Irene R. Schloss

Irene R. Schloss
Instituto Antártico Argentino | IAA · Instituto Antártico Argentino

PhD

About

165
Publications
35,102
Reads
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3,620
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Irene Schloss is a biological oceanographer at the Argentinean Antarctic Institute, a researcher at CONICET (presently at the Centro Austral de Investigaciones Científicas, CADIC, in Ushuaia), Professor at the Universidad Nacional de Tierra del Fuego in Ushuaia, Argentina, and Associated Professor at ISMER, Rimouski, Canada. She developed an expertise in the dynamics of polar and sub-polar marine plankton, and the response of biological and physicochemical variables to global climate change. She is interested in coupling and modeling physical and biological processes centered on plankton.
Additional affiliations
August 2017 - present
National Scientific and Technical Research Council
Position
  • Researcher
August 2017 - present
Universidad Nacional de Tierra del Fuego
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
July 2009 - present
Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski - Université du Québec à Rimouski
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
March 1994 - October 1997
Universidad de Buenos Aires
Field of study
  • Biological oceanography

Publications

Publications (165)
Article
Full-text available
The biodiversity of marine and coastal habitats is experiencing unprecedented change. While there are well-known drivers of these changes, such as overexploitation, climate change and pollution, there are also relatively unknown emerging issues that are poorly understood or recognized that have potentially positive or negative impacts on marine and...
Presentation
The Beagle Channel (BC) is a sub-Antarctic coastal marine environment (~54.5ºS) that connects the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and is influenced by runoff, wind and seasonal mixing. Along its 300 km length, the BC has hydrological sub-basins (SC) separated from each other by bathymetric barriers. The object of this study focuses on the internal SC (...
Presentation
The Beagle Channel (BC) is an inter-oceanic passage shared by Argentina and Chile that connects the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean and has contrasting hydrological sub-basins along its 300 km length. This system is influenced by the inflow of sub-Antarctic waters that mix with continental contributions from glaciers and fluvial discharges, ha...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Southern Ocean plays a central role in the Earth System by connecting the Earth’s ocean basins, and it is a crucial link between the deep ocean, surface ocean and atmosphere. Hence, the ongoing changes in the Southern Ocean impact global climate, rates of sea level rise, biogeochemical cycles and ecological systems. Yet, understanding of the ca...
Presentation
Full-text available
La riqueza de especies en el Área Marina Protegida Namuncurá - Banco Burdwood I (AMP), tanto en el fondo marino como en la columna de agua, hace de esta región un área única dentro del Mar Argentino. Se destacan especies vulnerables y endémicas. El principal tipo de interacción entre especies que ocurre en un ecosistema marino es el que se establec...
Article
Full-text available
When Antarctic glaciers retreat, high sediment loads from geomorphological and glaciological sources can disturb the biota, especially filtering organisms, and thereby significantly alter the ecology of the Antarctic coast. We applied the Finite volumE Sea-ice Ocean-Coastal Model (FESOM-C), a numerical tool equipped with a sediment module, to simul...
Article
Full-text available
Toxigenic algal blooms have been reported since 1886 in the Beagle Channel, at the southern limit of South America, mainly associated with the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium. Toxic outbreaks have serious impacts on marine wildlife and ecosystem services, particularly on...
Article
Food web structure plays an important role in determining ecosystem stability against perturbations. High-latitude marine ecosystems are being affected by environmental stressors and biological invasions. In the West Antarctic Peninsula these transformations are mainly driven by climate change, while in the sub-Antarctic region by anthropogenic act...
Article
Full-text available
The Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a hotspot for environmental change and has a strong environmental gradient from North to South. Here, for the first time we used adult individuals of the bivalve Aequiyoldia eightsii to evaluate large-scale spatial variation in the biochemical composition (measured as lipid, protein and fatty acids) and ener...
Article
Under the present changing climate conditions and the observed temperature increase, it is of high importance to understand its effects on aquatic microbial life, and organisms' adaptations at the biochemical level. To adjust to temperature or salinity stress and avoid cell damage, organisms alter their degree of fatty acids (FAs) saturation. Thus,...
Article
Full-text available
A simplified model, representing the dynamics of marine organic particles in a given size range experiencing coagulation and fragmentation reactions, is developed. The framework is based on a discrete size spectrum on which reactions act to exchange properties between different particle sizes. The reactions are prescribed according to triplet inter...
