Irene Gregory-Eaves

Irene Gregory-Eaves
McGill University | McGill · Department of Biology

PhD

About

157
Publications
39,214
Reads
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4,362
Citations
Citations since 2017
76 Research Items
2413 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (157)
Article
Full-text available
Analyses of sedimentary DNA (sedDNA) have increased exponentially over the last decade and hold great potential to study the effects of anthropogenic stressors on lake biota over time. Herein, we synthesise the literature that has applied a sedDNA approach to track historical changes in lake biodiversity in response to anthropogenic impacts, with a...
Article
Acidification and eutrophication are common limnological stressors impacting many water bodies across the globe. While the negative impacts of these stressors on limnetic communities are generally known, their influence on the accumulation of specific sediment constituents, such as metals, remains unclear. Benefitting from past research and long-te...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite decades of research and mitigation efforts, declines in freshwater quality resulting from anthropogenic nutrient input remain a persistent issue worldwide. Canada has the greatest number of freshwater lakes in the world, yet we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and scale at which most lakes have been affected by human activities...
Article
Full-text available
Lakes worldwide are under threat by a myriad of environmental stressors that have been increasing in number and magnitude. These stressors can be regional such as climate change, or local such as nutrient-rich runoff, invasive species, and road salt contamination, to name but a few. To protect lake ecosystems from further deterioration, we need lon...
Poster
Biodiversity surveys can be substantially improved through the analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) if appropriate DNA sequence reference databases exist. Here, we aimed to assess the availability of molecular genetic resources for Canada’s freshwater-dependent species and identify data deficiencies where future research should be directed. The mai...
Article
Full-text available
While it is now well accepted that human activities are having pronounced effects on natural ecosystems, regional variation in the rate and magnitude of various human impacts is unclear. Moreover, the effects of land use change on natural aquatic communities have only relatively recently begun to be explored. Our goal was to understand how and wher...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular genetic approaches applied to environmental DNA have great potential for biodiversity research and ecosystem monitoring. A metagenome is produced via shotgun sequencing of DNA collected directly from the environment and represents a sample of genetic information from all organisms captured in an environmental sample. Metagenomes have been...
Article
Full-text available
Protists play key roles in aquatic food webs as primary producers, predators, nutrient recyclers, and symbionts. However, a comprehensive view of protist diversity in freshwaters has been challenged by the immense environmental heterogeneity among lakes worldwide. We assessed protist diversity in the surface waters of 366 freshwater lakes across a...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Although the use of genetic analyses of sedimentary DNA to track changes in biodiversity has increased over the last decade, questions remain as to how well DNA captures past ecological conditions. Even less is known about how extracellular and intracellular DNA are archived in lake sediments and whether the two fractions yield similar inf...
Preprint
Full-text available
Lakes worldwide are under threat by a myriad of environmental stressors that have been increasing in number and magnitude. These stressors can be regional such as climate change, or local such as nutrient-rich runoff, invasive species, and road salt contamination, to name but a few. To protect lake ecosystems from further deterioration, we need lon...
Article
Freshwater biodiversity is in a state of crisis. The recent development of a global emergency recovery plan to “bend the curve” for freshwater biodiversity lacks the necessary details for implementation in a regional context. Using Canada as an example, we describe a toolbox intended to equip decision-makers and practitioners with evidence-based to...
Article
Anthropogenic stressors affect lakes around the world, ranging in scale from catchment-specific pollutants to the global impacts of climate change. Canada has a large number and diversity of lakes, yet it is not well understood how, where, and when human impacts have affected these lakes at a national scale. The NSERC Canadian Lake Pulse Network so...
Preprint
Full-text available
Protists play key roles in aquatic food webs as primary producers, predators, nutrient recyclers, and symbionts. Yet, a comprehensive view of protist diversity in freshwaters has been challenged by the immense environmental heterogeneity among lakes worldwide. We assessed protist diversity in the surface waters of 366 freshwater lakes across a nort...
Article
Full-text available
Lake sedimentation rate represents a synthetic metric of ecosystem functioning. Many localized studies have reported a significant association between land use/land cover changes and lake sediment mass accumulation rates, with a few global syntheses echoing these findings at larger scales. In the literature, studies evaluating lead‐210 (210Pb) for...
