Ion Stoica

Ion Stoica
University of California, Berkeley | UCB · Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

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431
Publications
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77,441
Citations

Publications

Publications (431)
Preprint
Full-text available
Fine-tuning models on edge devices like mobile phones would enable privacy-preserving personalization over sensitive data. However, edge training has historically been limited to relatively small models with simple architectures because training is both memory and energy intensive. We present POET, an algorithm to enable training large neural netwo...
Preprint
Scientists increasingly rely on Python tools to perform scalable distributed memory array operations using rich, NumPy-like expressions. However, many of these tools rely on dynamic schedulers optimized for abstract task graphs, which often encounter memory and network bandwidth-related bottlenecks due to sub-optimal data and operator placement dec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mobility, power, and price points often dictate that robots do not have sufficient computing power on board to run modern robot algorithms at desired rates. Cloud computing providers such as AWS, GCP, and Azure offer immense computing power on demand, but tapping into that power from a robot is non-trivial. In this paper, we present FogROS 2, an ea...
Preprint
Full-text available
Technology ecosystems often undergo significant transformations as they mature. For example, telephony, the Internet, and PCs all started with a single provider, but in the United States each is now served by a competitive market that uses comprehensive and universal technology standards to provide compatibility. This white paper presents our view...
Article
The continued emergence of large social network applications has introduced a scale of data and query volume that challenges the limits of existing data stores. However, few benchmarks accurately simulate these request patterns, leaving researchers in short supply of tools to evaluate and improve upon these systems. In this paper, we present a new...
Preprint
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Shuffle is a key primitive in large-scale data processing applications. The difficulty of large-scale shuffle has inspired a myriad of implementations. While these have greatly improved shuffle performance and reliability over time, it comes at a cost: flexibility. First, each shuffle system is essentially built from scratch, which is a significant...
Preprint
Alpa automates model-parallel training of large deep learning (DL) models by generating execution plans that unify data, operator, and pipeline parallelism. Existing model-parallel training systems either require users to manually create a parallelization plan or automatically generate one from a limited space of model parallelism configurations, w...
Preprint
Graph neural networks are powerful architectures for structured datasets. However, current methods struggle to represent long-range dependencies. Scaling the depth or width of GNNs is insufficient to broaden receptive fields as larger GNNs encounter optimization instabilities such as vanishing gradients and representation oversmoothing, while pooli...
Preprint
Query optimizers are a performance-critical component in every database system. Due to their complexity, optimizers take experts months to write and years to refine. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time that learning to optimize queries without learning from an expert optimizer is both possible and efficient. We present Balsa, a query op...
Preprint
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Model predictive control (MPC) is a powerful control method that handles dynamical systems with constraints. However, solving MPC iteratively in real time, i.e., implicit MPC, has been a challenge for 1) systems with low-latency requirements, 2) systems with limited computational resources, and 3) systems with fast and complex dynamics. To address...
Preprint
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Safe exploration is critical for using reinforcement learning (RL) in risk-sensitive environments. Recent work learns risk measures which measure the probability of violating constraints, which can then be used to enable safety. However, learning such risk measures requires significant interaction with the environment, resulting in excessive constr...
Preprint
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Question answering models struggle to generalize to novel compositions of training patterns, such to longer sequences or more complex test structures. Current end-to-end models learn a flat input embedding which can lose input syntax context. Prior approaches improve generalization by learning permutation invariant models, but these methods do not...
Article
While input-output examples are a natural form of specification for program synthesis engines, they can be imprecise for domains such as table transformations. In this paper, we investigate how extracting readily-available information about the user intent behind these input-output examples helps speed up synthesis and reduce overfitting. We presen...
Preprint
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First-order methods for quadratic optimization such as OSQP are widely used for large-scale machine learning and embedded optimal control, where many related problems must be rapidly solved. These methods face two persistent challenges: manual hyperparameter tuning and convergence time to high-accuracy solutions. To address these, we explore how Re...
Article
State machine replication protocols, like MultiPaxos and Raft, are a critical component of many distributed systems and databases. However, these protocols offer relatively low throughput due to several bottlenecked components. Numerous existing protocols fix different bottlenecks in isolation but fall short of a complete solution. When you fix one...
Preprint
The sharing of scarce resources among multiple rational agents is one of the classical problems in economics. In exchange economies, which are used to model such situations, agents begin with an initial endowment of resources and exchange them in a way that is mutually beneficial until they reach a competitive equilibrium (CE). CE allocations are P...
Preprint
We study $(\epsilon, \delta)$-PAC best arm identification, where a decision-maker must identify an $\epsilon$-optimal arm with probability at least $1 - \delta$, while minimizing the number of arm pulls (samples). Most of the work on this topic is in the sequential setting, where there is no constraint on the \emph{time} taken to identify such an a...
Article
The evolution that serverless computing represents, the economic forces that shape it, why it could fail, and how it might fulfill its potential.