Article
Zooplankton diversity has been identified as one of the biological Essential Ocean Variables to detect temporal and spatial changes in marine biodiversity and ecosystem health. The present study evaluated the mesozooplankton community composition and abundance associated with oceanographic variables in Nuevo Gulf (NG, 42° 42’S, 64° 30’W), a World H...
Article
Marine phytoplankton can utilize different strategies to cope with ocean warming and freshening from glacial melting in polar regions, which are disproportionally impacted by global warming. In the present study, we investigated the individual and combined effects of a 4°C increase in seawater temperature (T⁺) and a 4 psu decrease in salinity (S⁻)...
Article
Full-text available
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-021-02834-3
Article
Glacier melting sediment inputs affect coastal ecosystems on the Antarctic Peninsula. In Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica), the shift from an “ascidian dominated” to a “mixed” assemblage has been linked to sedimentation. However, in recently described newly ice-free areas ascidians became dominant in spite of total suspended particul...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change-induced glacial melt affects benthic ecosystems along the West Antarctic Peninsula, but current understanding of the effects on benthic primary production and respiration is limited. Here we demonstrate with a series of in situ community metabolism measurements that climate-related glacial melt disturbance shifts benthic communities...
Preprint
Full-text available
A simplified model, representing the dynamics of marine organic particles in a given size range experiencing coagulation and fragmentation reactions is developed. The framework is based on a discrete size spectrum on which reactions act to exchange properties between different particle sizes. The reactions are prescribed according to triplets inter...
Article
Important findings from the second decade of the 21st century on the impact of environmental change on biological processes in the Antarctic were synthesised by 26 international experts. Ten key messages emerged that have stakeholder-relevance and/or a high impact for the scientific community. They address (i) altered biogeochemical cycles, (ii) oc...
Article
Full-text available
p>Important findings from the second decade of the 21st century on the impact of environmental change on biological processes in the Antarctic were synthesised by 26 international experts. Ten key messages emerged that have stakeholder-relevance and/or a high impact for the scientific community. They address (i) altered biogeochemical cycles, (ii)...
Article
The climate around the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is rapidly changing and dramatically affecting marine coastal waters. Increases in air and seawater temperatures, not matter how small, can alter coastal biological communities due to both temperature increases as well as salinity reduction from glacier melting. The aim of this study was to e...
Article
Full-text available
The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in regulating global climate as a major sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), and in global ocean biogeochemistry by supplying nutrients to the global thermocline, thereby influencing global primary production and carbon export. Biogeochemical processes within the Southern Ocean regulate regional primar...
Article
Coastal phytoplankton assemblages from Potter Cove in Antarctica were exposed to low salinity (S-) and high temperature (T+) conditions to simulate oceanic changes resulting from global warming. The treatments were: low salinity (30) and high temperature (S-T+); low salinity and ambient temperature (1-2°C) (S-T0); ambient salinity (34) and increase...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid increase in atmospheric temperature detected in the last decades in the Western Antarctic Peninsula was accompanied by a strong glacier retreat and an increase in production of melting water, as well as changes in the sea-ice dynamic. The objective of this study was to analyze the succession of micro- and mesozooplankton during a warm ann...
Poster
The ocean biological pump transports organic carbon produced in surface waters to the seafloor, where it can be sequestered in the sediments or consumed by benthic organisms. Aggregates constitute an important fraction of the organic matter in the ocean. However, only few biogeochemical models include the formation of aggregates (i.e. coagulation),...
Article
Full-text available
In order to set a base line for the observation of planktonic community changes due to global change, protistan plankton sampling in combination with phycotoxin measurements and solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) was performed in two bays of King George Island (KGI) in January 2013 and 2014. In addition, SPATT sampling was performed in P...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. A simple parameterization of zooplankton vertical swimming is proposed as a way to reproduce the diel vertical migration (DVM) behavior, which refers to the daily descent of aquatic organisms hundreds of meters below the surface at dawn and their return to the surface at dusk, a phenomenon that is widespread among most zooplankton species...
Poster
Full-text available
El estudio de las redes tróficas es fundamental para comprender el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas, permitiendo caracterizar los roles ecológicos de las especies y los mecanismos a través de los cuales la biodiversidad influye en la dinámica de los ecosistemas. Los sistemas marinos antárticos y subantárticos juegan un rol clave en los ciclos biog...
