Ioannis Liodakis

Ioannis Liodakis
University of Turku | UTU · Finnish Center for Astronomy with ESO

About

123
Publications
7,150
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,387
Citations
Citations since 2016
115 Research Items
2390 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600

Publications

Publications (123)
Article
Full-text available
An incremental version of the fourth catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope is presented. This version (4LAC-DR3) derives from the third data release of the 4FGL catalog based on 12 yr of E > 50 MeV gamma-ray data, where the spectral parameters, spectral energy distributions (SEDs), yearly light curves,...
Article
We report on the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) observation of the closest and X-ray brightest Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN), the Circinus galaxy. We find the source to be significantly polarized in the 2–6 keV band. From previous studies, the X-ray spectrum is known to be dominated by reflection components, both neutral (t...
Preprint
We report on the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) observation of the closest and X-ray brightest Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN), the Circinus galaxy. We find the source to be significantly polarized in the 2--6 keV band. From previous studies, the X-ray spectrum is known to be dominated by reflection components, both neutral (...
Preprint
Full-text available
Using blazar light curves from the optical All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) and the $\gamma$-ray \textit{Fermi}-LAT telescope, we performed the most extensive statistical correlation study between both bands, using a sample of 1,180 blazars. This is almost an order of magnitude larger than other recent studies. Blazars represent mo...
Preprint
Extended and delayed emission around distant TeV sources induced by the effects of propagation of gamma rays through the intergalactic medium can be used for the measurement of the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF). We search for delayed GeV emission from the hard-spectrum TeV blazar 1ES 0229+200 with the goal to detect or constrain the IGMF-depe...
Article
We report on the first observation of a radio-quiet Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) in polarized X-rays: the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-05-23-16. This source was pointed at with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) starting on May 14, 2022 for a net observing time of 486 ks, simultaneously with XMM-Newton (58 ks) and NuSTAR (83 ks). A polarizati...
Preprint
Supermassive black holes have been known to disrupt passing stars producing outbursts called Tidal Disruption Events offering a unique view on the early stages of accretion disk and jet formation. The advent of large scale optical time-domain surveys has significantly increased the number of known events and challenged our understanding of their dy...
Article
Full-text available
The origin of Petaelectronvolt (PeV) astrophysical neutrinos is fundamental to our understanding of the high-energy Universe. Apart from the technical challenges of operating detectors deep below ice, oceans, and lakes, the phenomenological challenges are even greater than those of gravitational waves; the sources are unknown, hard to predict, and...
Preprint
The origin of Petaelectronvolt (PeV) astrophysical neutrinos is fundamental to our understanding of the high-energy Universe. Apart from the technical challenges of operating detectors deep below ice, oceans, and lakes, the phenomenological challenges are even greater than those of gravitational waves; the sources are unknown, hard to predict, and...
Article
Full-text available
We present measurements of the polarization of X-rays in the 2–8 keV band from the nucleus of the radio galaxy Centaurus A (Cen A), using a 100 ks observation from the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE). Nearly simultaneous observations of Cen A were also taken with the Swift, NuSTAR, and INTEGRAL observatories. No statistically significant...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report on the first observation of a radio-quiet Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) using polarized X-rays: the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-05-23-16. This source was pointed with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) starting on May 14, 2022 for a net observing time of 486 ks, simultaneously with XMM-Newton (58 ks) and NuSTAR (83 ks). A polarizati...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present measurements of the polarization of X-rays in the $2-8 \thinspace \mathrm{keV}$ band from the nucleus of the radio galaxy Centaurus A (Cen A), using a 100ks observation from the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE). Nearly simultaneous observations of Cen A were also taken with the Swift, NuSTAR, and INTEGRAL observatories. No stati...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Crab pulsar and its nebula are among the most studied astrophysical systems, and constitute one of the most promising environments where high energy processes and particle acceleration can be investigated. They are the only objects for which previous X-ray polarisation has been reported. We present here the first Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explo...
