Inti A. Brazil

Inti A. Brazil
Radboud University | RU · Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour

PhD

About

87
Publications
18,270
Reads
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1,366
Citations
Introduction
Inti A. Brazil currently works at the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Radboud University. Inti does research in Abnormal Psychology, Forensic Psychology and Cognitive Science.
Additional affiliations
October 2009 - present
October 2005 - October 2009
Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
Position
  • Researcher
Education
October 2009 - November 2013
Radboud University
Field of study
  • Psychology and neuroscience
September 2001 - August 2005
Leiden University
Field of study
  • Cognitive Psychology

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous construct that can be divided into subtypes, such as antisocial personality and psychopathy. The adverse consequences of antisocial behavior produce great burden for the perpetrators, victims, family members, and for society at-large. The pervasiveness of antisocial behavior highlights the importance of precis...
Article
Relatively little research has examined the neuropsychological functioning of child sex offenders. While research has demonstrated that child sex offenders present with neuropsychological deficits, there is a lack of empirically supported insight into the nature of these deficits. Consequently, important questions concerning the neuropsychological...
Article
Full-text available
Effective and specifically targeted social and therapeutic responses for antisocial personality disorders and psychopathy are scarce. Some authors maintain that this scarcity should be overcome by revising current syndrome-based classifications of these conditions and devising better biocognitive classifications of antisocial individuals. The inspi...
Article
Psychopathy is a personality construct encompassing impaired interpersonal-affective functioning, combined with the inclination to lead an erratic lifestyle and to engage in antisocial acts. Individuals with elevated psychopathic traits often make decisions that have a negative impact on others. Some findings suggest that a lack of empathy and guil...
Article
Full-text available
Psychopathic individuals typically present with associative learning impairments under explicit learning conditions. The present study aimed to investigate whether the formation of stimulus-outcome associations, as well as updating of these associations after changed contingencies, could be improved by using rewards with sufficiently high subjectiv...
Article
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Social reward refers to the motivational and pleasurable aspects of our interactions with other people. While some people experience social encounters as pleasurable, others experience them as aversive. However, the current knowledge on individual differences in social reward valuation in relation to pro- and antisocial personality characteristics...
Preprint
Theoretical and empirical accounts suggest that adolescence is associated with heightened reward learning and impulsivity. Experimental tasks and computational models that can dissociate reward learning from the tendency to initiate actions impulsively (action initiation bias) are thus critical to characterise the mechanisms that drive developmenta...
Preprint
Individuals with hostile expectations (HEX) anticipate harm from seemingly neutral or ambiguous stimuli, and this can trigger antisocial behaviour. However, it is unclear how HEX are acquired, how the level of environmental threat affects the learning process, and to what extent HEX acquisition predicts real-world measures of antisocial thought, co...
Article
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Psychopathy is a multifaceted personality construct entailing interpersonal-affective disturbances, antisocial traits, and a tendency to lead an erratic lifestyle. Elevated levels of psychopathic traits have been linked to having an altered experience of pain, reduced responsivity to distress in others, and making poor moral choices that bring harm...
Article
Background: Conduct Disorder (CD) is a common syndrome with far-reaching effects. Risk factors for the development of CD span social, psychological, and biological domains. Researchers note that predictive models of CD are limited if the focus is on a single risk factor or, even, a single domain. Machine learning methods are optimized for the extr...
Article
The psychopath has long captured the imagination. A name such as Ted Bundy evokes a morbid curiosity. The crimes committed by Bundy are so cruel that it is hard to imagine how someone could do such things. In this review we discuss evidence that exaggeration in an attention bottleneck is one mechanism that makes it possible for psychopathic individ...
Article
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Objectives: Meditation interventions typically show small to moderate effects on health and well-being, but we know little about how these effects vary across individuals. This meta-analytic study investigates the relationship between baseline participant characteristics and the outcomes of meditation. Methods: A systematic search yielded 51 eli...
Chapter
Individuals with psychopathy present with maladaptive tendencies that have been linked to disturbed processing of outcomes during decision making, in particular with respect to aversive outcomes. In general, individuals with psychopathy show risk-seeking behaviour, as well as excessive reward-oriented behaviour. This chapter provides an overview of...
