Iqbal Ahmad

Iqbal Ahmad
University of Malakand · Education

About

122
Publications
55,195
Reads
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3,560
Citations
Citations since 2016
39 Research Items
1112 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200

Publications

Publications (122)
Article
Full-text available
Workplace stress is a common phenomenon worldwide. University teachers perform many types of duties apart from teaching load and are always under stress. The purpose of the study was to explore workplace factors causing stress among university teachers. A qualitative case study design was adopted to investigate the problem. Data were collected thro...
Article
Full-text available
Exam stress is a common phenomenon worldwide. It has been reported to have negative effects on academic performance of students. Although many studies have reported on prevalence of exam-related stress among students, however, there is less understanding on the perspectives of rural university graduates. Through this study, we explore the perspecti...
Article
Children’s language development in early childhood is faster and accurate. However, there are many risks involved for children’s language learning in early childhood. This study examined factors affecting foreign language learning at early childhood in the context of Pakistan. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews from ten Early Ch...
Article
Full-text available
The education system of Pakistan, in terms of quality teaching and learning, stands in the lowest rank in the world. Numerous reasons can be held responsible for this state of affairs. Teacher is one of these factors. Teacher is an important part of the teaching and learning process, who faces various problems due to which they cannot play their ro...
Article
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Service-learning activities are rapidly expanding worldwide. Several instruments are available for measuring these activities. However, none of these are suitable for measuring management issues and challenges in service-learning implementation. This study reports on the development and factor analysis of an instrument to measure service-learning m...
Article
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Speaking skill pedagogy has always remained a huge enigma for English as a Second Language (ESL) educators. Despite the challenges, the need to master the skills prevail in academia. The undergraduates especially those from the technical division seem to grapple with the ability to perform well in their studies and market their products upon employ...
Article
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Students working in a laboratory context hardly find an opportunity for civic interaction and social justice learning which is mostly possible through live interaction with community and outside world during an academic carrier. However, online service-learning is considered to be one of the effective approaches to solve this issue. This research s...
Article
Full-text available
Speaking skill pedagogy has always remained as a huge enigma for English as a Second Language (ESL) educators. Despite the challenge, the need to master the skills prevail in academia. The undergraduates especially those from the technical division seem to grapple with the ability to perform well in their studies and market products upon employment...
Article
Full-text available
The role of the university has gone far from just producing students with excellent academic achievements to producing students with tremendous communication skills such as speaking in English to enable them to compete in the global market. However, many university students in Malaysia are still struggling to acquire the English language comprehens...
Article
Müller glia (MG), cells that maintain homeostasis in the retina, are dormant stem cells that can regenerate neurons upon injury. However, the regenerative property of MG, which is reproducibly displayed in the lower vertebrates, is not readily observed in the mammals even upon forced expression of regulatory genes or exposure to growth factors. Her...
Article
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Academic stress is becoming an alarming mental health problem in Pakistan. The study aims to explore the causes of academic stress in the undergraduate students in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Qualitative exploratory research design is adopted for this study. Data is elicited through structured-interview guide from 80 students from different study...
Article
Speaking in English confidently is a challenging task but very crucial for university students. Graduates with good communication efficiency especially in the engineering field are greatly demanded in the current work industry. Performing confidently is not only important for scoring academic tasks but also to help expand the revenue of the compani...
Article
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Glaucoma is characterized by a progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to irreversible vision loss. Currently, there is no effective treatment for RGC degeneration. We are using a disease in a dish stem cell model to examine the developmental susceptibility of RGCs to glaucomatous degeneration, which may inform on the for...
Article
Full-text available
Goal orientation has been tested all over the world. However, the present study was conducted to validate the Goal Orientation Scale in Pakistan. A total of 141 students from two Pakistani public sector universities participated. A cross validation procedure based on factor analysis was adopted to analyze the collected data. The study was conducted...