Poster
Full-text available
En las últimas décadas, más del 75% de los glaciares en la Península Antártica presentaron tasas crecientes de retroceso lo cual intensifica la descarga de aguas de deshielo a zonas costeras y regiones de plataforma. Estas aguas modifican la salinidad, impactan en la circulación oceánica, el nivel del mar y la productividad del ecosistema. Caleta P...
Article
Sea-ice and coastal glacier loss in the Western Antarctic Peninsula open new ice-free areas. They allowing primary production and providing new seabed for colonisation, both acting as a negative feedback of climate change. However, the injection of sediment-laden runoff from the melting of land-terminating glaciers may reduce this feedback. Changes...
Article
Full-text available
The Southern Ocean is disproportionately important in its effect on the Earth system, impacting climatic, biogeochemical, and ecological systems, which makes recent observed changes to this system cause for global concern. The enhanced understanding and improvements in predictive skill needed for understanding and projecting future states of the So...
Article
The Beagle Channel is a remote subantarctic environment where mussel aquaculture initiatives have existed since the early 1990s. Here we analyze phytoplankton biomass and composition, and the occurrence of harmful microalgae species and their toxins at three sites during the period 2015–2016. The occurrence of potentially harmful algae was observed...
Article
Climate change has contributed to the regional retreat and melting of glaciers in the Antarctic Peninsula. This phenomenon is expected to affect the composition of plankton communities. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of glacier melting on the composition and structure of phytoplankton and micro- and mesozooplankton assemblages in...
Article
The Beagle Channel is a remote subantarctic environment where mussel aquaculture initiatives have existed since the early 1990s. Here we analyze phytoplankton biomass and composition, and the occurrence of harmful microalgae species and their toxins at three sites during the period 2015-2016. The occurrence of potentially harmful algae was observed...
Poster
The ocean biological pump transports organic carbon produced in surface waters to the seafloor, where it can be sequestered in the sediments or consumed by benthic organisms. This last process is part of the commonly called bentho-pelagic coupling (BPC), which in certain environments controls the abundance and composition of benthic communities. Ag...
Presentation
The ocean biological pump transports organic carbon produced in surface waters to the seafloor, where it can be sequestered in the sediments or consumed by benthic organisms. This last process is part of the commonly called bentho-pelagic coupling (BPC), which in certain environments controls the abundance and composition of benthic communities. Ag...
Article
The west Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region has undergone significant changes in temperature and seasonal ice dynamics since the mid-twentieth century, with strong impacts on the regional ecosystem, ocean chemistry and hydrographic properties. Changes to these long-term trends of warming and sea ice decline have been observed in the 21st century, but...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) is a global problem, and particularly in San Jorge Gulf (SJG), Argentina, which supports important fisheries, HABs represent a risk to human health. We studied the diversity and distribution of toxigenic dinoflagellates in the SJG using toxin detection and quantification, and assessed the connections be...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the base of the food web that could support the high productivity and marine biodiversity found in San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina. Here we examine the key components of the microbial food web, including the standing stock and physiological state of the phytoplankton in the context of key oceanographic variables in the gu...
Article
Full-text available
Tidal fronts are interfaces that separate stratified from mixed waters. The stratified surface zone of a front has lower inorganic nutrient concentrations than the mixed side, and thus, phytoplankton assemblages are expected to differ from one side of the front to the other. Here, we characterize the physics, nutrient dynamics, and biology of the s...
Article
Full-text available
Known for its high biological productivity, San Jorge Gulf (SJG) in Argentinian Patagonia is also an area of oil exploitation. To understand the dynamics of the SJG plankton ecosystem under several scenarios of potential hydrocarbon (HC) contamination, we present an 11-compartment biogeochemical model coupled to a turbulence model. In the coupled m...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cumulative potential impacts of the stress factors associated with human activities on the St. Lawrence marine ecosystem BY Photo: Pixabay 135 / 134 /-Human activities deriving from the occupation of the shores of the Estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence induce stress factors for marine organisms.-The effects on the environment and the organisms of...
Article
Since the early 1990s phytoplankton has been studied and monitored in Potter Cove (PC) and Admiralty Bay (AB), King George/25 de Mayo Island, South Shetlands. Phytoplankton biomass is typically low compared to other Antarctic shelf environments, with average spring - summer values below 1 mg chlorophyll a m-3. The physical conditions in the area (r...
Poster
Pour représenter la dynamique de sédimentation des particules organiques dans la colonne d’eau dans les modèles biogéochimiques couplés à un environnement physique, tenir compte des mécanismes de collision-adhésion des particules est essentiel. Un modèle de traceurs évoluant dans un environnement physique 1-D incluant les principaux mécanismes de f...
