Irena Kogan

Irena Kogan
Universität Mannheim · Department of Sociology

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104
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Publications

Publications (104)
Article
This study examines whether ethnic minorities in general and Asian minorities in particular have perceived an increase in discrimination during the COVID-19 pandemic, a phenomenon known as COVID-19–associated discrimination (CAD). Drawing on the CILS4COVID data, which were collected among 3,517 individuals in the initial phase of the pandemic (main...
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This article examines the association between accented speech and the formation of friendships and partnerships among immigrants and native-born majority residents in Germany. Drawing on the sixth wave of the German extension of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries, we analyze a neglected aspect of language — pr...
Preprint
The contribution focusses on Covid-19 associated discrimination (CAD) in Germany and asks whether immigrants from Asian origin are increasingly discriminated against during the COVID-19 pandemic and whether other immigrant groups face similar threats. Using data from the COVID-19 add-on-survey for CILS4EU-DE (CILS4COVID), we demonstrate that immigr...
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Given the controversies surrounding the critical period hypothesis on second-language (L2) learning outcomes, this study focuses on the phonological aspect of language acquisition—the strength of the foreign accent in L2. Drawing on data from a large-scale representative data set on immigrant adolescents in Germany—CILS4EU-DE—we first demonstrate t...
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This study investigated the link between teacher expectations and student learning, relying on longitudinal data from 64 classrooms and 1026 first-grade students in Germany. Further, based on a subsample of 19 classrooms with 354 students, we explored the mediating role of three characteristics of teacher feedback rated in video-recorded school les...
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Driven by the ongoing debate of job loss vs. income loss in understanding the detrimental effect of unemployment, this study examines how perceptions of unemployment and the resulting levels of life satisfaction differ by immigration status. Based on a countrywide longitudinal dataset in the UK, findings show that immigrant men's life satisfaction...
Article
Given the recent surge in interest in refugee research, this editorial discusses whether the study of refugees’ migration and integration requires entirely new theoretical and methodological approaches. We make the case that refugee migration is a special type of migration and that refugee integration is subject to similar laws and regularities as...
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With a focus on the immigrant population, this study examines how the association between a relative income position and life satisfaction varies when the comparison group changes. Drawing data from Understanding Society in the UK between 2009 and 2015, this study first shows that after migration, income comparisons with the mainstream and co-ethni...
Article
In light of growing concerns about the acculturation prospects of Europe’s ethnic minorities, this study explores the role of religious affiliation and religiosity in the formation of attitudes towards cohabitation among young people with an immigrant background and majority populations in Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands and England. Evidence from...
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This study explores whether and to what extent the change in individual life satisfaction is caused by exposure to a changing religious context. Empirical evidence is from UK society, where the decline in Christian population is accompanied by increases in both Muslim and non-religious populations. By linking the UK Household Longitudinal Study wit...
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Although previous studies have examined the role of religion in immigrant integration, little systematic knowledge is available on how much and through which mechanisms religion facilitates or hinders immigrant socioeconomic and cultural integration. The papers in this collection explore the role of religion in the socioeconomic and cultural integr...
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By drawing data from the European Social Survey (2008-2016), this study explores how immigrants’ assessments of economy, democracy, and quality of public goods (such as health and education systems) in the receiving societies contribute to their life satisfaction. Results indicate that satisfaction with the economy is the strongest correlate of ind...
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This data brief describes the German part and extension of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU-DE). The aim of CILS4EU-DE is to provide a datainfrastructure for theory-driven and evidence-based research on various aspects of integration among young people with and without an immigrant background in Ger...
Chapter
Pillar 4 of the German National Education Panel Study addresses migrants’ and their descendants’ acquisition of education across the life course. Apart from documenting the evolution of ethnic educational inequalities throughout the educational career by focusing on different origin groups and distinct indicators of educational success, we seek to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nominated by the editor-in-chief for the "Change the World, One Article at a Time" initiative by Springer Nature (https://www.springernature.com/gp/researchers/campaigns/change-the-world).
