Irina S Druzhinina

Irina S Druzhinina
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew · Accelerated Taxonomy

Professor
Editor, Applied and Environmental Microbiology (AEM), ASM, USA

About

418
Publications
98,251
Reads
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12,181
Citations
Citations since 2017
101 Research Items
6917 Citations
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,2001,400
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,2001,400
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,2001,400
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,2001,400
Additional affiliations
December 2018 - July 2022
Nanjing Agricultural University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Professor, head of the FungiG: Fungal genomics group
September 2016 - December 2018
TU Wien
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2014 - August 2016
TU Wien
Position
  • Assistant Professor, Leader Microbiology Group
Education
October 1998 - November 2001
University of Vienna
Field of study
  • Natural Science
September 1997 - October 1998
University of Vienna
Field of study
  • Botany
September 1991 - July 1996

Publications

Publications (418)
Article
Full-text available
Trichoderma is a genus of common filamentous fungi that display a remarkable range of lifestyles and interactions with other fungi, animals and plants. Because of their ability to antagonize plant-pathogenic fungi and to stimulate plant growth and defence responses, some Trichoderma strains are used for biological control of plant diseases. In thi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The growing importance of the ubiquitous fungal genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) requires understanding of its biology and evolution. Many Trichoderma species are used as biofertilizers and biofungicides and T. reesei is the model organism for industrial production of cellulolytic enzymes. In addition, some highly opportunis...
Article
Full-text available
Fungal evolutionary biology is impeded by the scarcity of fossils, irregular life cycles, immortality, and frequent asexual reproduction. Simple and diminutive bodies of fungi develop inside a substrate and have exceptional metabolic and ecological plasticity, which hinders species delimitation. However, the unique fungal traits can shed light on e...
Article
Full-text available
Modern taxonomy has developed towards the establishment of global authoritative lists of species that assume the standardized principles of species recognition, at least in a given taxonomic group. However, in fungi, species delimitation is frequently subjective because it depends on the choice of a species concept and the criteria selected by a ta...
Article
Full-text available
Higher fungi can rapidly produce large numbers of spores suitable for aerial dispersal. The efficiency of the dispersal and spore resilience to abiotic stresses correlate with their hydrophobicity provided by the unique amphiphilic and superior surface-active proteins–hydrophobins (HFBs)–that self-assemble at hydrophobic/hydrophilic interfaces and...
Article
Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition often tends to negatively impact the functions of belowground ectomycorrhizal networks, although the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this trait are still unclear. Here, we assess how the root-associated fungus Clitopilus hobsonii establishes an ectomycorrhiza-like association with its host tree Populus tomen...
Article
Full-text available
The Pythium (Peronosporales, Oomycota) genus includes devastating plant pathogens that cause widespread diseases and severe crop losses. Here we have uncovered a far greater arsenal of virulence factor-related genes in the necrotrophic Pythium myriotylum compared to other Pythium plant pathogens. The genome of a plant-virulent P. myriotylum strain...
Preprint
Fungi have evolved a plethora of functionally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs) to enhance their adaptation to various environments. To understand how structurally diverse metabolites contribute to fungal adaptation, we elucidate fungus-mycohost specific interactions mediated by a family of polypeptides, i.e., peptaibols. We specified that peptai...
Chapter
Before the introduction of molecular techniques, the taxonomy of Trichoderma consisted of several dozen species defined based on their morphology, biogeography, and ecophysiology. However, the last two decades have resulted in the rapid expansion of species diversity in the genus. Currently, the genus Trichoderma has at least 469 species names, amo...
Chapter
The spectrum of filamentous fungi emerging as opportunistic human pathogens is widening constantly. Various types of mycoses with often severe, occasionally even fatal outcome have been attributed to different species of the genus Trichoderma, usually in patients with an impaired immune system. However, cases involving non-immunocompromised hosts a...
Chapter
Mycoparasitism of Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) on plant pathogenic fungi is used for the biological control of such pests. To develop next-generation technology-driven Trichoderma-based products, recent studies have addressed the molecular mechanisms of Trichoderma mycoparasitism. In this chapter, we review the studies of functional geneti...
Chapter
This chapter presents a literature overview about the green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms caused by Trichoderma species, a problem which may result in serious economic damage due to substantial losses of crop yield in mushroom production. The first major green mould epidemic struck the production of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)...
