Ismael Vaccaro

Ismael Vaccaro
McGill University | McGill · Department of Anthropology

PhD. Environmental Anthropology

About

81
Publications
26,012
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
907
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2006 - present
McGill University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (81)
Article
Full-text available
This article develops a methodology aimed at generating a systematic social diagnosis of social and natural landscapes. The analytical process is divided into six easily replicable and causatively connected steps. The goal is two-fold: first, to present the inextricable connections between physical landscapes and the communities that occupy them. A...
Article
Full-text available
This article explicitly connects a growing body of specific literature, the political ecology of conservation, to some of the often overlooked, main conceptual components emerging from political anthropology and geography (sources of legitimacy, governmentality, territoriality, or state making), political economy (commoditization, market integratio...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we discuss the process by which the upper areas of the Alt Urgell, in Northern Spain, are redefining themselves in order to survive in the new postindustrial order. These communities, during the twentieth century, witnessed a steady demographic and economic collapse that resulted in a progressive decline of agricultural activities a...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last 20 years the theoretical concept of the commons has come to be used not only in the field of natural resources management, but also as a key notion in domains as diverse as the digital economy and alternative politics. The wide use of the term has, however, led to a loss of specificity in the way it is used. Across several disciplines...
Article
Full-text available
As a result of the financialization of household and national economies, indebtedness has become a system of domination shaping the making of contem- porary subjects. This sort of governmentality through debt is a multifaceted phe- nomenon affecting people’s economic and political behavior in both the North and the South. Disguised and legitimized...
Article
Contemporary indigenous Zapotec rural villages of the northern sierra region of Oaxaca state exhibit profound transformations in their agricultural strategies. Since the mid‐twentieth century, its agricultural lands have suffered a gradual process of abandonment. As a consequence, forest transition is occurring around the villages, and the cultivar...
Article
Full-text available
After the brown bear reintroduction program was launched in the Pyrenees in 1996, the French and Spanish States fostered and funded a regrouping policy to protect the sheep flocks from the bear attacks. Drawing on a comparative analysis between two Catalan districts in north-eastern Spain (Val d'Aran and Pallars Sobirà) and the Ariège district in s...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we aim to explore the still incipient first steps of the return of extractivism to Europe, examining the geopolitical context that led to a reemergence of metal mining in rural areas. Previous emphasis on nature conservation and tourism promotion, equally fostered from European stances since the 70s on, are nowadays being confronted...
Article
Dans cet article, nous étudions les utilisations locales du territoire associées aux formes alternatives de conservation des valeurs naturelles dans les Pyrénées catalanes, dans le nordest de l’Espagne. Dans les Pyrénées, région où de nombreuses aires protégées ont été créées, la conservation de l’environnement ne se limite pas aux projets et actio...
Article
Full-text available
Community-based approaches are pursued in recognition of the need for place-based responses to environmental change that integrate local understandings of risk and vulnerability. Yet the potential for fair adaptation is intimately linked to how variations in perceptions of environmental change and risk are treated. There is, however, little empiric...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses on understanding rural life and how agrarian everyday life changes as a consequence of the radical socio-economic transformations that, across the world, have accompanied rural communities in their transition from economies of subsistence to industrial production, and, in some areas, from there to providers of service to the to...
Chapter
Full-text available
En Cataluña, los efectos de la crisis económica de la última década obligan a revisar algunas de las conclusiones establecidas desde la antropología de la conservación acerca del protagonismo del Estado y el peso de las iniciativas privadas en la gestión del patrimonio natural. El análisis histórico de la implementación de las políticas conservacio...
Article
Full-text available
En els últims anys, els comunals han adquirit un protagonisme significatiu a les muntanyes de l'Alt Pirineu. Les antigues formes de gestió de l'aprofitament dels recursos naturals sembla que ofereixen un potencial renovat en un context caracteritzat per nous usos del territori i noves demandes en l'àmbit de la participació política. En realitat, la...
Article
Full-text available
The debate around the commons has often been dominated by ideological opinions about their social, economic, environmental, and political implications. Catalan High Pyrenees districts, where historically common property has had a wide territorial presence, provide many arguments to analyze the discussions around common property from a conceptual st...
Article
Full-text available
Because the Anthropocene by definition is an epoch during which environmental change is largely anthropogenic and driven by social, economic, psychological and political forces, environmental social scientists can effectively analyse human behaviour and knowledge systems in this context. In this subject review, we summarize key ways in which the en...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the cross-scale nature of how natural resource trading links to local extraction patterns remains a topic of great relevance to stewardship and sustainable use of ecological systems. Microeconomic influences on a society’s pattern of smallscale natural resources utilization can exacerbate resource overuse, especially under increased p...