Article
Based on the data from six waves of the European Social Survey collected from 18 European countries between 2002 and 2012, we aimed at explaining the variation in immigrants’ life satisfaction across countries, by focusing on host countries’ characteristics. By adopting the multi-level analysis, we examined the national-level traits from three aspe...
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In this study, we examined the effect of contact use on the gender earnings gap in urban China, by taking into account the existence of self-selection effect. We theorised two sources of individuals' self-selected job obtainment behaviour; namely, the structuralised gendersegregated employment environment and one's internalisation of the structural...
Article
Unlike the majority of existing studies that explain the gender earnings gap from a structural perspective, this study aims to understand the unexplained part of gender earnings inequality from a behavioural perspective. By adopting a dataset collected in the Chinese city of Xiamen when China’s market economy was still in formation, this study focu...
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This article assesses whether two integration policy measures (labor market training and counseling) reach the immigrants who need them and whether these policies improve immigrants' labor market situations. We first examine the comprehensiveness of integration policies by linking Migration Integration Policy Index scores of immigrants' labor marke...
Chapter
Der Buchbeitrag zeigt die Wichtigkeit unterschiedlicher theoretischer Ansätze für die Erklärung der Arbeitsmarktsituation der neuesten Einwanderungskohorten. Beim Thema Humankapital steht die Übertragbarkeit des ausländischen Abschlusses im Vordergrund. Denn es zeigt sich, dass Migranten, deren Qualifikationen anerkannt werden, schneller eine höher...
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Zusammenfassung Die vorliegende Studie geht der Frage nach, ob Lehrererwartungen unabhängig von den Kompetenzen der Schüler nach dem Geschlecht, nach der sozialen oder nach der ethnischen Herkunft variieren. Systematische Verzerrungen liegen dann vor, wenn Lehrkräfte die zukünftigen Leistungen in Abhängigkeit askriptiver Merkmale unter- oder übersc...
Article
Migrant networks are usually regarded as helpful for the labor market integration of recently arrived immigrants. From a general assimilation perspective, however, it has been questioned whether they are really the right sort of ties to help immigrants succeed in the host society, or whether, instead, they constitute some sort of mobility trap. Emp...
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This article considers the implications of sequential segmentation in the tertiary education set-up for stratification of labour market outcomes among university drop-outs and graduates. Building on signalling, queuing, credentialist and human capital framework, we articulate theoretical expectations about labour market entry patterns for tertiary...
Article
This article’s aim is to explore the role of personal contacts at the transition from school to work and compare these effects across countries with various levels of market development. Using data from school-leaver surveys for Ukraine and Croatia and applying propensity score matching, we focus on the probability of finding initial employment and...
Article
In line with the emerging research that acknowledges the importance of the process character of immigrants’ labour market integration, this paper examines the existence of path dependencies of early employment trajectories on later labour market outcomes. Theoretically we are interested in establishing whether career trajectories provide a distinct...
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An expansion in tertiary education participation implies that a growing share of youth cohorts is to drop out of the tertiary education system without graduating. This article explores the effects of tertiary education dropout on the early labour market careers of youths in Croatia and Serbia. Theoretically, the article deduces the expected outcome...
Article
This study explores how patterns of institutional differentiation in higher education systems are linked to educational inequalities at the transition from higher education to work. We measure institutional differentiation within countries along two dimensions: degree level that mainly structures educational inequalities in occupational status atta...
Article
Drawing on two unique German datasets, we explore the possible short- and long-term effects that reading aloud in early childhood has on children’s language abilities, their reading behavior, and their school marks in kindergarten and at the end of both primary and secondary school. By applying propensity score matching, we found a positive effect...
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Before exploring the selectivity of educational attainment in detail, this article extensively describes the contours of educational systems in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. These countries provide an interesting setting in view of their post-secondary education expansion and differentiation, as well as their variation in the degree...