Preprint
Using observations of X-ray pulsar Her X-1 by the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer, we report on a highly significant detection of the polarization signal from an accreting neutron star. The observed degree of the linear polarization of ∼ 10% is found to be far below theoretical expectations for this object, and stays low throughout the spin cycl...
Preprint
Full-text available
In a black hole X-ray binary (XRB) system, gas accreted from a normal star onto a black hole glows brightly in X-rays. We report on an observation of the XRB Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1) by the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer IXPE) yielding the first highly significant detection of X-ray polarization from an accreting black hole. The electric vector pol...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report on a 5$\sigma$ detection of polarized 3-6 keV X-ray emission from the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) mission. The overall polarization degree of 1.8 $\pm$ 0.3% is detected by summing over a large region assuming circular symmetry for the polarization vectors. Correcting for thermal X-ray...
Preprint
Full-text available
Using observations of X-ray pulsar Her X-1 by the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer, we report on a highly significant detection of the polarization signal from an accreting neutron star. The observed degree of the polarization of $\sim10$% is found to be far below theoretical expectations for this object, and stays low throughout the spin cycle o...
Article
Full-text available
We present an incremental version (4FGL-DR3, for Data Release 3) of the fourth Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog of γ -ray sources. Based on the first 12 years of science data in the energy range from 50 MeV to 1 TeV, it contains 6658 sources. The analysis improves on that used for the 4FGL catalog over eight years of data: more sources are...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report on the first detection of linearly polarized x-ray emission from an ultra-magnetized neutron star with the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE). The IXPE 35 observations of the anomalous x-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61 reveal a linear polarization degree of $(12\pm 1)\%$ throughout the IXPE 2--8 keV band. We detect a substantial variation of...
Article
Both leptonic and hadronic emission processes may contribute to blazar jet emission; which dominates in blazars’ high-energy emission component remains an open question. Some intermediate synchrotron peaked blazars transition from their low- to high-energy emission components in the X-ray band making them excellent laboratories to probe both compon...
Preprint
Full-text available
Both leptonic and hadronic emission processes may contribute to blazar jet emission; which dominates in blazars's high energy emission component remains an open question. Some intermediate synchrotron peaked blazars transition from their low to high energy emission components in the X-ray band making them excellent laboratories to probe both compon...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring the redshift of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) requires the use of time-consuming and expensive spectroscopic analysis. However, obtaining redshift measurements of AGNs is crucial as it can enable AGN population studies, provide insight into the star formation rate, the luminosity function, and the density rate evolution. Hence, there is a...
Preprint
Full-text available
This Snowmass 2021 White Paper describes the Cosmic Microwave Background Stage 4 project CMB-S4, which is designed to cross critical thresholds in our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Universe, from the highest energies at the dawn of time through the growth of structure to the present day. We provide an overview of the science case...
Article
Full-text available
Redshift measurement of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) remains a time-consuming and challenging task, as it requires follow up spectroscopic observations and detailed analysis. Hence, there exists an urgent requirement for alternative redshift estimation techniques. The use of machine learning (ML) for this purpose has been growing over the last few...
Article
Symmetric achromatic variability (SAV) is a rare form of radio variability in blazars that has been attributed to gravitational milli-lensing by a ∼10 ² –10 ⁵ M ⊙ mass condensate. Four SAVs have been identified between 1980 and 2020 in the long-term radio monitoring data of the blazar PKS 1413 + 135. We show that all four can be fitted with the sam...
Preprint
Full-text available
Redshift measurement of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) remains a time-consuming and challenging task, as it requires follow up spectroscopic observations and detailed analysis. Hence, there exists an urgent requirement for alternative redshift estimation techniques. The use of machine learning (ML) for this purpose has been growing over the last few...
Article
Full-text available
Most large galaxies host supermassive black holes in their nuclei and are subject to mergers, which can produce a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB), and hence periodic signatures due to orbital motion. We report unique periodic radio flux density variations in the blazar PKS 2131−021, which strongly suggest an SMBHB with an orbital separation...
