Ira L Cohen

Ira L Cohen
New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities | IBR · Department of Psychology

Ph.D

About

289
Publications
59,328
Reads
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7,427
Citations
Citations since 2017
13 Research Items
2060 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
Additional affiliations
July 2014 - present
New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities
Position
  • Visiting Research Scientist
October 1981 - June 2014
September 1977 - September 1981
NYU Medical Center
Position
  • Research Psychologist and Research Asst Professor
Education
September 1975 - August 1977
NYU Langone Medical Center
Field of study
  • Experimental Psychopathology and Behavior Therapy
September 1972 - May 1974
September 1969 - May 1972

Publications

Publications (289)
Article
Full-text available
The authors evaluated the contribution of initially abnormal neonatal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and 4-month arousal-modulated attention visual preference to later autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviors in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) graduates. A longitudinal study design was used to compare NICU graduates with normal ABRs (n = 2...
Article
Full-text available
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) show unusual social behaviors and repetitive behaviors. Some of these behaviors, e.g., time spent in an area or turning rate/direction, can be automatically tracked. Automated tracking has several advantages over subjective ratings including reliability, amount of information provided, and consistency ac...
Article
Full-text available
In order to improve discrimination accuracy between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and similar neurodevelopmental disorders, a data mining procedure, Classification and Regression Trees (CART), was used on a large multi-site sample of PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) forms on children with and without ASD. Discrimination accuracy exceeded 80 %, gener...
Article
Full-text available
A recent cross-sectional analysis of PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) data, analyzed with a classification and regression tree algorithm, yielded a decision tree (the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Decision Tree or ASD-DT) that detected three behaviorally distinct ASD subgroups: minimally verbal, verbal, and atypical. These subgroups differed in PDDBI prof...
Article
Full-text available
Aggressive behaviors in those with intellectual disability (ID) and autism (ASD) have been linked to a variety of factors including ID level, age, sex, psychiatric disorders, and medical conditions but these factors have not been studied, in large samples, in terms of how they affect the stimuli that trigger aggression. In this survey of 2243 adult...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is an unpublished technical report, commisioned by NCAAS, concerning the use of the PDDBI by the Department of Defense's Autism Care Demonstration project. It has not been peer-reviewed. For more information on the issues involved, here is a podcast on the subject: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/critical-autism-services-for-military-fam...
Article
Full-text available
The PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) has recently been shown, in a large multisite study, to discriminate well between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other groups when its scores were examined using a machine learning tool, Classification and Regression Trees (CART). Discrimination was good for toddlers, preschoolers, and school-age children; gen...
Chapter
Full-text available
Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid which is not incorporated into protein. However, taurine has various critical physiological functions including development of the eye and brain, reproduction, osmoregulation, and immune functions including anti-inflammatory as well as anti-oxidant activity. The causes of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) ar...
Poster
Full-text available
Describes development of an algorithm for ASD diagnosis based on PDDBI data. Three clinically meaningful ASD subgroups were identified along with two non-ASD subgroups. Sensitivity and specificity were very good.
Poster
Full-text available
The PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) is a reliable and valid informant-based rating scale for ASD designed for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning. Studies have indicated that scores from the PDDBI are good indicators of response to intervention, diagnosis, and outcome, and are also associated with certain genetic factors. The PDDBI was des...
Article
Objective Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk (HR) for developing ASD as well as features of the broader autism phenotype. While this complicates early diagnostic considerations in this cohort, it also provides an opportunity to examine patterns of behavior associated specifically with ASD compared to o...
Article
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IntroductionA total of 38 brain cytoarchitectonic subdivisions, representing subcortical and cortical structures, cerebellum, and brainstem, were examined in 4- to 60-year-old subjects diagnosed with autism and control subjects (a) to detect a global pattern of developmental abnormalities and (b) to establish whether the function of developmentally...
Poster
Full-text available
Background: Substantial overlap exists between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Etiologically, similarity exists in genetic liability for the two disorders. Phenotypically, comorbidity exists between ASD and symptoms of ADHD with rates varying between 28% and 92% and both groups have similar proble...