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Im Zuge der anhaltenden Diskussionen über die Anwerbung hochqualifizierter Einwanderer in Deutschland beschäftigt sich dieser Artikel mit den Determinanten der Bemühungen seitens der Migranten um die Anerkennung ihrer Bildungsabschlüsse und den Folgen einer solchen Anerkennung. Die beiden Fragen werden mit Hilfe eines speziell erhobenen Datensatzes...
Article
This paper explores how language proficiency influences the dynamics of labour market entry among young Russians and the native populations in two former Soviet Republics—Estonia and Ukraine. We use data from the Estonian TIES survey and the Youth Transition Survey in Ukraine to compare the speed of finding any first job with that of entry to the f...
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The paper focuses on the roles of human capital and social resources in structuring young people's entries into either the formal or the informal labour market in the Serbian transformation society. Results show that informal labour market in Serbia follows the structure of the secondary labour market and signals vulnerability on part of youths emp...
Article
This paper examines employment careers of immigrants as compared to the native-born in Germany and the United Kingdom, two countries which differ with respect to several factors potentially influencing immigrant integration in the host society and particularly immigration policies, labour market regulation and welfare regimes. To this end the exist...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the school-to-work transition and early career processes in Ukraine during the reform period. It provides interesting insights about the chances of youths to find work in a country where market and other reforms were delayed or even not yet efficiently implemented. It examines whether and what kind of education resources are...
Chapter
This chapter reviews key results and conclusions from the other chapters in this book, focusing in particular on the consequences of educational expansion for young people and the effectiveness of secondary programs in integrating young people into the labor market. It also summarizes results from cohort analyses in Russia, Estonia, and the Czech R...
Chapter
This chapter presents a study of the conditions of the school-to-work transition process in Serbia since the turn of the millennium, describing how the specific institutional makeup of the Serbian education system affects the employment opportunities for school leavers in various educational programs. The analyses are based on data from a unique, h...
Article
This article attempts to answer the question to what extent recent reforms aimed at flexibilizing the German labour market affected immigrants and how this explains the (in)stability of their employment paths. Based on the 1996–1999 and 2001–2004 German micro-census panels, we focus not only on transitions from employment to unemployment and vice v...
Chapter
Entering the labour market, gaining adequate employment and pursuing a successful occupational career are central events in the life course of each individual. Among immigrants such events might occur several times in various societal contexts, implying that opportunities and constraints of these specific social circumstances have to be taken into...
Article
Pillar 4 of the German National Education Panel Study addresses migrants' and their descendants' acquisition of education across the life course. Apart from documenting the evolution of ethnic educational inequalities throughout the educational career by focusing on different origin groups and distinct indicators of educational success, we seek to...
Article
This paper examines the labour market integration of immigrants who have entered Germany since 1990, and compares their situation with that of their predecessors. The analyses based on the cumulative micro-census data reveal that recent immigrants into Germany are on average better-educated than their earlier counterparts, and some ethnic groups ar...
Article
The present study considers the interplay between patterns of immigrants’ self-selection and the context of reception (i.e. migration policies and the operation of the labor market) at the host country on different economic assimilation patterns. We compare three groups of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) who arrived in Israel and Germ...
Book
Full-text available
Gegenstand der beiden Beiträge dieses Bandes, die im Rahmen eines Forschungspraktikums im Fach Migrationssoziologie im Wintersemester 2008/2009 und im Sommersemester 2009 an der Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg entstanden, sind Einflussfaktoren fremden- bzw. ausländerfeindlicher Einstellungen der einheimischen Bevölkerung, die anhand der Daten de...
Article
Drawing on Israeli, German and US census data, we compare the educational levels of Jewish immigrants (and their non-Jewish family members) from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) arriving in Israel, Germany, and the US during 1990–2000. The comparison of educational levels among immigrants arriving in the three countries can be viewed as a ‘natural exp...