Article
While attention has been given to maladaptive personality traits in the sexual offending literature, little is known about how individuals who engage in child sexual abuse (CSOs) score on general personality traits, and how subgroups of CSOs vary in these traits. This study investigated general personality traits of (subgroups of) CSOs (n=57) as co...
Article
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Background: Displaced aggression occurs when a person encounters a provoking situation, is unable or unwilling to retaliate against the original provocateur, and subsequently aggresses against a target that is not the source of the initial provocation. The displaced aggression questionnaire (DAQ) was developed to measure individual differences in...
Article
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Studies investigating the efficacy of errorless learning (EL), a rehabilitation method in which the occurrence of errors during learning are eliminated, have predominantly involved patients with memory impairment. However, the most recent perspective on the underlying mechanism of EL explicitly takes executive processes into account. The aim of thi...
Article
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Background: Variability in cognitive functions in healthy and pathological aging is often explained by educational attainment. However, it remains unclear to which extent different disease states alter protective effects of education. We aimed to investigate whether protective effects of education on cognition depend on (1) clinical diagnosis sever...
Article
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Cognitive impairment has been linked to reduced self-reporting of pain. However, it is unclear whether the various cognitive functions are similarly and/or independently associated with such pain report measures. In the present study, we explored how executive functioning (EF), memory, and global cognition relate to self-reported pain and investiga...
Article
Objective The main aim was to investigate whether forensic psychiatric inpatients can be distinguished from prisoners and non-offender healthy controls based on their performance on neurocognitive tasks measuring behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation. Method This study used preexisting data from 120 male forensic psychiatric inpatients,...
Article
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by a constellation of affective, interpersonal, lifestyle and antisocial features whose antecedents can be identified in a subgroup of young people showing severe antisocial behaviour. The prevalence of psychopathy in the general population is thought to be ~1%, but is up to 25% in prisoners. The...
Article
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The harm usually associated with psychopathy requires therapeutically, legally, and ethically satisfactory solutions. Scholars from different fields have, thus, examined whether empirical evidence shows that individuals with psychopathic traits satisfy concepts, such as responsibility, mental disorder, or disability, that have specific legal or eth...
Article
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Background Healthy aging is accompanied by a decline in learning ability and memory capacity. One widely-studied method to improve learning outcome is by reducing the occurrence of errors during learning (errorless learning; EL). However, there is also evidence that committing errors during learning (trial-and-error learning; TEL) may benefit memor...
Article
Psychopathy is a personality construct that encompasses a constellation of traits reflecting emotional dysfunction and antisocial behavior. Individuals with elevated levels of psychopathic traits have shown abnormal affective processing. Studies with psychopathic offenders suggested that this is a result of altered automatic social approach-avoidan...
Preprint
We respond to a critique by Patrick et al. (2020) of our recent study (Roy et al., 2020) that raised questions regarding the three-factor model of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM). Roy et al. demonstrated that a replicable model involving seven unidimensional factors accounted for the TriPM items across North American and European general...
Article
We respond to a critique by Patrick et al. (2020) of our recent study (Roy et al., 2020) that raised questions regarding the three-factor model of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM). Roy et al. demonstrated that a replicable model involving seven unidimensional factors accounted for the TriPM items across North American and European general...
Article
For patients in long-term forensic psychiatric care (LFPC), a continuous search for treatment possibilities remains important. An alternative viewpoint to these patients as being untreatable is considering them having low treatment readiness. Treatment readiness incorporates internal client-specific factors as well as factors in the therapeutic sit...
Article
The Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) is based on a 3-dimensional conceptual model, though few studies have directly tested a 3-factor structure. The current study used a large community sample (N = 1,064, 53% males, Mage = 34) to test the structure of the TriPM via exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, along with 4 community replicatio...
Article
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Involvement of the cerebellum to non-motor related aspects of behavior is becoming increasingly clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the cerebellum in reactive and proactive behavioral control and interference. In a double-blind controlled within-subject design, 26 healthy volunteers underwent real and sham cerebellar transcr...
