of the most important constructs in vocational psychology (Kelly & Lee, 2002; Osipow, 1999), and helping individuals o...
Article
The goal of the present study was to test the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Career Decision-Making Profile (CDMP) questionnaire with a sample of 1,835 adolescents. Gati, Landman, Davidovitch, Asulin-Peretz, and Gadassi suggested that the way individuals make career decisions should not be described by a single decision-makin...
Article
The Career Decision-Making Profile (CDMP) questionnaire is a multidimensional measure of the way individuals make career decisions, developed as an alternative to the single, most-dominant trait approach. Using a sample of freshmen students, the 2-week reliability (N = 273) and 1-year stability (N = 182) of the CDMP was tested for each of the 12 CD...
Article
The present research investigated the convergent and incremental validity of the multidimensional model and questionnaire – the Career Decision-Making Profiles (CDMP, Gati, Landman, Davidovitch, Peretz-Asulin, & Gadassi, 2010) – by comparing it to two prevalent decision-making style models. Study 1 compared the CDMP to the Vocational Decision Style...
Article
Full-text available
The Career Decision-Making Profiles questionnaire (CDMP; Gati, Landman, Davidovitch, Asulin-Peretz, & Gadassi, 2010) uses a new model for characterizing the way individuals make decisions based on the simultaneous use of 11 dimensions. The present study investigated which pole of each dimension is more adaptive. Using the data of 383 young adults w...
Article
This study tests the temporal stability and the concurrent and predictive validity of the Emotional and Personality-related Career decision-making Difficulties (EPCD) model and questionnaire. Five hundred forty-three participants filled out the EPCD twice, 3 years apart. The Anxiety cluster was the most stable of the three, followed by the Self-Con...
Article
A major characteristic of the 21st century with significant implications on career decision making is the growing prevalence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Challenges involving ICT-based self-assessment and self-help interventions aimed at facilitating career decision making are discussed. Specifically, this article focuses o...
Article
This study examined the effects of cultural-values conflict and parental expectations on the career decision-making difficulties of university students in three cities in China (Beijing, Wuhan, and Hong Kong, N = 1342). The Multidimensional Scales of Individual Traditionality and Modernity (Yang, Yu, & Ye, 1989) were used as a measure of cultural-v...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigated the Emotional and Personality-related Career decision-making Difficulties model and questionnaire (EPCD) by studying its associations with various personality measures in three samples: (a) 691 deliberating individuals who entered a career self-help website, (b) 197 students in a university preparatory program, and (c...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals differ in the type and severity of the difficulties they face when making a career decision. Relying on the Gati, Krausz, and Osipow (1996) taxonomy of career decision-making difficulties, we elicited the judgements of 28 career counselling experts about factors that contribute to the perceived severity of the difficulties. Difficulties...
Article
Locating clients' career decision-making difficulties is one of the first steps in career counseling. The authors demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a systematic 4-stage procedure for locating and interpreting career decision-making difficulties by analyzing responses of 626 college students (collected by Tai, 2007) to the Career Decision-m...
Article
Previous research on individual differences in career decision-making processes has often focused on classifying individuals into a few types of decision-making styles based on the most dominant trait or characteristic of their approach to the decision process (e.g., rational, intuitive, dependent; Harren, 1979). In this research, an alternative ap...
Article
Full-text available
The present study compared gender differences in directly reported and indirectly derived career preferences and tested the hypothesis that individuals' implicit preferences would show less gender-biased occupational choices than their directly elicited ones. Two hundred sixty-six visitors to a career-related Internet site were asked to (a) list 5...
Article
This study focused on examining the persistent aspects of career decision-making difficulties, using the Emotional and Personality-related Career decision-making Difficulties scale (EPCD; [Saka, N., Gati, I., & Kelly, K.R. (in press). Emotional and personality-related aspects of career decision-making difficulties. Journal of Career Assessment]). T...
Article
Full-text available
This research develops and tests a procedure for interpreting individuals' responses in multiscale career assessments, using the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ). In Study 1, criteria for ascertaining the credibility of responses were developed, based on the judgments of 39 career-counseling experts. In Study 2, the proposed...
Chapter
Career-related choices are among the most important decisions people make during their lifetime. These choices have significant long-term implications for individuals’ lifestyles, emotional welfare, economic and social status, as well as their sense of personal productivity and contribution to society. Therefore, it is only natural that individuals...
Article
DECISION-MAKING MODELS AND CAREER GUIDANCE Itamar Gati and Shiri Tal Career-related choices are among the most important decisions people make during their lifetime. These choices have significant long-term implications for individuals’ lifestyles, emotional welfare, economic and social status, as well as their sense of personal productivity and c...
Article
Full-text available
The present research investigated the relations among the measured and the expressed career decision-making difficulties in a sample of 299 young adults who intended to apply to college or university. As hypothesised, the correlations between career decision-making difficulties, as measured by the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (...