Article
Full-text available
Les comarques de l'Alt Pirineu concentren un alt percentatge de terrenys de titularitat pública. La grandària de les finques i les forests pertanyents a les entitats locals (municipis i EMD) i a la Generalitat assoleix avui el 91,1% de la superfície de la Val d'Aran, el 66,6% a l'Alta Ribagorça i el 63,8% al Pallars Sobirà, les tres comarques catal...
Chapter
Full-text available
En este trabajo pretendemos identificar y analizar las huellas que han dejado las diferentes formas de conformación del espacio y de utilización de los recursos en el paisaje pirenaico. Los Pirineos contemporáneos, en tanto que constituyen un territorio socializado, son el resultado de un conflicto entre los modos tradicionales de gestión del espac...
Article
Full-text available
Local perceptions of environmental and climate change, as well as associated adaptations made by local populations, are fundamental for designing comprehensive and inclusive mitigation and adaptation plans both locally and nationally. In this paper, we analyze people's perceptions of environmental and climate-related transformations in communities...
Article
Full-text available
Os montes Pirineus contemporâneos foram convertidos em uma reserva ambiental. O agudo processo de despovoamento experimentado durante o século XX, e a apropriação progressiva de grande parte de seu território por parte do Estado para implementar políticas de conservação, favoreceram o reaparecimento, através da reintrodução, da promoção ou da recup...
Article
Full-text available
Development has been a dominant trope of the global political and economic life of the world since the 1950s. As such it has been inevitably linked to some of the most important social processes of this era: colonialism, globalization, postcolonialism, global ecological crisis, the rise of environmentalism, and more. The consolidation of the contem...
Article
Full-text available
El mateix any que es va estrenar La nit del caçador, el general Franco declarava l'espai comprès per les capçaleres dels rius Escrita i Sant Nicolau com a parc nacional, d'acord amb la llei vigent del 1916. El Parc Nacional d'Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici, el cinquè parc espanyol, es creava l'any després dels del Teide i la Caldera de Tabur...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary scholarship increasingly emphasizes that modern state sovereignty does not depend on the control of a strictly bounded and uniformly governed territory. Rather, authority now stems from a variety of different actors, within and external to states, who enact shared forms of power over different areas of national territory for different...
Article
Full-text available
En este artículo realizamos una aproximación general a la sociogenésis de la conservación moderna y pública de la naturaleza. Para ello distinguimos tres etapas. La primera estará marcada por la búsqueda del anhelado paraíso perdido: a finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX, el paisaje concentrará valores identitarios, patrióticos y nacionalista...
Article
Full-text available
El patrimoni immaterial en el patrimoni natural Un retorn al misticisme En aquest article fem un breu recorregut sobre la conflu-ència del patrimoni natural i immaterial a través de les normatives internacionals que marquen les polítiques públi-ques. Analitzem, com a exem-ple, la proposta d'Europarc-España per a la incorporació del patrimoni immate...
Book
Full-text available
La proliferació de les àrees protegides és un fenomen destacat dels Pirineus contemporanis. Els parcs i les reserves s'han estès per unes muntanyes que fins fa unes poques dècades recolzaven les formes de vida d'amplis sectors de població. La funció assignada avui a aquests territoris respon a unes demandes, de procedència urbana, associades al tur...
Chapter
During the last one hundred fifty years the communities of the Spanish Pyrenees have experienced several waves of public policies that have completely transformed the local administrative regimes: municipalization, disentailment, forest expropriations, and conservation policies. This historical genealogy of public policies was informed by "moderniz...
Chapter
Full-text available
Este capítulo trata de las variables económicas y políticas que intervienen en el proceso por el que la naturaleza se ha convertido en un patrimonio público y ha adquirido un valor como mercancía. Nos referiremos, en primer lugar, a la historia de la conservación. El objetivo es mostrar la conservación de la naturaleza como un factor importante en...
Chapter
Full-text available
El establecimiento de espacios naturales protegidos es un fenómeno que se ha generalizado a nivel mundial en las últimas décadas y que ha adquirido una presencia especialmente significativa en las regiones de alta montaña. La comarca pirenaica del Pallars Sobirà, donde dos terceras partes del territorio se hallan sujetas a alguna figura de protecci...