Article
Full-text available
Canada is home to more lakes than any other nation, but there is a fragmented and limited understanding of the ecological status of these water bodies. Zooplankton are excellent bioindicators of lake health, given their central food web position. To date, many studies have investigated the effect of individual stressors on zooplankton communities,...
Article
Accurately identifying the species present in an ecosystem is vital to lake managers and successful bioassessment programs. This is particularly important when monitoring cyanobacteria, as numerous taxa produce toxins and can have major negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Increasingly, DNA-based techniques such as meta- barcoding are being used...
Article
Full-text available
Sediment Accumulation Rate (SAR; measured as mm yr−1) and Mass Accumulation Rate (MAR; measured as g cm−2 yr−1) data were collected from published lake core records that spanned the past ~ 150 years, from approximately 500 sites worldwide. For each lake, key watershed characteristics including watershed size, slope, land use and climate were extrac...
Article
Full-text available
PaleoEcoGen is a new working group that was launched with the aim of bringing together scientists from around the world who use ancient environmental DNA (ancient eDNA) as a novel proxy to examine the response of past biological communities to environmental changes (pastglobalchanges.org/paleoecogen). We are particularly interested in exploiting th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Molecular genetic approaches applied to environmental DNA have great potential for biodiversity research and ecosystem monitoring. A metagenome contains genetic information from all organisms captured in an environmental sample. It has been primarily used to study bacteria and archaea, but promising reports focusing on metazoan diversity are emergi...
Article
Microplastics—plastic particles in the size range of planktonic organisms—have been found in the water columns and sediments of lakes and rivers globally. The number and mass of plastic particles drifting through a river can exceed those of living organisms such as zooplankton and fish larvae. In freshwater sediments, concentrations of microplastic...
Article
Multiple stressors affect water quality and biodiversity in lakes worldwide. However, our understanding of which combinations of stressors are of greatest impact and how lakes have shifted from their pre-industrial baselines is fragmented. Questions remain regarding how multiple trophic groups are affected by global change stressors and whether reg...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the current state of freshwater biodiversity in Canada, one of the countries with the greatest amount of surface waters in the world. To address this knowledge gap, we compiled a list of all available assessments of conservation status for freshwater species (over 3,000 taxa) and further evaluated the overall status of six dis...
Article
Full-text available
Sediment DNA (sedDNA) analyses are rapidly emerging as powerful tools for the reconstruction of environmental and evolutionary change. While there are an increasing number of studies using molecular genetic approaches to track changes over time, few studies have compared the coherence between quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and...
Article
Aim We examined variation in crustacean zooplankton composition and diversity across Canada, the most lake-rich country in the world. In addition to α-diversity patterns, we explore mechanisms behind β-diversity spatial variation, using taxonomic and functional metrics. Our goal was to explore geographical gradients and related mechanisms shaping z...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Freshwater biodiversity loss is one of the greatest environmental threats in our changing world. Although declines have been reported extensively in the literature, much less attention has been devoted to solving the freshwater biodiversity crisis relative to other ecosystems. The recently proposed Emergency Recovery Plan for Freshwater Bi...
Article
Full-text available
Paleolimnological studies are central for identifying long-term changes, yet many studies rely on bioindicators that deposit detectable subfossils in sediments, such as diatoms and cladocerans. Emerging DNA-based approaches are expanding the taxonomic diversity that can be investigated. However, as sedimentary DNA-based approaches are expanding rap...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since the seminal paper in 1998 (Coolen and Overmann), sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) has become a powerful tool in paleoecology to reconstruct past changes in terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. Still, sedaDNA is an emerging tool and there is a need for calibrations and validations to ensure the reliability of sedaDNA as a proxy to reconstruc...
Article
Full-text available
Phytoplankton images were collected using an Imaging Flow Cytobot moored in the mesotrophic lake Lac Montjoie (Quebec, Canada). Cystodinium—an unusual dinoflagellate genus—was found during manual classification of the images into taxonomic groups while building an automated classifier. Cystodinium’s particularity is that while it can take a typical...