Article
The present study tested the predictive validity of Making Better Career Decisions (MBCD), a computer-assisted career decision-making system. Seventy clients who had used MBCD six years earlier were interviewed by telephone about their present field of study or occupation and the degree of their satisfaction with their occupational choice. The part...
Article
The present research investigated the relations among the declared preferred degree for using career-related abilities in one’s future career, self-estimates of these abilities, and measured abilities in a sample of 201 career-counseling clients. The highest correlations (range .57–.65) were found between the preferred degree for using an ability a...
Article
The present study examined the relationships between two measures of career readiness and difficulties—the Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI) and the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ)—as well as the relations between these measures and the individual’s degree of decidedness regarding his or her career plans. A total of 192 unive...
Article
Features of users' responses to the Hebrew (N = 10,000) and English (N = 510) Internet versions of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (I. Gati, M. Krausz, & S. H. Osipow, 1996) were examined. The results indicated that in the proper setting, Internet versions produce reliable and valid scores.
Article
Making a career decision becomes a major priority for adolescents during the last year of high school. The present study examined the taxonomy of career decision-making difficulties among 1,613 Arab 12th-grade students attending schools in East Jerusalem, areas in the West Bank under the Palestinian National Authority, and Israel. No significant di...
Article
Making Better Career Decisions (MBCD) is an Internet-based interactive career planning system designed to help deliberating individuals. The present research examined the benefits of a dialogue with MBCD, by analyzing 712 users’ perceptions of its contribution to their career decision-making process, and locating variables associated with these per...
Article
Full-text available
Two factors that might affect the novelty value of a test stimulus (the frequency of appearance of features common to the test stimulus and the set of preceding stimuli, and the serial position of these features) were systematically manipulated, and their effects on the electrodermal component of the orienting response (OR) were examined. We presen...
Article
The authors present a 3-stage model—Prescreening, In-depth exploration, and Choice (PIC)—aimed at increasing the quality of the career decision-making process and its outcome. PIC provides a framework for a dynamic and interactive process that emphasizes the role of career counselors as decision counselors, whose aim is to facilitate an active deci...
Article
The present study compared English and Hebrew paper-and- pencil and Internet versions of the Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ). First, the response pattern of 417 clients who filled out the Hebrew paper-and-pencil version was compared with the response pattern found for a matched sample of 837 individuals who visited a career...
Article
The present study examined the pattern of career decision-making difficulties encountered by 417 young adults who used one or more of the computer-assisted career guidance systems (CACGSs) available at one of the Israeli Veteran Administration's counselling centres, and assessed the effectiveness of these CACGSs in reducing their career decision-ma...
Article
The present study examined the construct of career-related decision-making difficulties among 1,843 Israeli adolescents: choosing a high school (9th grade), choosing high school elective courses (10th grade), and deciding on a military job preference (11th grade). Three versions of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ) were c...
Article
The first stage of the career decision-making process is prescreening, which aims at locating promising alternatives deserving further exploration. J. L. Holland's (1997) concepts of differentiation, consistency, and coherence were adapted to cases in which an individual's career-related preferences, which serve as guidelines for locating such prom...
Article
The present comment is divided into three parts. The first discusses some distinctions which have not received the attention they deserve (e.g., the distinction between occupational and job congruence or between choice and adjustment). In the second, a few of Tinsley's 10 Principles are discussed. Particular attention is given to the importance of...
Article
The prediction that orienting response (OR) reinstatement is negatively related to the measure of common features, shared by the stimulus input and representations of preceding events, and positively related to the measure of their distinctive features, was examined. A nonsignificant test stimulus (TS) was presented after nine repetitions of a stan...
Article
In order to examine the validity of the Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), we obtained the CDDQ responses of 95 career counselees as well as their career counselors' judgments of their counselees' career decision-making difficulties. The structure of the decision-making difficulty categories of the CDDQ was similar to that pr...
Article
The prediction that orienting response (OR) reinstatement is negatively related to the measure of common features, shared by the stimulus input and representations of preceding events, and positively related to the measure of their distinctive features, was examined. A nonsignificant test stimulus (TS) was presented after nine repetitions of a stan...
Article
The authors investigated the effects of 3 framings of career compromise (I. Gati, 1993): in terms of alternatives, aspect importance, and within-aspect preferences. Three groups of Israeli young adults ( ns = 95, 108, and 154) and 71 school counselors were presented with hypothetical stories about individuals whose career decision involved a compro...
Article
The authors investigated the effects of 3 framings of career compromise (I. Gati, 1993): in terms of alternatives, aspect importance, and within-aspect preferences. Three groups of Israeli young adults (ns = 95, 108, and 154) and 71 school counselors were presented with hypothetical stories about individuals whose career decision involved a comprom...
Article
Focusing on the aspect-based approach to person–environment (P–E) fit, the present research had two goals: first, to explore the relations among the aspects as reflected in their structure, and second, to examine the stability of this structure by comparing two aspect structures. To achieve these goals, the patterns of the intercorrelations among 4...