Article
Full-text available
Collective action theory predicts that natural resource management at a local level has a higher probability of success if territoriality and jurisdiction of the managerial institution are in synchrony with mobility and territoriality of the resource and exploitation patterns of local users. In several East African lakes local managerial institutio...
Article
Full-text available
This article assesses the territorial impact of the ski industry in two areas of the Spanish Pyrenees (Aragon Pyrenees and the Catalan High Pyrenees). By analyzing the changes on demographic dynamics and structure, economic portfolio, and evolution of the built structure of these areas since the construction of the ski resorts, we, firstly, identif...
Chapter
Full-text available
Els usos tradicionals de les muntanyes tradueixen un coneixement empíric sobre els ecosistemes d'aquestes que s'ha anat acumulant durant generacions, expliquen la configuració històrica dels seus paisatges i són, per això, una part fonamental del patrimoni immaterial de la seva població. Les ciències socials estan capacitades per fer contribucions...
Article
Full-text available
The twentieth century has deepened and increased global interconnected-ness. Furthermore, the networks that link most places of the world are now dominated by their most powerful nodes: cities. Cities have large socio-ecological footprints (Cronon 1992). Their survival requires large amounts of resources, and their populations constitute large mark...
Chapter
Full-text available
En los últimos veinte años, la conservación se ha convertido en un tema central de interés para el conjunto de las ciencias sociales y para la antropología en particular. Este proceso, que comenzó con una serie de estudios sobre las relaciones entre algunas áreas protegidas y sus comunidades humanas, conformará pronto una línea de trabajo que abarc...
Article
Full-text available
The contemporary Pyrenees are becoming an environmental reservoir. The pronounced process of human depopulation experienced during the twentieth century and the progressive appropriation of large parts of its territory by the states to implement conservation policies have resulted in the return, via reintroduction or natural regeneration, of charis...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, using a political ecology framework, we examine the impacts of statemaking technologies in several areas of the Pyrenean mountain range, Spain. We describe processes of governmental territorialization in a European, non-colonial setting, stressing their effect on the conceptualization and management of natural resources. Conservation...
Article
Full-text available
Under-differentiating classificatory systems pose methodological problems for cultural domain analysis in particular, and ethnobiology in general. Our analysis suggests the Roviana people from the Western Solomon Islands do not have a word for the category “insects” and their classification scheme for little terrestrial animals is rather generic an...
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses the ways in which the predominant economic mechanisms of capitalism, characterized by a hyper-mobility of flows, affect actual places and people. The rationality informing these mechanisms is the quest for a reduction of costs and the increase of potential benefit, and this can only be achieved by jumping from locale to local...
Book
Full-text available
The relationship between human communities and the environment is extremely complex. In order to resolve the issues involved with this relationship, interdisciplinary research combining natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities is necessary. Here, specialists summarise methods and research strategies for various aspects of social research d...
Book
Full-text available
This innovative work of historical ecology advances the integration of research on environmental and social systems, contributing important lessons for contemporary natural resource policy and management. A diverse, international region, the Pyrenees has been characterized as a quintessential example of rural areas across Europe and North America....
Chapter
Full-text available
The establishment of natural protected spaces is a phenomenon which has spread throughout the world in recent decades and which has acquired a particularly important presence in high mountain areas (Europarc, 2008; Santamarina, 2005). The Pyrenean county of Pallars Sobirà in which two thirds of the territory is subject to some kind of environmental...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter we will discuss the economic and political variables that play a role in the understanding of the process by which nature has become public heritage and a commodity worth preserving as heritage. These pages will firstly present the history of conservation. The goal is to present conservation as an important element in the developmen...
Chapter
Full-text available
Desde el año 2003, a partir de la creación del Parque Natural del Alt Pirineu, más de dos terceras partes del territorio del Pallars Sobirà se hallan sujetas a algún tipo de protección de sus valores naturales. El establecimien-to masivo de espacios naturales protegidos es un fenómeno que se ha gene-ralizado en todo el mundo en las últimas décadas...
Chapter
In this chapter, we examine the characteristics of the Pallars Sobirà landscape, and reflect upon the dynamic interactions between nature, politics, and society it demonstrates. The analysis of the landscape, understood as ‘the material manifestation of the relations between humans and the environment’ (Crumley 1994: 6), cannot limit itself to the...