Article
Full-text available
Several morphometric studies have revealed smaller than normal neurons in the neocortex of autistic subjects. To test the hypothesis that abnormal neuronal growth is a marker of an autism-associated global encephalopathy, neuronal volumes were estimated in 16 brain regions, including various subcortical structures, Ammon's horn, archicortex, cerebe...
Chapter
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic form of intellectual disability, and is strongly associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There is wide variation in the severity of symptoms, which may be due in part to modifier genes, such as MAOA . The most consistently observed behavioral feature is social avoidance, which may be se...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Substantial overlap exists between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at multiple levels. Aetiologically, similarity exists in genetic liability for the two disorders. Phenotypically, comorbidity exists between autism spectrum disorder and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with rate...
Article
The pathological role of autoantibodies in development of CNS disorders is a new idea with growing interest among neuroscientists. The involvement of autoimmune response in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been suggested by the presence of multiple brain-specific autoantibodies in children with ASD and in their mothers. The p...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Substantial overlap exists between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at multiple levels. Aetiologically, similarity exists in genetic liability for the two disorders. Phenotypically, comorbidity exists between autism spectrum disorder and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with rate...
Article
Full-text available
The use of psychotropics by categories and the reason for their prescription was investigated in a large scale study of 4,069 adults with ID, including those with autism spectrum disorder, in New York State. Similar to other studies it was found that 58 % (2,361/4,069) received one or more psychotropics. Six percent received typical, 6 % received t...
Poster
Full-text available
Background: Early behavioral abnormalities more prevalent in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) graduates later diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been reported by our group (Karmel et al., 2010). One of these was a visual preference for high rates of stimulation (8>3>1Hz.) when less aroused at four months post term age (PTA) (seen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) due to medical (eg NICU) or familial (eg siblings) factors places infants at greater risk for regulatory difficulties that can lead to a variety of impairments, particularly in attention, arousal, affect, and motor systems. System inter-relationships change over time. ASD risk can alter the seq...
Article
Full-text available
The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) modulates executive functions, learning, and emotional processing, all of which are impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Our previous findings suggest a role for dopamine-related genes in families with only affected males. We examined two additional genes which affect DA function, the DRD...
Article
Full-text available
Background: It has been shown that amyloid ß (Aβ), a product of proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid β precursor protein (APP), accumulates in neuronal cytoplasm in non-affected individuals in a cell type-specific amount. Methodology/principal findings: In the present study, we found that the percentage of amyloid-positive neurons increases in su...
Data
Neurons with low and high amyloid load. In control brains, the percentage of Aβ-positive neurons and their amyloid load is much lower in CA1 than in CA4 sector and is very low in the granule neurons in the dentate gyrus. The percentage of Aβ-positive neurons and amyloid load is significantly higher in the dup(15) autism cohort than in the control a...
Data
Topography and morphology of neocortical diffuse plaques. Low magnification demonstrates diffuse plaques immunostained with mAb4G8 (17–24 aa) in frontal, temporal and occipital cortex (FC, TC and OC, respectively) in the brain of a 39-year-old female diagnosed with dup(15) autism, a 51-year-old autistic male, and a 52-year-old subject with atypical...
Article
Full-text available
The purposes of this study were to identify differences in patterns of developmental abnormalities between the brains of individuals with autism of unknown etiology and those of individuals with duplications of chromosome 15q11.2-q13 (dup[15]) and autism and to identify alterations that may contribute to seizures and sudden death in the latter. Bra...
Article
Full-text available
Duplications of 7q11.23, deleted in Williams-Beuren Syndrome, have been implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A 1.5 Mb duplication was identified in one girl with severe expressive language deficits and anxiety among 1,142 ASD individuals screened for this duplication. Family-based association studies of Tag-SNPs in three genes (STX1A , C...
Article
Full-text available