Article
The English Language Teacher Learning Scale (ELTLS) has been tested in different academic fields worldwide. However, there is no evidence about its validation in Pakistan. This study reports on validation of ELTLS in Pakistan. The 49 items scale was tested on a sample of 112 teachers from pharmacy departments. The process of validation consisted of...
Article
The Self-regulated Motivation Scale (SRMS) has been widely used to measure students’ motivation for learning in social sciences context. There is no evidence of its validation in the medical field. This study examined the scale's psychometric properties for measuring medical students’ motivation for English oral communication in the Pakistani conte...
Article
Today, researchers and engineering educators are much concerned about the future of engineering students who do not receive sufficient practical knowledge about their field and its context. Some criticize the issues related to the use of resources and retention while others feel that the teaching practices in terms of effective pedagogy do not matc...
Article
Degeneration of specific retinal neurons in diseases like glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Currently, there is no therapy to modify the disease-associated degenerative changes. With the advancement in our knowledge about the mechanisms that regulate the development...
Article
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The use of smartphones has enormously increased among students around the world. Few studies have focused on this critical issue in Pakistan. This study examined the influence of Smartphone addiction in Pakistan. A survey questionnaire was utilized to collect data consisting of three dimensions: (a) Smartphone usage, (b) textbook use, and (c) self-...
Article
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The poor axon regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) often leads to permanent functional deficit following disease or injury. For example, degeneration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in glaucoma leads to irreversible loss of vision. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that the mTOR pathway regulates the development of human RGCs and...
Article
This study was aimed to investigate the validity of Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) in the context of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) of Pakistan. Although, the ALQ has been used worldwide in different organizational fields, however, little is known about its psychometric features in the context of HEIs. This study is therefore an end...
Conference Paper
Purpose: The degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is the unifying theme in glaucoma, a complex group of disorders. However, their susceptibility to degeneration in the heterogeneous disease remains poorly understood. It is likely that it may be acquired during development, which is unmasked with the progression of the disease in adults. To...
Article
Full-text available
Social intelligence has increasingly caught the attention of researchers and scholars in the present times. This research aims at exploring difference in social intelligence mean of male and female university students. Secondly, it explores the effect of age and locality on social intelligence through cross-sectional research design. Data were coll...
Article
In the developing central nervous system (CNS) the majority of neurons are born before the generation of glia. Emerging evidence implicates heterochronic gene, Lin28 in the temporal switch between two distinct lineages. However, the respective contributions of Lin28a and Lin28b in neurogliogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we have examined th...
Conference Paper
Purpose: Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the output neurons of the retina and degeneration of these cells is associated with glaucoma, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. There are multiple subtypes of RGCs, which have been described on the basis of their morphological, functional, biochemical and molecular features. Each subtype subserves...
Article
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This study was conducted to explore factors influencing the employability of vocational education graduates in Pakistan. Data were collected from 141 teachers. The data were analyzed using factor analysis approach. The principal component analysis method was applied to exploring influencing factors. The following six factors were found influencing...
Article
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This study was conducted to explore factors influencing the employability of vocational education graduates in Pakistan. Data were collected from 141 teachers. The data were analyzed using factor analysis approach. The principal component analysis method was applied to exploring influencing factors. The following six factors were found influencing...
Article
Full-text available
Glaucoma represents a group of multifactorial diseases with a unifying pathology of progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration, causing irreversible vision loss. To test the hypothesis that RGCs are intrinsically vulnerable in glaucoma we have developed an in vitro model using the SIX6 risk allele carrying glaucoma patient-specific induce...
Conference Paper
Purpose: Glaucoma involves irreversible degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Since glaucoma is a late onset disease, our knowledge about the mechanism that makes these cells susceptible to the disease remains speculative. To address this gap in our knowledge we are characterizing RGC development in disease in a dish model of primary open...