Chapter
The studies included in this compilation analyze distinct historical social processes with clear ecological, economic, political and cultural repercussions. The Pyrenees, with their forests, valleys, water, animals, and landscapes, is a region with a rich abundance of natural resources. As a consequence, different social groups, both local and fore...
Chapter
Full-text available
En los primeros años del siglo XXI, el lobo y el oso han reaparecido en los Pirineos, el Estado destina recursos a la gestión de algunas poblaciones de ungulados salvajes y, después de décadas de haberse producido los últimos avistamientos, los buitres y las nutrias vuelven a estar presentes en los cielos y los ríos de la región. La creciente prese...
Article
Full-text available
In these pages we reflect on the process of transformation of the Catalan Pyrenees from a peripheral and economically decaying area to a first-rate tourism center. Real estate speculation has replaced depopulation. The economic and social value of the territory has dramatically shifted as it has gone from supporting low profitability ranching activ...
Article
Full-text available
In these pages we reflect on the process of transformation of the Catalan Pyrenees from a peripheral and economically decaying area to a first-rate tourism center. Real estate speculation has replaced depopulation. The economic and social value of the territory has dramatically shifted as it has gone from supporting low profitability ranching activ...
Article
Full-text available
Development studies have often evolved amidst a tension between the tendency to declare all forms of communal management archaic and in need of modernisation via privatisation and market integration, and the temptation to essentialise indigenous management with nostalgia while vilifying market impacts. Closer examination suggests that common proper...
Article
Full-text available
The Pyrenees are becoming an environmental reservoir. The acute human depopulation experienced during the twentieth century and the progressive appropriation of large parts of the mountainous territory by the state in order to implement conservation policies have resulted in the return, via reintroduction or natural regeneration, of bears, wolves,...
Article
Full-text available
If current trends of declining fertility rates and increasing abandonment of rural land as a result of urbanization continue, this will signal a globally significant transformation with important consequences for policy makers interested in conservation planning. This transformation is presently evident in a number of countries and projections sugg...
Article
In this article the contemporary Spanish Pyrenees are explained as the result of the transformative agency of the modern state. ne process of reorganization of the natural resources of these mountains through different types of public policies is explained. The analysis of the historical progression of the different waves of transformation of the P...
Article
Full-text available
In the last twenty years the Pyrenean social landscape has experienced a significant change associated with shifts on the uses of its natural resources. Communities previously characterized by their high rates of depopulation are now in a process of relative demographic recovery. This change is associated to a shift from primary economic activities...
Article
Full-text available
This article reflects on the changing relationships between productive activities, social relations and ethnobiological knowledge in Cornellà de Llobregat. Cornellà is a town located near the city of Barcelona, Spain, which experienced a rapid process of urbanization during the twentieth century. The article explores the transformation of this city...
Article
Full-text available
This study describes the seascape ecology of the Roviana Lagoon in the Western Solomon Islands. Using a combination of ecological and ethnographic data, we analyze the dominant characteristics of the habitats represented in the area, the prevalent environmental phenomena, and the productive practices exerted in these habitats by the local inhabitan...
Book
Full-text available
Las aportaciones realizadas desde la antropología en relación con las áreas protegidas están contribuyendo a destacar las dimensiones sociales de las políticas de conservación. Los parques y las reservas deben considerarse como figuras políticas (y no espacios meramente naturales), como figuras de gestión territorial, en la medida que establecen nu...
Chapter
Full-text available
ResumenIdioma El análisis de las figuras de protección ambiental desde la antropología se justifica porque estas nuevas formas de apropiación instituyen normas que regulan aspectos tales como cuál debe ser el uso de determinados territorios, quiénes pueden llevarlo a cabo y cómo esto va a ser controlado. Nos interesa saber cómo han llegado a implan...
Chapter
Full-text available
Este trabajo analiza el moderno proceso de transformación de las zonas rurales de montaña que tiene lugar en el marco de una definición postmaterialista de los recursos naturales y una reorientación de los flujos demográficos, económicos e ideológicos asociados a su gestión. Esta reorganización del espacio, los usos y los recursos está mediatizada,...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reflects on what is called the process of 'patrimonialization' of culture and nature currently taking place in the Western mountainous inlands of the Spanish Eastern Pyrenees. Landscapes, as cultural and historical formations, are presently being commodified and connected to global networks of consumption dominated by urban and 'postmate...
Article
Full-text available
At the dawn of the twenty first century, nature, in the valley of Lillet, is represented by luxuriant forests, the return of charismatic animal species and dramatic landscapes. The valley of Lillet is located in the Catalan Pyrenees in Northeast Spain. Its complex recent history has left deep tracks on its landscape. The wilderness that currently c...