Article
The lack of human capital relevant to the receiving countries has frequently been named as one of the most serious obstacles to immigrants' labor market integration. The article provides an extensive account of why this is the case, focusing on both immigrants' individual characteristics and the structural features of their employment. It further s...
Article
Bildungsabschlüsse sind in modernen Gesellschaften zu einem wesentlichen Bestimmungsfaktor für die Lebenschancen von Individuen geworden. Verschiedene Bildungswege schaffen ganz unterschiedliche Voraussetzungen für zukünftige Statuspositionen und die damit verknüpften Privilegien wie beispielsweise höheres Einkommen, Prestige oder entsprechende Leb...
Chapter
In most of present-day Europe, people spend about a quarter of their life in education and training. About a quarter of the present population of Europe are currently pupils or students, and the various groups of education and teaching professionals are the single largest professional group in the European labour force. The time spent and the attai...
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This chapter discusses the vertical dimension of the education system, the different levels of education attainment distinguished within the education system, as well as the central dimensions of differentiation within levels, drawing on a set of theoretically derived, comparable indicators. It describes the stratification of the education system a...
Chapter
Over the course of their interaction, economics and migration research have treated each other with mutual indifference. When migration research attempted to overstretch its bounds, economics reduced its analytical scope to those areas that originally seemed to belong to the genuine economic sphere. This volume considers eleven case studies that ai...
Article
Drawing on three large datasets from the German Higher Education Information System Institute (HIS) from 1990, 1994 and 1999, the study reveals that Turkish youth are considerably more likely than Germans to enter tertiary education. This result sharply contrasts with findings on the Turks' poor performance in primary and secondary school. The high...
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Theoretically, the central research question of this article pertains to the way in which national institutional arrangements, namely educational systems, and related modes of labour markets and welfare provisions, affect the aggregate effectiveness of youth labour market integration in the new EU member states in comparison to the old EU countries...
Article
Drawing on Israeli, German and US census data, we compare the educational levels of Jewish immigrants (and their non-Jewish family members) from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) arriving in Israel, Germany, and the US during 1990-2000. The special circumstances of immigration from the FSU to the US, Getmany and Israel during this 10-year period offer...
Book
The expansion of the European Union (EU) has put an end to the East-West division of Europe. At the same time it has increased the cultural heterogeneity, social disparities and economic imbalances within the EU, exemplified in the lower living standards and higher unemployment rates in some of the new member states. This important new reference wo...
Article
Austria has fairly complex patterns of post-World War II immigration. In addition to classic labour migrants from Turkey and the former Yugoslavia, there have been considerable inflows of refugees and displaced persons, such as Hungarians or Czechs migrating to Austria from communist countries as well as more recent refugee groups from the Middle E...
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This study examines immigrants’ employment careers and their (dis)similarity with careers of the native-born in West Germany. Applying the sequence analysis technique, the study shows that ethnic Germans born abroad and immigrants from EU-15 countries experience employment patterns more similar to those of native-born Germans than do other immigran...
Book
Working through Barriers deals with the role host countries' institutional characteristics play in the labour market integration of immigrants in the European Union. Drawing on existing research it develops a comprehensive conceptual framework of factors (and underlying mechanisms) affecting immigrant structural integration in the European Union-15...
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This article focuses on how receiving societies’ structural and institutional characteristics affect immigrants’ labour market performance and progress. Using German census data for 1996 and 2000, and Israeli labour force surveys for the same years, the article compares patterns of self-selection and labour market integration of Jewish immigrants f...
Article
The questions asked in the paper are whether and to what extent the employment situation among recent third-country immigrants differs across European Union countries and how it is related to these countries' labor market characteristics. The European Labor Force Survey data for the 1990s are used to disentangle the roles that the individual charac...