Article
Full-text available
The lack of detected intermediate mass black holes poses a gap in our understanding of the growth and evolution of the most exotic of astrophysical objects. Here we investigate the possibility of low-luminosity relativistic jets launched by intermediate mass black holes in the centers of dwarf galaxies. We built population models that allow us to m...
Preprint
The lack of detected intermediate mass black holes poses a gap in our understanding of the growth and evolution of the most exotic of astrophysical objects. Here we investigate the possibility of low-luminosity relativistic jets launched by intermediate mass black holes in the centers of dwarf galaxies. We built population models that allow us to m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Measuring the redshift of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) requires the use of time-consuming and expensive spectroscopic analysis. However, obtaining redshift measurements of AGNs is crucial as it can enable AGN population studies, provide insight into the star formation rate, the luminosity function, and the density rate evolution. Hence, there is a...
Preprint
Symmetric Achromatic Variability (SAV) is a rare form of radio variability in blazars that has been attributed to gravitational millilensing by a ~$10^2 - 10^5$ $M_\odot$ mass condensate. Four SAVs have been identified between 1980 and 2020 in the long-term radio monitoring data of the blazar PKS 1413+135. We show that all four can be fitted with t...
Preprint
The detection of the flaring gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056 in spatial and temporal coincidence with the high-energy neutrino IC-170922A represents a milestone for multi-messenger astronomy. The prompt multi-wavelength coverage from several ground- and space-based facilities of this special event was enabled thanks to the key role of the $\textit{Fe...
Preprint
Most galaxies host supermassive black holes in their nuclei and are subject to mergers, which can produce a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB), and hence periodic signatures due to orbital motion. We report unique periodic flux density variations in the blazar PKS 2131-021, which strongly suggest a SMBHB with an orbital separation of $\sim 0.00...
Article
Full-text available
Polarization offers a unique view in the physical processes of astrophysical jets. We report on optical circular polarization observations of two famous blazars, namely 3C 279 and PKS 1510−089, at high linearly polarized states. This is the first time PKS 1510−089 is observed in optical circular polarization. While only upper limits can be extracte...
Preprint
Polarization offers a unique view in the physical processes of astrophysical jets. We report on optical circular polarization observations of two famous blazars, namely 3C 279 and PKS 1510-089, at high linearly polarized states. This is the first time PKS 1510-089 is observed in optical circular polarization. While only upper limits can be extracte...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several models have been suggested to explain the fast gamma-ray variability observed in blazars, but its origin is still debated. One scenario is magnetic reconnection, a process that can efficiently convert magnetic energy to energy of relativistic particles accelerated in the reconnection layer. In our study, we compare results from state-of-the...
Article
Context. Supermassive black holes can launch highly relativistic jets with velocities reaching Lorentz factors of as high as Γ > 50. How the jets accelerate to such high velocities and where along the jet they reach terminal velocity are open questions that are tightly linked to their structure as well as their launching and dissipation mechanisms....
Preprint
Supermassive black holes launch highly relativistic jets with velocities reaching Lorentz factors as high as $\Gamma>50$. How the jets accelerate to such high velocities and where along the jet do they reach terminal velocity are open questions that are tightly linked to their structure, launching and dissipation mechanisms. Changes in the beaming...
Article
At optical wavelengths, blazar Electric Vector Position Angle (EVPA) rotations linked with gamma-ray activity have been the subject of intense interest and systematic investigation for over a decade. One difficulty in the interpretation of EVPA rotations is the inherent 180○ ambiguity in the measurements. It is therefore essential, when studying EV...