Article
Pythium species are devasting pathogens causing major crop losses, e.g., damping-off in sugar beet caused by Pythium ultimum and root-rot of tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The use of natural antagonistic microorganisms is a promising environment-friendly approach to control Pythium-caused plant diseases. There are several examples of bioc...
Article
Asexually reproducing fungi play a significant role in essential processes in managed and wild ecosystems such as nutrients cycling and multitrophic interactions. A large number of such taxa are among the most notorious plant and animal pathogens. In addition, they have a key role in food production, biotechnology and medicine. Taxa without or rare...
Article
Full-text available
The filamentous mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma asperelloides (Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Dikarya) strain T 203 was isolated from soil in Israel by the Ilan Chet group in the 1980s. As it has been the subject of laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments and has been incorporated into commercial agricultural preparations, its genome has been sequ...
Article
Full-text available
Biological waste degradation is the main driving factor for landfill emissions. In a 2-year laboratory experiment simulating different landfill in-situ aeration scenarios, the microbial degradation of solid waste under different oxygen conditions (treatments) was investigated. Nine landfill simulation reactors were operated in triplicates under thr...
Article
Full-text available
Comparative and pan-genomic analyses of the endophytic fungus Pezicula neosporulosa (Helotiales, Ascomycota) from needles of the relict fir, Abies beshanzuensis, showed expansions of carbohydrate metabolism and secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes characteristic for unrelated plant-beneficial helotialean, such as dark septate endophytes and eric...
Article
Full-text available
Biological control is a promising approach to suppress diseases caused by Pythium spp. such as Pythium soft rot of ginger caused by P. myriotylum. Unusually for a single genus, it also includes species that can antagonise Pythium plant pathogens, such as Pythium oligandrum. We investigated if a new isolate of P. oligandrum could antagonize P. myrio...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how organisms adapt to extreme living conditions is central to evolutionary biology. Dark septate endophytes (DSEs) constitute an important component of the root mycobiome and they are often able to alleviate host abiotic stresses. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial association between the DSE Lab...
Article
In this review, we argue that there is much to be learned by transferring knowledge from research on lignocellulose degradation to that on plastic. Plastic waste accumulates in the environment to hazardous levels, because it is inherently recalcitrant to biological degradation. Plants evolved lignocellulose to be resistant to degradation, but with...
Article
The ascomycetous filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma has at least two faces, like Agni, the God of fire in Hindu mythology. Or maybe even three? The ‘Good’, the ‘Bad’ and the ‘Ugly’? In fact, Trichoderma species can be considered: (1) ‘Good’—as plant-beneficial microorganisms in agriculture due to a plethora of antagonistic mechanisms acting again...
Article
The identification and proper naming of microfungi, in particular plant, animal and human pathogens, remains challenging. Molecular identification is becoming the default approach for many fungal groups, and environmental metabarcoding is contributing an increasing amount of sequence data documenting fungal diversity on a global scale. This include...
Article
Full-text available
Several species of soil free‐living saprotrophs can sometimes establish biotrophic symbiosis with plants, but the basic biology of this association remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the symbiotic interaction between a common soil saprotroph, Clitopilus hobsonii (Agaricomycetes), and the American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua). The c...
Article
In the course of investigations on peptaibol chemodiversity from marine-derived Trichoderma spp., five new 15-residue peptaibols named pentadecaibins I-V (1-5) were isolated from the solid culture of the strain Trichoderma sp. MMS1255 belonging to the T. harzianum species complex. Phylogenetic analyses allowed precise positioning of the strain clos...
Article
Full-text available
The secretomes of filamentous fungi contain a diversity of small secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCPs) that have a variety of properties ranging from toxicity to surface activity. Some SSCPs are recognized by other organisms as indicators of fungal presence, but their function in fungi is not fully understood. We detected a new family of fungal s...
Chapter
Fungi comprise one of the most diverse groups of eukaryotes with many cryptic species that are difficult to identify. In this chapter, we detail a protocol for the molecular identification of the most industrially relevant species of Trichoderma ,T. reesei. We first describe how a single spore culture should be isolated and used for the sequencing of...
Chapter
Fungi comprise one of the most diverse groups of eukaryotes with many cryptic species that are difficult to identify. In this chapter, we detail a protocol for the molecular identification of the most industrially relevant species of Trichoderma—T. reesei. We first describe how a single spore culture should be isolated and used for the sequencing o...