Article
In glaucoma, the output neurons of the retina, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), progressively degenerate, leading to irreversible blindness (Ahram et al., 2015). The ex vivo stem cell method to replace degenerated RGCs remains a potentially viable approach (Levin et al., 2004). However, the success of the approach depends upon the ability of the...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have been carried out on the job satisfaction of employees at various organizational levels all over the world. However, little is known about the government versus private schools in district Malakand Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This study compares the perceptions of private versus government school teachers job satisfaction related to its si...
Article
Full-text available
Glaucoma is a complex group of diseases wherein a selective degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) leads to irreversible loss of vision. A comprehensive approach to glaucomatous RGC degeneration may include stem cells to functionally replace dead neurons through transplantation and understand RGCs vulnerability using a disease in a dish stem...
Article
Full-text available
Müller glia (MG), the sole glial cells generated by retinal progenitors, have emerged as a viable cellular target for therapeutic regeneration in degenerative blinding diseases, as they possess dormant stem cell properties. However, the mammalian MG does not display the neurogenic potential of their lower vertebrate counterparts, precluding their p...
Article
Full-text available
One of the well established aspects of the development of the central nervous system (CNS) is that neurogenesis precedes gliogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying this temporal switch between the two distinct lineages is poorly understood. It is thought that let-7, a heterochronic miRNA, may help neural stem cells (NSCs) choose between the neu...
Article
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Today, there is a growing belief among researchers and practitioners that reflection promotes students’ learning and development in different ways. Despite this belief, the clear role of service-learning in enhancing learning is still debated. Although it is understood though with less clarity that reflection plays a key role in promoting learning,...
Article
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In the last two decades service-learning has become very popular as an innovative educational approach all over the world. Studies have reported that as an innovative and distinct instructional method it benefits both students and communities alike. However, despite of this, its effectiveness as an educational practice is still debated. This paper...
Article
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Today’s’ globalised world is replete with many fast occurring changes and challenges. These changes have put more pressure on leaders of higher education institutions. Although frequent exchange of ideas, people and capital among countries through internationalization has brought many benefits to students, societies and countries, higher education...
Article
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Parkinson's disease, characterized by motor dysfunction due to the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, is one of the most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Given there is no current cure, the stem cell approach has emerged as a viable therapeutic option to replace the dopaminergic neurons that are progressively lost to the...
Article
Glaucoma, where the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) carrying the visual signals from the retina to the visual centers in the brain are progressively lost, is the most common cause of irreversible blindness. The management approaches, whether surgical, pharmacological, or neuroprotective do not reverse the degenerative changes. The stem cell approach...
Article
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As an innovative learning approach, service-learning possesses the potential to enhance community awareness of students and their citizenship growth. Through community awareness students understand their roles and responsibility as active citizens. Research has discovered that as critical pedagogy service-learning still lacks the ability to claim f...
Article
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There is evidence that students in Pakistani schools face many problems due to rigid social structure and strict formalisation of roles and rules. This situation is broadly supported by the social norm which compels students to compromise on their broad social development and thus many students lose their individual identity or freedom. This paper...
Article
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The concept of democratic classroom is controversial for being vague and idealistic. It has been termed more rhetorical than a realistic. Despite of this, the role of democratic classroom in socialization of students has well recognized in every age. Therefore, a noticeable need exists to assess the degree and direction of relationship between demo...
Article
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This paper examines the role of higher education in developing social entrepreneurship in Malaysia. Higher education institutions are social industries. They prepare important social capital for the society. Presently, the concept of social entrepreneurship is becoming popular all over the world. In response to this trend, the higher education has...
Article
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In vertebrate retina, histogenesis occurs over an extended period. To sustain the temporal generation of diverse cell types, retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) must self-renew. However, self-renewal and regulation of RPCs remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that cell-extrinsic factors coordinate with the epigenetic regulator high-mobility g...
Article
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This study investigates the relationship between democratic classroom environment and student engagement and its three dimensions: cognitive engagement, emotional engagement and behavioral engagement. Previous research has extensively reported about the positive relationship between democratic classroom environment and student engagement. However,...