Poster
Full-text available
El estudio de las redes tróficas es fundamental para comprender el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas, permitiendo caracterizar los roles ecológicos de las especies y los mecanismos a través de los cuales la biodiversidad influye en la dinámica de los ecosistemas. Los sistemas marinos antárticos y subantárticos juegan un rol fundamental en los ciclo...
Article
Full-text available
Phytoplankton dynamics models follow either an Eulerian or a Lagrangian approach. The Eulerian formulation assumes that all individuals of a population living in homogeneous environmental conditions, i.e. within a model grid cell, are in a single average physiological state, which generally depends on local conditions. By tracking each individual c...
Chapter
Photosynthesis is the fundamental process by which autotrophs produce organic matter to sustain the biosphere using basic elements (i.e., CO2 and H2O) and solar irradiance as energy source. Marine phytoplankton provides near half of the global primary production (PP), being at the base of most marine trophic webs and playing an important role in th...
Chapter
Temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB, 280–315 nm) are external stressors that affect organisms in mid and high latitudes in a combined way. The combined effects of both variables on natural marine phytoplankton from the Beagle Channel (Argentina) were examined during a 7-day mesocosm experiment. We tested the hypothesis that increased tempe...
Article
The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a climatically sensitive region where periods of strong warming have caused significant changes in the marine ecosystem and food-web processes. Tight coupling between phytoplankton and higher trophic levels implies that the coastal WAP is a bottom-up controlled system, where changes in phytoplankton dynamics ma...
Article
Rivers’ damming disrupts the seasonal cycle of freshwater and nutrient inputs into the marine system, which can lead to changes in coastal plankton dynamics. Here we use a 3-D 5-km resolution coupled biophysical model and downscale it to a 400-m resolution to simulate the effect of damming the Romaine River in Québec, Canada, which discharges on av...
Article
Full-text available
Glacial meltwater discharge from Antarctica is a key influence on the marine environment, impacting ocean circulation, sea level and productivity of the pelagic and benthic ecosystems. The responses elicited depend strongly on the characteristics of the meltwater releases, including timing, spatial structure and geochemical composition. Here we use...
Article
Full-text available
Tidal fronts are interfaces that separate stratified from mixed waters. The stratified surface zone of a front has lower inorganic nutrient concentrations than the mixed side, and thus, phytoplankton assemblages are expected to differ from one side of the front to the other. Here, we characterize the physics, nutrient dynamics, and biology of the s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Nous illustrons ici par un cas de figure les difficultés éprouvées pour obtenir auprès de l’industrie de l’information environnementale qui serait pertinente, voire cruciale aux études d’impact et aux prises de décision à propos de l’exploration et de l’exploitation d’hydrocarbures dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent. Le cas rapporté concerne l’informat...
Book
Full-text available
Le réseau d’innovation intersectoriel Notre Golfe lance le premier livre d’études scientifiques concertées sur l’état des connaissances sur le golfe du Saint-Laurent et relatives à l’exploitation des hydrocarbures. Ce livre est le fruit de trois années de travaux assidus des membres du réseau d’experts. Le livre inaugure une démarche innovante de d...
Poster
The ocean biological pump transports organic carbon produced in surface waters to the seafloor, where it can be consumed by benthic organisms. This last process is part of the commonly called bentho-pelagic coupling (BPC), which in certain environments controls the abundance and composition of benthic communities. Aggregates are an important fracti...
Presentation
The ocean biological pump transports organic carbon produced in surface waters to the seafloor, where it can be consumed by benthic organisms. This last process is part of the commonly called bentho-pelagic coupling (BPC), which in certain environments controls the abundance and composition of benthic communities. Aggregates are an important fracti...
Poster
Full-text available
La expresión del cambio climático global se encuentra magnificada en las regiones polares, causando el calentamiento del permafrost y el deshielo de los glaciares (IPCC, 2014). Particularmente, en la península Antártica (PA) se ha documentado un rápido aumento de la temperatura atmosférica (Vaughan et al., 2003; Mc Clintock et al., 2008; Turner et...
Presentation
Pour représenter la dynamique de sédimentation des particules organiques dans la colonne d’eau dans les modèles biogéochimiques couplés à un environnement physique, tenir compte des mécanismes de collision-adhésion des particules est essentiel. Un modèle de traceurs évoluant dans un environnement physique 1-D incluant les principaux mécanismes de f...