Article
Full-text available
The use of lake sedimentary DNA to track the long-term changes in both terrestrial and aquatic biota is a rapidly advancing field in paleoecological research. Although largely applied nowadays, knowledge gaps remain in this field and there is therefore still research to be conducted to ensure the reliability of the sedimentary DNA signal. Building...
Article
Full-text available
Peri-urban lakes offer many valued ecosystem services, but their vulnerability to climate change and anthropogenic disturbances increases with increasing human populations the effects and interactions of multiple stressors on lakes can lead to unexpected outcomes, affecting societal and ecological values, it is necessary to evaluate ecosystem traje...
Article
Full-text available
Hyperspectral imaging has recently emerged in the geosciences as a technology that provides rapid, accurate, and high-resolution information from lake sediment cores. Here we introduce a new methodology to infer particle size distribution, an insightful proxy that tracks past changes in aquatic ecosystems and their catchments, from laboratory hyper...
Article
Full-text available
The reconstruction of ecological time series from lake sediment archives can retrace the environmental impact of human activities. Molecular genetic approaches in paleolimnology have provided unprecedented access to DNA time series, which record evidence of the microbial ecologies that underlaid historical lake ecosystems. Such studies often rely o...
Article
Full-text available
Stoco Lake (Tweed, Ontario, Canada) has a history of industrial contamination and is heavily influenced by inflow from the Moira River. Stoco Lake is frequently affected by nuisance algal blooms (including cyanobacteria), which have largely been attributed to cultural eutrophication. To further our understanding of the environmental dynamics of Sto...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental decision-makers and practitioners need and deserve high quality environmental evidence for effective decision-making. We collate and share a suite of best practices for applied environmental researchers to support their capacity to inform such decision-making processes. This raises a number of important questions: What does “relevant”...
Article
There is growing evidence that cyanobacterial blooms are becoming more common in different parts of the world; within this context, predictive cyanobacteria models have an essential role in lake management. Several models have been successfully used in temperate systems to describe the main drivers of cyanobacterial blooms, but relatively less work...
Article
Horizon scanning is a systematic approach increasingly used in conservation to explore emerging trends, issues, opportunities, and threats. We present the results from one such exercise aimed at identifying emerging issues that could have important scientific, social, technological, and managerial implications for the conservation of inland waters...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Using a compilation of ¹⁴ C and pollen data of lake sediment records from over 632 sites globally, we identified the timings of first increase in lake sedimentation. Changes in lake sediment rates at this time are closely linked to increased sediment supply from hillslope erosion. The analysis on the relative roles of the driving facto...
Article
Full-text available
The relative contribution of environmental and spatial drivers of community structure has been the focus of many ecological studies. In the context of metacommunity theory, diatoms have been associated mainly with local environmental factors, but in some cases spatial factors have also been identified as important drivers. This study aimed to deter...
Article
Full-text available
The distribution and quality of water resources vary dramatically across Canada, and human impacts such as land-use and climate changes are exacerbating uncertainties in water supply and security. At the national level, Canada has no enforceable standards for safe drinking water and no comprehensive water-monitoring program to provide detailed, tim...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrological regime alteration in reservoirs is a major anthropogenic disturbance in aquatic ecosystems. We examined winter drawdown effects on macroinvertebrate abundance and community composition in reservoirs while accounting for localized physical variables that might explain additional variability. We hypothesized that drawdown would affect th...
Article
• Ponds and shallow lakes are sensitive to eutrophication, which often increases turbidity and produces toxic algal blooms. Previous research has found that the presence of macrophytes in shallow water bodies can mitigate the effects of nutrient loading by promoting water clarity and inhibiting phytoplankton growth. However, there is still little k...
Article
Full-text available
Lake nutrient budgets and hydrology are being altered by human activities and climate change, yet little is known of how fertilization and hydrologic mechanisms interact to structure assemblages of primary producers. Here, we present sediment records from a large shallow lake in Southwest China to separate the relative importance of nutrients and h...