Article
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This study examined the correlation between service-learning and civic development and its three dimensions: civic knowledge, civic skills and civic commitment. Service-learning is a unique experiential teaching and learning methodology that promotes civic learning of students by connecting academic learning with community service. The study also a...
Article
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This study investigated the effects of e-learning on professional development of university teachers. E-learning is a teaching and learning methodology that connects professionals (teachers) to the unlimited cyber world where teachers find enormous opportunities for learning and development. Studies reported that despite of the availability of e-le...
Article
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Education lays the foundation for political, social and economic development of any country. A viable education system enables the nation to achieve its national goals. Pakistan as a developing country has faced critical problems of education since its inception and therefore, the system of education has failed to deliver according to the aspiratio...
Article
Purpose: Rho GTPases play a central role in actin-based cytoskeleton reorganization and regulate multiple signaling pathways that control gene transcription, cell survival, and proliferation. We investigated the effect of Rho GTPases on cell cycle regulation and progenitor genes expression on mouse ciliary epithelium (CE), a potential source of pr...
Article
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This study investigates the role of peace education in restoring confidence of the communities in the recent wake of terrorist violence in Swat, Pakistan. The terror plot destroyed many schools, especially girl's schools, in the locality. This situation rendered the communities of Swat helpless to provide education to their children in an environme...
Article
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Corporal punishment results in aggressive behaviours in students. As a result, some students leave school. Researchers believe that the issue of school dropout can be reduced by adopting different motivational techniques. Self-efficacy is one technique that can be promoted to create a caring and supportive learning environment. The issue of dropout...
Article
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Today's citizens live in a digital age. Millions of people interact all over the world using different technologies on daily basis. This wider interaction has generated a digital society. There are vast opportunities of education and social interaction available for students as members of this digital society. As is customary with the members of ev...
Article
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Education is the fundamental right of every individual. Today, those societies have excelled in every field of life where man and woman are provided equal opportunities for education. This research study focuses on various socio-cultural and political impediments to co-education in Pakistani society. The main research question was that how Pakistan...
Article
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Education is an activity in collaboration. Without community participation, education cannot achieve its goals and without education society cannot think of development. A plethora of research exists on community participation in education and its outcomes. However, meager studies have been carried out to examine the relationship between community...
Article
Full-text available
The neural stem cells discovered in the adult ciliary epithelium (CE) in higher vertebrates have emerged as an accessible source of retinal progenitors; these cells can self-renew and possess retinal potential. However, recent studies have cast doubt as to whether these cells could generate functional neurons and differentiate along the retinal lin...
Article
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The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between training, assessment as learning and reflection. The study also assessed the moderating effect of reflection on training and assessment as learning. 250 teachers of Pakistani rural high schools were randomly selected as sample in this study. The obtained data were analyzed by us...
Article
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School inspection is the most observed and the least understood phenomenon in the academic world. Improvement in teaching and learning largely depends on quality inspection. Even the quality of the whole school academic programme is linked to inspection process. The process of school inspection in Pakistani schools is ineffective and is considered...
Article
This study examined the effect of corporal punishment on students' motivation and classroom learning. Research has indicated that behavior of teacher profoundly influences students' learning. It has been observed with great concern that teachers in Pakistani schools resort to corporal punishment to motivate students for classroom learning. Over the...
Article
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Feedback is an essential aspect of the teaching and learning process. Teachers' feedback is closely related to student's academic development. This study examines the effects of corrective feedback on academic achievement of students. For this purpose, a self-designed questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 200 teachers in 20...
Article
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Reprogramming somatic cells to a pluripotent state by nucleic acid based (NAB) approaches, involving the ectopic expression of transcription factors, has emerged as a standard method. We recently demonstrated that limbal progenitors that regenerate cornea are reprogrammable to pluripotency by a non-NAB approach through simple manipulation of microe...
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