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In the labor market, net disadvantages of immigrants, so-called “ethnic penalties”, may stem from rather different sources, among them discrimination by employers or self-exclusion processes. This paper attempts to indirectly disentangle these two mechanisms by studying ethnic penalties from a time-related perspective. Using the EULFS 2000 ad hoc m...
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This paper examines occupational allocation of Turkish and ex-Yugoslav male immigrants in Austria at the end of 1990s. Data from Austrian labour force surveys are utilized to separate the effects of immigrants’ individual characteristics from contextual factors related to their spatial location, with particular focus on relative group size. Results...
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This paper explores school-to-work transitions in three new EU Member states, Hungary, Slovenia and Estonia, focusing on the effect of the level of education and social background on the timing of the first significant employment and the match between educational qualifications and occupation among school leavers. So-called cohort effects are a foc...
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This paper explores the unemployment dynamics of various immigrant groups in Germany. Several different groups are compared against the native-born population: guest workers, ethnic Germans, immigrants from the ED-15 or other western industrialized countries, non-EU immigrants and finally second-generation immigrants. Event history techniques are a...
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This article examines the employment careers of immigrants as compared with those of the native-born in Germany and the United Kingdom using existing longitudinal data from the German Socioeconomic Panel and the British Household Panel Study. Results of the sequence analysis show that in both countries employment career sequences of immigrants are...
Article
The transition from school to work is an important step in a young person's life, carrying significant ramifications for one's ensuing career. This transition has witnessed substantial changes in the past decade, now taking place substantially later in life in all European countries. This article aims at describing cross-national differences in the...
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This paper assesses the labour market integration of ex-Yugoslav immigrants in Austria and Sweden in terms of three relevant structural characteristics of the two societies: immigration policies, labour markets and welfare regulations. The Austrian 1996 micro-census and the Swedish 1997 labour force survey data are utilised to explore the labour ma...
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The present study focuses on the incorporation of immigrants from the former Soviet Union in two receiving societies, Israel and Canada, during the first half of the 1990s. Both countries conducted national censuses in 1995 (Israel) and 1996 (Canada), making it possible to identify a large enough sample of immigrants and provide information on thei...
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While the labour market integration of immigrant youth has increasingly received attention in recent years, due to the lack of appropriate data comparative studies are scarce until now and theoretical reasons for persistence of ethnic disadvantages often remain unclear. In this paper we try to enhance the understanding of ethnic inequalities making...
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This paper attempts to assess the labour market integration of ex-Yugoslav immigrants in two European countries - Austria and Sweden - in terms of the relevant structural characteristics of the two societies, i.e. immigration and citizenship policies, labour market structure and welfare regimes, focusing on the role of the period of migration and t...
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This article compares entry to their first stable employment among young people in Estonia and Slovenia after the fall of Communism, when the two countries opted for two different models with regard to the organization of their educational systems. Results show that in Slovenia with the passage of time after the start of reforms, education—job link...

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Projects (3)
Project
Despite the common interest in immigrants’ pathways of upward mobility in the host country, existing immigration literature from the social network perspective has dominantly confined its focus to the job entry stage, and left the integration trajectory afterwards largely unexamined. To fill this research gap, this project aims to systematically study the development, characteristics, and outcomes of immigrants’ social networks at the workplace. It focuses on the research question: how and to what extent do social networks matter in an immigrant’s upward mobility after her/his job entry into the host-country labour market? By situating immigrants’ networking behaviour in contextual constraints, the innovative contribution of this study is to emphasize how the answer to the question varies among immigrants with different networking tendencies as well as across working contexts. The project will first show the extent to which immigrant workers are integrated into the work organization by examining ties formed among all employees within the entire workplace, which is called a “whole network” approach. Second, from a sequential approach, it will reveal how immigrants’ egocentric networks evolve and how network development after job entry differs among immigrants with different networking tendencies. Third, it will examine outcomes of immigrants’ networking behaviour at the workplace at both the individual and organizational levels. A comparative perspective between Germany and Canada will be applied in the investigations of the three objectives.