Article
Pilon S, Zastepa A, Taranu ZE, Gregory-Eaves I, Racine M, Blais JM, Poulain AJ, Pick FR. 2018. Contrasting histories of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria in two temperate lakes as inferred from quantitative sediment DNA analyses. Lake Reserv Manage. XX:XXX–XXX. The incidence and abundance of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria were compared betwe...
Article
Full-text available
Sparse monitoring of New Brunswick (Canada) lakes creates challenges for understanding mechanisms of deteriorating water quality, such as recent instances of increased cyanobacterial biomass in low-nutrient systems. To assess long-term environmental change experienced by low-nutrient, dimictic New Brunswick lakes we use sedimentary remains of algal...
Article
Full-text available
Aquatic ecosystems in tropical regions remain understudied and their long-term dynamics poorly understood. In East Africa, a better understanding of how natural communities of primary producers in small freshwater ecosystems respond to climatic variability is needed to improve management and conservation of aquatic resources. This study explored th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Dams are recognized to impact aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem functions, but the magnitude of effects vary across studies. By using a meta-analytical approach, we examined the effects of impoundment on fish community across three large biomes. The impacts of dams on richness and diversity differed across biomes, with significant declines in the...
Article
Full-text available
Declining water quality in reservoirs is of growing concern in many regions, yet there is still little understanding of long-term water quality trends in these systems. Across the landscape, reservoirs have diverse origins, functions, and operational strategies. In temperate environments, winter water-level drawdown is a common operational practice...
Article
Cladoceran zooplankton subfossils have been widely applied as indicators of lake health and used to infer past environmental change. However, our understanding of how the environment controls the abundance and distribution of Cladocera, as recorded in lake sediments, is still developing; only a few large landscape studies have been conducted in tem...
Article
Full-text available
River flow regulation, fragmentation, and changes in water quality caused by dams have varying effects on aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem functions, but are not clearly resolved in boreal ecosystems. We adopted a multiscale approach to quantify fish community trajectories over 20 years using a network of sites spread across four reservoirs in tw...
Article
Lake sediments constitute natural archives of past environmental changes. Historically, research has focused mainly on generating regional climate records, but records of human impacts caused by land use and exploitation of freshwater resources are now attracting scientific and management interests. Long-term environmental records are useful to est...
Article
Full-text available
Excess nutrient loading into ponds and shallow lakes can lead to undesirable algal growth and a shift to a turbid state. Previous work has suggested that such an ecosystem transition may be mediated by the biotic constituents of the habitat and food web; however, earlier experiments have been conducted at coarse temporal resolution and have typical...
Article
Full-text available
Lake sediments constitute natural archives of past environmental changes. Historically, research has focused mainly on generating regional climate records, but records of human impacts caused by land use and exploitation of freshwater resources are now attracting scientific and management interests. Long-term environmental records are useful to est...
Preprint
Hydroelectricity is often presented as a clean and renewable energy source, but river flow regulation and fragmentation caused by dams are recognized to impact aquatic biodiversity in temperate and tropical ecosystems. However, the effects of boreal river impoundment are not clear as the few studies that exist have not been able to separate the hyd...
Article
To evaluate the relative influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on ecosystem dynamics and regime shifts, we examined the algal response to historical catchment phosphorus loading from two shallow lakes located in Quebec, Canada. Roxton Pond is a eutrophic shallow lake with submerged macrophytes, and Lake Petit Saint-François (PSF) is a hypere...
Article
Understanding the magnitude and drivers of freshwater diversity over the last 150 years provides essential insights for developing scenarios of future change. Here, we quantify and identify drivers of spatial and temporal beta diversity in diatom assemblages between historical and modern times.
Article
Full-text available
Lake sediments constitute natural archives of past environmental changes. Historically, research has focussed mainly on generating regional climate records, but records of human impacts caused by land-use and exploitation of freshwater resources are now attracting scientific and management interests. Long-term environmental records are useful to es...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrate dual stable isotopes (δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O of NO3⁻) have proven to be a powerful technique to elucidate nitrogen (N) cycling pathways in aquatic systems. We applied this technique for the first time in the pelagic zone of a small temperate meso-eutrophic lake to identify the dominant N cycling pathways, and their spatial and temporal variability....