Preprint
The increasing size of neural network models has been critical for improvements in their accuracy, but device memory is not growing at the same rate. This creates fundamental challenges for training neural networks within limited memory environments. In this work, we propose ActNN, a memory-efficient training framework that stores randomly quantize...
Preprint
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We present Pylot, a platform for autonomous vehicle (AV) research and development, built with the goal to allow researchers to study the effects of the latency and accuracy of their models and algorithms on the end-to-end driving behavior of an AV. This is achieved through a modular structure enabled by our high-performance dataflow system that rep...
Article
There is now a significant and growing functional gap between the public Internet, whose basic architecture has remained unchanged for several decades, and a new generation of more sophisticated private networks. To address this increasing divergence of functionality and overcome the Internet's architectural stagnation, we argue for the creation of...
Preprint
Quorum systems are a powerful mechanism for ensuring the consistency of replicated data. Production systems usually opt for majority quorums due to their simplicity and fault tolerance, but majority quorum systems provide poor throughput and scalability. Alternatively, researchers have invented a number of theoretically "optimal" quorum systems, bu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Model parallelism has become a necessity for training modern large-scale deep language models. In this work, we identify a new and orthogonal dimension from existing model parallel approaches: it is possible to perform pipeline parallelism within a single training sequence for Transformer-based language models thanks to its autoregressive property....
Preprint
State machine replication protocols, like MultiPaxos and Raft, are a critical component of many distributed systems and databases. However, these protocols offer relatively low throughput due to several bottlenecked components. Numerous existing protocols fix different bottlenecks in isolation but fall short of a complete solution. When you fix one...
Preprint
Full-text available
Video analytics applications use edge compute servers for the analytics of the videos (for bandwidth and privacy). Compressed models that are deployed on the edge servers for inference suffer from data drift, where the live video data diverges from the training data. Continuous learning handles data drift by periodically retraining the models on ne...
Preprint
We describe mechanisms for the allocation of a scarce resource among multiple users in a way that is efficient, fair, and strategy-proof, but when users do not know their resource requirements. The mechanism is repeated for multiple rounds and a user's requirements can change on each round. At the end of each round, users provide feedback about the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Researchers and practitioners in the field of reinforcement learning (RL) frequently leverage parallel computation, which has led to a plethora of new algorithms and systems in the last few years. In this paper, we re-examine the challenges posed by distributed RL and try to view it through the lens of an old idea: distributed dataflow. We show tha...
Preprint
We study exploration in stochastic multi-armed bandits when we have access to a divisible resource, and can allocate varying amounts of this resource to arm pulls. By allocating more resources to a pull, we can compute the outcome faster to inform subsequent decisions about which arms to pull. However, since distributed environments do not scale li...
Preprint
Low-latency online services have strict Service Level Objectives (SLOs) that require datacenter systems to support high throughput at microsecond-scale tail latency. Dataplane operating systems have been designed to scale up multi-core servers with minimal overhead for such SLOs. However, as application demands continue to increase, scaling up is n...
Article
Query optimizers rely on accurate cardinality estimates to produce good execution plans. Despite decades of research, existing cardinality estimators are inaccurate for complex queries, due to making lossy modeling assumptions and not capturing inter-table correlations. In this work, we show that it is possible to learn the correlations across all...
Preprint
Existing approaches to federated learning suffer from a communication bottleneck as well as convergence issues due to sparse client participation. In this paper we introduce a novel algorithm, called FetchSGD, to overcome these challenges. FetchSGD compresses model updates using a Count Sketch, and then takes advantage of the mergeability of sketch...
Preprint
Deep autoregressive models compute point likelihood estimates of individual data points. However, many applications (i.e., database cardinality estimation) require estimating range densities, a capability that is under-explored by current neural density estimation literature. In these applications, fast and accurate range density estimates over hig...
Preprint
Full-text available
Machine-aided programming tools such as type predictors and code summarizers are increasingly learning-based. However, most code representation learning approaches rely on supervised learning with task-specific annotated datasets. We propose Contrastive Code Representation Learning (ContraCode), a self-supervised algorithm for learning task-agnosti...
Preprint
Query optimizers rely on accurate cardinality estimates to produce good execution plans. Despite decades of research, existing cardinality estimators are inaccurate for complex queries, due to making lossy modeling assumptions and not capturing inter-table correlations. In this work, we show that it is possible to learn the correlations across all...
Preprint
High-performance tensor programs are crucial to guarantee efficient execution of deep learning models. However, obtaining performant tensor programs for different operators on various hardware platforms is notoriously difficult. Currently, deep learning systems rely on vendor-provided kernel libraries or various search strategies to get performant...
Preprint
We explore applying the Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) algorithm in a notoriously difficult task: tuning programs for high-performance deep learning and image processing. We build our framework on top of Halide and show that MCTS can outperform the state-of-the-art beam-search algorithm. Unlike beam search, which is guided by greedy intermediate pe...