Article
Full-text available
The current globalization of the world is resulting on entire regions suffering sudden structural reconfigurations through the re-organization of economic activities of industrial towns and agrarian landscapes. Contemporary Western societies have seen industries and its associated values move away to cheaper locales, replaced by a services economy...
Article
Full-text available
The expansion and consolidation of the state's sovereignty and the market economy in the Pyrenees, in northeast Spain, took place through the implementation of a series of territorialisation policies designed to reorganise the territory, its natural resources and its population. This process was supposed to introduce state-driven modernity into the...
Chapter
Full-text available
En este capítulo queremos presentar las características generales del paisaje del Pallars Sobirà y reflexionar acerca de la interacción dinámica que muestra entre naturaleza, política y sociedad. El análisis del paisaje, entendido como "la manifestación material de la relación entre los humanos y el medio ambiente" (Crumley, 1994), no puede limitar...
Chapter
Full-text available
En este libro se recogen una serie de artículos que reflexionan sobre los cambios experimentados por los Pirineos y sus comunidades humanas en los últimos cuarenta años. Durante este tiempo el paisaje pirenaico ha pasado de sufrir un acusado proceso de despoblación a caracterizarse por un predominio del turismo y de las políticas públicas de conser...
Book
Full-text available
La implantación de grandes complejos turísticos, la construcción masiva de segundas residencias y la creciente expansión de las figuras de protección ambiental constituyen elementos indicativos de los cambios experimentados por los Pirineos en los últimos años. De un extremo a otro de la cordillera y a ambos lados de la frontera administrativa, las...
Thesis
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Washington, 2005. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (p. 309-329).
Article
Full-text available
This article identifies the current explosion of conservation policies in the Pyrenees as the most recent wave of a long-standing tradition of state-driven territorial policies. The very existence of these policies cannot be understood without taking into account the consequences of two hundred years of territorial rationalization, land expropriati...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The designation of natural protected areas constitutes one of the main governmental strategies for the conservation of nature. The institutionalization of conservation in Spain in recent decades has mirrored the also notorious development of these policies worldwide. However, it has also coincided with the decentralization of the Spanish state and the constitution of autonomous regional governments (AR), which have became responsible for conservation policies. Natural parks, which rely on a management model that aims to make compatible the preservation of nature and certain human uses, have been one of their key instruments. They are currently the most broadly used instrument in conservation and cover the largest area; up to 8,5% of terrestrial lands in some regions. Nowadays, after four decades since the designation of the first natural parks in Spain, we are in a privileged position to analyse their development diachronically. This research proposal aims to evaluate this process from the perspective of Environmental Anthropology. The research seeks to carry out a comparative analysis between the different conservation logics that have been dominant in different ARs by looking at the particular case of natural parks. As environmental anthropologists, we approach conservation as a socioecological process. Together with the biological and ecological indicators that tend to monopolize environmental studies, other indicators such as economic dynamics, institutional governance or environmental understandings should also have a preeminent position in this kind of analysis. Rather frequent people-park conflicts or the influence of conservation in the development of tourism in parks are good evidence of the social dimension of conservation. Comparison between case studies will permit us to identify the elements that have been influential in the development of conservation and to suggest future directions. The project will focus on three different autonomous regions (Catalonia, Andalusia and Valencian Community). This comparative study thus provides us with a representative sample of different forms of conservation management at regional level. Alongside traditional methods of anthropological research (participant observation and interviews), this proposal also includes the analysis of other sources (material for the park promotion, management instruments or sociodemographic statistics), as well as other less frequent research techniques (participatory workshops and focus groups). The kind of critical and systematic assessment of conservation models that we aim to carry out in this project has been rather absent from the existing anthropological literature. To redress this would also mean going beyond legislative and statistical indicators, which are frequently used in the analysis of public policies, as well as other broadly-present indicators in environmental studies. Conservation, as one of the most important political phenomena of our time, must be approached from a holistic perspective that takes into consideration its multiple social dimensions, which would help define new actions and forms of conservation management with better results.
Project
This research project seeks to understand emerging tensions at a regional level derived from the implementation of a large-scale cross-border conservation program.
Project
Este proyecto se propone investigar las transformaciones experimentadas en la gestión y los usos del patrimonio en el contexto de la crisis actual, analizando los efectos de la reducción presupuestaria y los cambios en la conceptualización del patrimonio en contextos locales.