Chapter
The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) is an efficient industrial cell factory for the production of cellulolytic enzymes used for biofuel and other applications. Therefore, researches addressing T. reesei are relatively advanced compared to other Trichoderma spp. because of the significant bulk of available knowledge,...
Chapter
The excellent abilities of cellulase production for biofuel and other industries and the plant-beneficial potential of Trichoderma spp. have led this fungus to being subjected to intensive genetic engineering and become one of the iconic examples for fungal genetics. Genetic manipulation to improve the strains is a highly effective means of meeting...
Article
The production of biofuels from plant biomass is dependent on the availability of enzymes that can hydrolyze the plant cell wall polysaccharides to their monosaccharides. These enzyme mixtures are formed by microorganisms but their native compositions and properties are often not ideal for application. Genetic engineering of these microorganisms is...
Article
Full-text available
The polyphyletic group of black fungi within the Ascomycota (Arthoniomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes) is ubiquitous in natural and anthropogenic habitats. Partly because of their dark, melanin-based pigmentation, black fungi are resistant to stresses including UV-and ionizing-radiation, heat and desiccation, toxic metals, and organic p...
Preprint
Several species of soil free-living saprotrophs can sometimes establish biotrophic symbiosis with plants, but the basic biology of this association remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the symbiotic interaction between a common soil saprotroph, Clitopilus hobsonii (Agaricomycetes), and the American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua). Notab...
Article
Full-text available
The secretion of metabolites in guttation droplets by indoor moulds is not well documented. This study demonstrates the guttation of metabolites by actively growing common indoor moulds. Old and fresh biomasses of indoor isolates of Aspergillus versicolor, Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium expansum, Trichoderma atroviride, T. trixiae, Rhizopus sp. a...
Article
Full-text available
Minor workers of some ant species belonging to the Colobopsis cylindrica (Fabricius, 1798) (COCY) species group can suicidally eject their sticky and potentially toxic mandibular gland reservoir content (MGRC) to ward off putative arthropod opponents. Since the MGRC can also be ejected non-suicidally as droplets at the mandible base, it was hypothe...
Article
Full-text available
The website http://outlineoffungi.org, is launched to provide a continuous up-to-date classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi) and fungus-like taxa. This is based on 1516 recent publications and on the outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa published recently (Mycosphere 11, 1060-1456, Doi: 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8). The website...
Article
Full-text available
The website http://outlineoffungi.org, is launched to provide a continuous up-to-date classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi) and fungus-like taxa. This is based on 1516 recent publications and on the outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa published recently (Mycosphere 11, 1060-1456, Doi: 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8). The website...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fungi can rapidly produce large amounts of spores suitable for aerial dispersal. The hydrophobicity of spores is provided by the unique amphiphilic and superior surface-active proteins - hydrophobins (HFBs) - that self-assemble at hydrophobic/hydrophilic interfaces and thus change surface properties. Using the HFB-enriched mold Trichoderma and the...
Article
Full-text available
True fungi (Fungi) and fungus-like organisms (e.g. Mycetozoa, Oomycota) constitute the second largest group of organisms based on global richness estimates, with around 3 million predicted species. Compared to plants and animals, fungi have simple body plans with often morphologically and ecologically obscure structures. This poses challenges for a...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: Sustainable agriculture requires effective and safe biofertilizers and biofungicides with low environmental impact. Natural ecosystems that closely resemble the conditions of biosaline agriculture may present a reservoir for fungal strains that can be used as novel bioeffectors. Methods and results: We isolated a library of fungi from the...
Article
Stress is a normal part of life for fungi, which can survive in environments considered inhospitable or hostile for other organisms. Due to the ability of fungi to respond to, survive in, and transform the environment, even under severe stresses, many researchers are exploring the mechanisms that enable fungi to adapt to stress. The International S...
Article
Cerato-platanins (CPs) are surface-active small proteins abundantly secreted by filamentous fungi. Consequently, immune systems of plants and other organisms recognize CPs and activate defense mechanisms. Some CPs are toxic to plants and act as virulence factors in plant-pathogenic fungi. Our analysis, however, demonstrates that the interactions wi...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Mechanisms of cellular and molecular adaptation of fungi to salinity have been commonly drawn from halotolerant strains and few studies in basidiomycete fungi. These studies have been conducted in settings where cells are subjected to stress, either hypo- or hyperosmotic, which can be a confounding factor in describing physiological...