Preprint
Full-text available
AGNs are very powerful galaxies characterized by extremely bright emissions coming out from their central massive black holes. Knowing the redshifts of AGNs provides us with an opportunity to determine their distance to investigate important astrophysical problems such as the evolution of the early stars, their formation along with the structure of...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary instrument for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy gamma-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 30 MeV to more than 300 GeV. We describe the performance of the instrument at the 10-year milestone. LAT performance remains well within th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Astrophysical observations provide strong evidence that more than 80% of all matter in the Universe is in the form of dark matter (DM). Two leading candidates of particles beyond the Standard Model that could constitute all or a fraction of the DM content are the so-called Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and Axion-Like Particles (ALPs)...
Preprint
Full-text available
The discovery of gravitational waves, high-energy neutrinos or the very-high-energy counterpart of gamma-ray bursts has revolutionized the high-energy and transient astrophysics community. The development of new instruments and analysis techniques will allow the discovery and/or follow-up of new transient sources. We describe the prospects for the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The physics of the non-thermal Universe provides information on the acceleration mechanisms in extreme environments, such as black holes and relativistic jets, neutron stars, supernovae or clusters of galaxies. In the presence of magnetic fields, particles can be accelerated towards relativistic energies. As a consequence, radiation along the entir...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the first Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog of long-term $\gamma$-ray transient sources (1FLT). This comprises sources that were detected on monthly time intervals during the first decade of Fermi-LAT operations. The monthly time scale allows us to identify transient and variable sources that were not yet reported in other Fermi-L...
Preprint
Full-text available
At optical wavelengths, blazar Electric Vector Position Angle (EVPA) rotations linked with gamma-ray activity have been the subject of intense interest and systematic investigation for over a decade. One difficulty in the interpretation of EVPA rotations is the inherent 180{\deg} ambiguity in the measurements. It is therefore essential, when studyi...
Article
At optical wavelengths, blazar Electric Vector Position Angle (EVPA) rotations linked with gamma-ray activity have been the subject of intense interest and systematic investigation for over a decade. One difficulty in the interpretation of EVPA rotations is the inherent 180° ambiguity in the measurements. It is therefore essential, when studying EV...
Article
PKS 1413+135 is one of the most peculiar blazars known. Its strange properties led to the hypothesis almost four decades ago that it is gravitationally lensed by a mass concentration associated with an intervening galaxy. It exhibits symmetric achromatic variability, a rare form of variability that has been attributed to gravitational milli-lensing...
Article
Full-text available
We present uniformly reprocessed and re-calibrated data from the RoboPol programme of optopolarimetric monitoring of active galactic nuclei (AGN), covering observations between 2013, when the instrument was commissioned, and 2017. In total, the dataset presented in this paper includes 5068 observations of 222 AGN with Dec > −25○. We describe the cu...
Preprint
PKS 1413+135 is one of the most peculiar blazars known. Its strange properties led to the hypothesis almost four decades ago that it is gravitationally lensed by a mass concentration associated with an intervening galaxy. It exhibits symmetric achromatic variability, a rare form of variability that has been attributed to gravitational milli-lensing...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present uniformly reprocessed and re-calibrated data from the RoboPol programme of optopolarimetric monitoring of active galactic nuclei (AGN), covering observations between 2013, when the instrument was commissioned, and 2017. In total, the dataset presented in this paper includes 5068 observations of 222 AGN with Dec > -25 deg. We describe the...
Preprint
Identifying the most likely sources for high-energy neutrino emission has been one of the main topics in high-energy astrophysics ever since the first observation of high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Active galactic nuclei with relativistic jets, blazars, have been considered to be one of the main candidates due to their ab...
Article
Context. Identifying the most likely sources for high-energy neutrino emission has been one of the main topics in high-energy astrophysics ever since the first observation of high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Active galactic nuclei with relativistic jets, also known as blazars, have been considered to be one of the main can...
Preprint
Full-text available
The quasar 3C 454.3 is a blazar known for its rapid and violent outbursts seen across the electromagnetic spectrum. Using gamma-ray, X-ray, multi-band optical, and very long baseline interferometric data we investigate the nature of two such events that occurred in 2013 and 2014 accompanied by strong variations in optical polarization, including a...