Reports of unrelated individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and similar clinical features having overlapping de novo interstitial deletions at 2p15-p16.1 suggest that this region harbors a gene(s) important to the development of autism. We molecularly characterized two such deletions, selecting two genes in this region, exportin 1 (XPO1) a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The link between aggression and mental disorders has been the focus of diverse studies in persons with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Because of discrepancies in the finding of studies in persons with ID to date, and because of differences in research design, instruments used and the population studied, more research is ne...
Chapter
Full-text available
Challenging behaviors (CBs) are relatively common concerns in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), have major impacts on the family, and seriously affect the ability of such individuals to reside in more “normalizing” environments. While the term “challenging behavior” covers a wide gamut of problems in p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Many young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) respond well to intensive early intervention and therefore early diagnosis is important. However, it is also critical to screen for ASD at older ages as well because signs can be missed in children who are young and have not yet regressed, as well as in those who do not show prob...
Article
Full-text available
Cohen IL, Liu X, Lewis MES, Chudley A, Forster-Gibson C, Gonzalez M, Jenkins EC, Brown WT, Holden JJA. Autism severity is associated with child and maternal MAOA genotypes. We replicated and extended a previously reported association between autism severity and a functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) promoter region, MAOA-uVNTR,...
Article
Full-text available
Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) functional polymorphisms were studied in 205 North American simplex (SPX) and 307 multiplex (MPX) families having one or more children with an autism spectrum disorder. Case-control comparisons revealed a significantly higher frequency of the low-activity 677T allele, higher prevalence of the 677...
Article
Full-text available
Recent evidence suggests higher prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in NICU graduates. This aim of this study was to identify retrospectively early behaviors found more frequently in NICU infants who went on to develop ASD. Twenty-eight NICU graduates who later received a diagnosis of ASD were compared with 2169 other NICU graduates recrui...
Conference Paper
Background: Abnormal DNA methylation patterns have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism. Two variants in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have previously been shown to affect DNA methylation levels, and both have been shown to be associated with autism susceptibility in case-control studies. Objec...
Conference Paper
Background: It has been hypothesized that altered brain development during embryogenesis and early postnatal life is responsible for the abnormal behaviors seen in autism. However, the specific pathological mechanisms that influence early development remain unidentified. Because of the presence of autoantibodies against brain tissue in sera from ch...
Conference Paper
Background: Autism is a complex disorder of development and represents a subclass of Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). It is crucial to identify early biological and behavioral risk factors for PDD, as well as for its severity, since there is evidence that early intervention is effective in improving long-term outcome, especially among more...
Conference Paper
Background: Infants with obstetric/neonatal complications who typically are admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have ~ 2-fold risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Our longitudinal studies of NICU graduates from birth follow development of regulatory influences on multiple domains including attention, motor skills, social commu...
Article
Full-text available
The Autism Diagnostic Interview--revised is one of the "gold standard" diagnostic tools for autism spectrum disorders. It is traditionally administered face-to-face. Cost and geographical concerns constrain the employment of the ADI-R for large-scale research projects. The telephone interview is a reasonable alternative, but has not yet been examin...
Article
Full-text available
Autism is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations including qualitative impairments in social interactions and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Abnormal acceleration of brain growth in early childhood, signs of slower growth of neurons, and minicolumn developmental abnormalities suggest multir...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative variations in score profiles from the parent version of the PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) were examined in young Autism and PDD-NOS groups defined by ADOS-G and ADI-R criteria, relative to a not spectrum (NS) group of similar age. Both the Autism and the PDD-NOS group profiles markedly differed from the NS group. The most sensitive me...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cohen, I.L. (2010). The phenotypic expression of autism, maternal depression, and the MAO-A gene. In A. Chauhan, V. Chauhan and W. T. Brown (eds). Autism: Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Immune Abnormalities. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 73-90.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to identify the type, topography, and sequelae of neuropathological changes that contribute to the clinical phenotype of autism. Results of recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and postmortem neuropathological and stereological studies of autism brain suggest a dynamic model of sequential subdivision of age- and brain-...