Article
Trichoderma species are abundant in different agricultural habitats, but some representatives of this genus, mainly clade Longibrachiatum members are also emerging as causative agents of various human diseases with even fatal outcome. Strains of these species frequently show resistance to commonly used azole antifungals. Based on previous data it i...
Article
Full-text available
Background The morphological structures of organisms form tightly integrated but mutually independent character complexes (modules) linked through common development and function. Even though their abundance, diversity, and complex caste systems make camponotine ants ideal subjects to research developmental modularity and phenotypic integration, no...
Article
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Lignocellulosic plant biomass is the world’s most abundant carbon source and has consequently attracted attention as a renewable resource for production of biofuels and commodity chemicals that could replace fossil resources. Due to its recalcitrant nature, it must be pretreated by chemical, physical or biological means prior to hydrolysis, introdu...
Article
Full-text available
We surveyed root endophytic fungi of the coastal halophyte Suaeda salsa and detected a population of a novel species that we described here as Laburnicola rhizohalophila sp. nov. No sexual sporulating structure was observed. Instead, it produced a large amount of thalloconidia, 0–1 transverse septa, hyaline to darkly pigmented, often peanut-shaped...
Article
Full-text available
Forty-five volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified or annotated in the mandibular gland reservoir content (MGRC) of the Southeast Asian ant Colobopsis explodens Laciny and Zettel, 2018 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid extract...
Poster
Full-text available
A multidisciplinary project based in Austria and Brunei, titled “Voluntary self-sacrifice in exploding ants: a mechanism to defend coevolved microbiomes?” studies the evolution, phylogeny, and ecology of the extraordinary “exploding ants” of Southeast Asia. In addition to their enigmatic biology, they possess highly specialized minor and major work...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, in vivo efficiency of two mycoparasitic isolates; Trichoderma atroviride P.Karst. isolate 10.T.TR.5 and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai isolate 10.T.TR.7 against root rot disease agent Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HG-I (M-62 isolate), was investigated. Trichoderma inoculum used in the study was grown on wheat bran / peat mixture and used 5 g/...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the structural diversity and bioactivity of peptaibol compounds produced by species from the phylogenetically separated Longibrachiatum Clade of the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma, which contains several biotechnologically, agriculturally and clinically important species. HPLC-ESI-MS investigations of crude extracts from 1...
Article
Full-text available
When resources are limited, the hypocrealean fungus Trichoderma guizhouense can overgrow another hypocrealean fungus Fusarium oxysporum, cause sporadic cell death and arrest growth. A transcriptomic analysis of this interaction shows that T. guizhouense undergoes a succession of metabolic stresses while F. oxysporum responded relatively neutrally b...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this manuscript is to present a protocol describing the metabolomic analysis of Bornean 'exploding ants' belonging to the Colobopsis cylindrica (COCY) group. For this purpose, the model species C. explodens is used. Ants belonging to the minor worker caste possess distinctive hypertrophied mandibular glands (MGs). In territorial combat,...
Article
Photosynthetic Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) productivity in cyanobacteria needs to be increased to make cyanobacterial derived bioplastics economically feasible and competitive with petroleum-based plastics. In this study, high PHB yielding mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714 have been generated by random mutagenesis, using UV light as a mutagen....
Article
Full-text available
A Trichoderma orientale strain LSBA1 was isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge Cymbaxinella damicornis. The crude extract of T. orientale mycelium showed inhibitory activity against growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Purification of the anti-Candida component was performed us...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cytochrome P450s form an important group of enzymes involved in xenobiotics degradation and metabolism, both primary and secondary. These enzymes are also useful in industry as biotechnological tools for bioconversion and a few are reported to be involved in pathogenicity. Trichoderma spp. are widely used in industry and agriculture and...
Article
Full-text available
A taxonomic description of all castes of Colobopsisexplodens Laciny & Zettel, sp. n. from Borneo, Thailand, and Malaysia is provided, which serves as a model species for biological studies on “exploding ants” in Southeast Asia. The new species is a member of the Colobopsiscylindrica (COCY) group and falls into a species complex that has been repeat...