Article
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Errorless learning (EL) is an approach in which errors are eliminated or reduced as much as possible while learning of new information or skills. In contrast, during trial-and-error − or errorful − learning (TEL) errors are not reduced and are often even promoted. There is a complex and conflicting pattern of evidence whether EL or TEL may result i...
Article
Prior studies suggest that persons with a sexual offense against a child (PSOCs) present with an impairment in learning from reinforcement, which may contribute to the behavioral dysregulation often seen in PSOCs. Therefore, gaining more insight into the nature of this impairment seems essential to better understand child sexual (re)offending. Usin...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with high levels of psychopathic tendencies tend to show a lack of guilt, a lack of empathic concern, and a disregard for the impact of their decisions on others. However, how guilt influences social decision-making for those with high psychopathic traits is still unknown. Here, we investigated how psychopathic traits relate to the capa...
Article
Extensive work implicates abnormal amygdala response during threatening stimuli in youth with antisocial behaviour. However, no research has examined whether youth identified in Primary and Secondary psychopathy subtypes would show differences in amygdala activity in response to threat acquisition and extinction. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was u...
Article
Effective interactions between patients and staff have been associated with positive ward climate and therapeutic effects, but also pose a challenge in high secure forensic psychiatric settings. The goal of this study was to gain more insight into i) the characteristics that play a role in how staff members perceive the interpersonal style of patie...
Article
Background Child molesters form a heterogeneous group, but one generally shared characteristic is maladaptive, rigid behaviour. Impairments in reinforcement learning may explain these maladaptive tendencies, but this has not been systematically investigated. Further, it is not known if such impairments vary with subtype of child molesters. Aims To...
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Objective: A lack of empathy and the presence of predatory tendencies are considered key features of psychopathic meanness. Previous electrophysiological studies on empathy in relation to psychopathic traits have focused mainly on empathy for pain; therefore, little is known about the electrophysiological correlates of empathy in aggressive situat...
Article
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It has been argued that a biomarker-informed classification system for antisocial individuals has the potential to overcome many obstacles in current conceptualizations of forensic and psychiatric constructs and promises better targeted treatments. However, some have expressed ethical worries about the social impact of the use of biological inform...
Article
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The psychometric properties and associations between the Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) and the Group Climate Instrument-revised (GCI-r) were examined. These self-report questionnaires assessing ward climate were filled out by 123 male patients, residing in 3 high-secure forensic psychiatric facilities. Good internal consistency was fou...
Article
Objective: Psychopathy is a personality disorder typified by lack of empathy and impulsive antisocial behavior. Psychopathic traits may partly relate to disrupted connections between brain regions. The aim of the present study was to link abnormalities in microstructural integrity of white-matter tracts to the severity of different psychopathic tr...
Article
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The use of relevant reinforcers during treatment is essential for successful interventions. This especially applies to forensic psychiatric populations, which are known to be resistant to treatment. However, it is not clear which rewards are of importance for different types of forensic patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate rewa...
Article
Purpose: Within forensic settings, the tools used to evaluate subtypes of antisocial offenders (e.g. interview-based measures such as the Psychopathy Checklist) are expensive and time consuming. The purpose of the present study was to identify and validate distinct antisocial profiles in male offenders using a questionnaire. In the future, this app...
Article
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Many individuals believe that meditation has the capacity to not only alleviate mental-illness but to improve prosociality. This article systematically reviewed and meta-analysed the effects of meditation interventions on prosociality in randomized controlled trials of healthy adults. Five types of social behaviours were identified: compassion, emp...
Article
Studies on the association between psychopathy and decision-making in laboratory tasks have revealed mixed results. These might be due to an insufficient consideration of the different aspects related to both psychopathy and decision-making. Here we measured different facets of psychopathy in a non-clinical sample using the triarchic psychopathy me...
Article
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Objective: Parental rejection in childhood is associated with the increased risk of aggression in adulthood and is thought to contribute to the development of inaccurate beliefs regarding own or others’ behavior (i.e., cognitive distortion) as well. Different forms of aggression are thought to be linked to different types of cognitive distortions....
Article
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There is considerable evidence for the effectiveness of mind–body interventions (MBIs) in improving mental and physical health, but the molecular mechanisms of these benefits remain poorly understood. One hypothesis is that MBIs reverse expression of genes involved in inflammatory reactions that are induced by stress. This systematic review was con...