Preprint
We study a multi-round welfare-maximising mechanism design problem, where, on each round, a mechanism assigns an allocation each to a set of agents and charges them a price. Then the agents report their realised (stochastic) values back to the mechanism. This is motivated by applications in cloud markets and online advertising where an agent may kn...
Preprint
The performance of the code a compiler generates depends on the order in which it applies the optimization passes. Choosing a good order--often referred to as the phase-ordering problem, is an NP-hard problem. As a result, existing solutions rely on a variety of heuristics. In this paper, we evaluate a new technique to address the phase-ordering pr...
Preprint
Collective communication systems such as MPI offer high performance group communication primitives at the cost of application flexibility. Today, an increasing number of distributed applications (e.g, reinforcement learning) require flexibility in expressing dynamic and asynchronous communication patterns. To accommodate these applications, task-ba...
Preprint
Full-text available
Prior research in resource scheduling for machine learning training workloads has largely focused on minimizing job completion times. Commonly, these model training workloads collectively search over a large number of parameter values that control the learning process in a hyperparameter search. It is preferable to identify and maximally provision...
Preprint
Autonomous agents can learn by imitating teacher demonstrations of the intended behavior. Hierarchical control policies are ubiquitously useful for such learning, having the potential to break down structured tasks into simpler sub-tasks, thereby improving data efficiency and generalization. In this paper, we propose a variational inference method...
Preprint
The practical usage of reinforcement learning agents is often bottlenecked by the duration of training time. To accelerate training, practitioners often turn to distributed reinforcement learning architectures to parallelize and accelerate the training process. However, modern methods for scalable reinforcement learning (RL) often tradeoff between...
Preprint
Advances in deep learning and neural networks have resulted in the rapid development of hardware accelerators that support them. A large majority of ASIC accelerators, however, target a single hardware design point to accelerate the main computational kernels of deep neural networks such as convolutions or matrix multiplication. On the other hand,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Prior research in resource scheduling for machine learning training workloads has largely focused on minimizing job completion times. Commonly, these model training workloads collectively search over a large number of parameter values that control the learning process in a hyperparameter search. It is preferable to identify and maximally provision...
Article
Cardinality estimation has long been grounded in statistical tools for density estimation. To capture the rich multivariate distributions of relational tables, we propose the use of a new type of high-capacity statistical model: deep autoregressive models. However, direct application of these models leads to a limited estimator that is prohibitivel...
Article
Distributed storage employs replication to mask failures and improve availability. However, these systems typically exhibit a hard tradeoff between consistency and performance. Ensuring consistency introduces coordination overhead, and as a result the system throughput does not scale with the number of replicas. We present Harmonia, a replicated st...
Conference Paper
As cluster computing frameworks such as Spark, Dryad, Flink, and Ray are being deployed in mission critical applications and on larger and larger clusters, their ability to tolerate failures is growing in importance. These frameworks employ two broad approaches for fault tolerance: checkpointing and lineage. Checkpointing exhibits low overhead duri...
Article
Full-text available
Developers nowadays have to contend with a growing number of APIs. While in the long-term they are very useful to developers, many modern APIs have an incredibly steep learning curve, due to their hundreds of functions handling many arguments, obscure documentation, and frequently changing semantics. For APIs that perform data transformations, novi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Model parameter synchronization across GPUs introduces high overheads for data-parallel training at scale. Existing parameter synchronization protocols cannot effectively leverage available network resources in the face of ever increasing hardware heterogeneity. To address this, we propose Blink, a collective communication library that dynamically...
Preprint
Modern neural networks are increasingly bottlenecked by the limited capacity of on-device GPU memory. Prior work explores dropping activations as a strategy to scale to larger neural networks under memory constraints. However, these heuristics assume uniform per-layer costs and are limited to simple architectures with linear graphs, limiting their...
Preprint
One of the key challenges arising when compilers vectorize loops for today's SIMD-compatible architectures is whether to vectorize and/or interleave. Then, the compiler has to determine how many instructions to pack together and how many loop iterations to interleave. Compilers are designed today to use fixed-cost models that rely on heuristics to...
Conference Paper
Packet classification is a fundamental problem in computer networking. This problem exposes a hard tradeoff between the computation and state complexity, which makes it particularly challenging. To navigate this tradeoff, existing solutions rely on complex hand-tuned heuristics, which are brittle and hard to optimize. In this paper, we propose a de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cellular networks dynamically adjust the transmission parameters for a wireless link in response to its time-varying channel state. This is known as link adaptation, where the typical goal is to maximize the link throughput. State-of-the-art outer loop link adaptation (OLLA) selects the optimal transmission parameters based on an approximate, offli...
Preprint
The recent advancements in deep reinforcement learning have opened new horizons and opportunities to tackle various problems in system optimization. Such problems are generally tailored to delayed, aggregated, and sequential rewards, which is an inherent behavior in the reinforcement learning setting, where an agent collects rewards while exploring...