Article
The notion of career-related aspects is presented as a potential framework for career decision-making and for assessing person–environment fit. The features of the aspects-based approach are described with reference to the two main stages of career decision-making—prescreening and in-depth exploration. Next, the distinction between the relative imp...
Article
In order to examine the construct and concurrent validity of the Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), responses of 403 university students (76% freshmen) to this questionnaire as well as to the Career Decision Scale (CDS) and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSES) were analyzed. As hypothesized, the correlation...
Article
Compromise is a significant component of career decisions as well as many other personal decisions. This article presents a conceptual model for dealing with career compromise and discusses its implications for the career counseling process. The model identifies three possible framings that individuals may adopt when facing compromise. Specifically...
Article
Presents 13 criteria counselors can use to evaluate computer-assisted career guidance systems, in three categories: occupational database, career decision-making process, and effectiveness of computerized interaction. Suggests how evaluation data can be used to select systems, increase their effective use, and provide feedback to developers. (SK)
Article
Several aspects of a feature-matching theory formulated to account for the roles of stimulus novelty and significance in determining orienting responses (ORs) were examined. Stimulus significance and stimulus novelty were independently manipulated, and the electrodermal component of the OR was measured while sequences of compound pictorial or verba...
Article
In the present study, we investigated orienting response generalization across various types of semantically related stimuli. Four experiments, based on a modified version of the guilty knowledge technique, were designed to examine whether semantic relations based on abstract features are reflected by electrodermal responsivity. No generalization a...
Article
Full-text available
A general theoretical taxonomy of career decision-making difficulties, based on decision theory, has been developed. To examine the proposed taxonomy empirically, a questionnaire was constructed in which the various possible difficulties in the theoretical model were represented by respective statements. The questionnaire was administered to a samp...
Article
The relations between person and environment (P-E) fit, defined on the basis of career-related aspects and occupational satisfaction, was examined. The characteristics of 12 occupations along 36 career-related aspects were elicited from 12 career counselors. Thirty professionals in each of the 12 occupations reported their preferences in the same s...
Article
address the challenge of integrating theory and practice in career decision making by focusing on CACGSs [computer-assisted career guidance systems] as representatives of innovative practical theory-based interventions / begin by reviewing career decision making from a decision-theoretic viewpoint / [review] the potential role of CACGSs as facilita...
Article
To identify possible sources of the observed differences in the career choices of women and men, three facets of career preferences were examined: the relative importance attributed to career-related aspects, the within-aspect preferences (i.e., desirable characteristics of occupations), and the structure of aspects derived from these within-aspect...
Article
Presents a practical procedure for career decision making, based on the sequential elimination approach, to provide an advantageous framework to help counselors improve the quality and outcomes of career decision making. This procedure relies on decision and information processing theories and consists of 9 steps, including defining and structuring...
Article
This study focused on the effects of common and distinctive stimulus components on the generalization of the orienting response (OR) to significant stimuli. Compound pictorial stimuli were used as the relevant items memorized by the subjects. Skin conductance responses were measured during the subsequent presentation of a stimulus sequence that inc...
Article
Discusses dilemmas and problems raised by the development and utilization of computer-assisted career guidance systems (CACGSs), a tool used to facilitate the career decision-making process of deliberating counselees. These dilemmas involve (1) the occupational database, (2) the complexity of the career decision-making process, (3) the effectivenes...
Article
The present study evaluated the internal structure of two translated multiple-scale questionnaires: the Task-Specific Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale (TSOSS; Osipow, Temple, & Rooney, 1993) and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE; Taylor & Betz, 1983). Data were obtained during a pilot study for testing the Hebrew versions of the...
Article
Compromise constitutes a significant component in career decisions. In this article 3 facets of compromise are discussed: compromising between occupational alternatives, compromise in terms of the importance of the aspects relevant for the comparison between the alternatives, and compromise regarding preferences within each of these aspects. An int...
Article
Investigated the processes that underlie career-related preferences and the readiness to make compromises. In Study 1, 3,265 monitored dialogs with a computer-assisted career guidance system were analyzed. In Study 2, the occupational preferences of 60 young adults elicited by detailed questionnaires were analyzed. Within-S analyses in both studies...
Article
The relationship between electrodermal responsivity and stimulus similarity was previously demonstrated in a series of studies. These studies were guided by a feature-matching model according to which similarity is an additive function of the common and distinctive features of the stimuli. In these experiments common and distinctive features were s...
Article
Most career decisions involve compromises. The need to compromise can be attributed to the fact that the characteristics of the options in the occupational world do not necessarily match the ideal career image of the career decision maker. This study examined the readiness to compromise and the content of compromise in 1,252 deliberating women and...
Article
Interpretations of 100 career counselees' responses to the Self-Directed Search (SDS) were examined. The agreement between the scales (types) that were identified as relevant by the algorithm developed for this study and by 5 career counselors was as high as the agreement among the counselors (85%). The agreement between the counselors and Holland'...