Article
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Background: Psychopathy has repeatedly been linked to disturbed associative learning from aversive events (i.e., threat conditioning). Optimal threat conditioning requires the generation of internal representations of stimulus-outcome contingencies and the rate with which these may change. Because mental representations are imperfect, there will a...
Article
Antisociale personen vormen een grote last voor de maatschappij, onder andere omdat ze voor veel emotionele en financiële schade zorgen. Binnen de forensische psychiatrie wordt geprobeerd om deze personen te helpen met het verder ontwikkelen van hun vermogen om gedrag te reguleren. Helaas leidt deze hulp niet altijd tot de beoogde resultaten, omdat...
Article
Among criminal offenders, two subtypes of antisocial traits, psychopathy and externalizing-only, are associated with an especially elevated risk for substance use disorders (SUDs). The present study examined the associations of these traits with patterns of substance misuse. In a sample of 1,413 male offenders, we used diagnoses for alcohol, cannab...
Article
Instrumental or goal-directed aggression is a core feature in violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies. To understand this type of behavior, previous work in the field of aggression has focused on affective processing, with mixed results. We propose that instrumental aggression is best understood in terms of the consequences of affective proc...
Article
Full-text available
Instrumental or goal-directed aggression is a core feature in violent offenders with psychopathic tendencies. To understand this type of behavior, previous work in the field of aggression has focused on affective processing, with mixed results. We propose that instrumental aggression is best understood in terms of the consequences of affective proc...
Article
We suggest an alternative explanation for the emergence of Big Gods that places less emphasis on the role of cognitive tendencies and selection of prosocial cultural variants. Instead, we argue that the fundamental motivation to reduce uncertainty and increase long-term predictability provides a better account for the rise of Big moralizing Gods in...
Article
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by interpersonal manipulation and callousness, and reckless and impulsive antisocial behavior. It is often seen as a disorder in which profound emotional disturbances lead to antisocial behavior. A lack of fear in particular has been proposed as an etiologically salient factor. In this review, we...
Article
Full-text available
Within this study the relationship between patient characteristics (age, length of stay, risk, psychopathy) and individual perceived ward climate (n=83), and differences between staff’s and patient perceptions of climate (n=185) was investigated within a high secure forensic hospital. Results show that therapeutic hold was rated higher among staff...
Article
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People often coordinate their actions with others' in pursuit of shared goals, yet little research has examined the neural processes by which people monitor whether shared goals have been achieved. The current study compared event-related potentials elicited by feedback indicating joint errors (resulting from two people's coordinated actions) and i...
Article
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Objectives . In the first randomized controlled trial of yoga on UK prisoners, we previously showed that yoga practice was associated with improved mental wellbeing and cognition. Here, we aimed to assess how class attendance, self-practice, and demographic factors were related to outcome amongst prisoners enrolled in the 10-week yoga intervention....
Data
The Supplementary Material contain information about the instructions that were provided to participants during the final seated meditation, together with the full results of analyses exploring effects of attendance, self-practice, demographic variables, and baseline psychometrics against outcome .
Article
Psychopathie wordt gekenmerkt door affectieve disfuncties in combinatie met antisociaal gedrag. Individuen met psychopathie zijn onder andere te vinden in Forensisch Psychiatrische Centra (tbs-klinieken), waar ze een behandeling krijgen. Hoewel er successen worden geboekt, blijft het een uitdaging om het gedrag van patiënten met psychopathie te beh...
Article
Psychopathic individuals display a callous-coldhearted approach to interpersonal and affective situations and engage in impulsive and antisocial behaviors. Despite early conceptualizations suggesting that psychopathy is related to enhanced cognitive functioning, research examining executive functioning (EF) in psychopathy has yielded few such findi...
Chapter
In this chapter, an overview is provided of instruments to measure pain, neuropsychological domains, pain cognitions, emotion, and personality constructs. Interpretational and conceptual issues will be discussed that should be considered in pain assessment. For example, the interpretation of neuropsychological test results should be done with cauti...
Article
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Sarah Gregory and colleagues1 report a functional MRI study of violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder. 12 men with antisocial personality disorder with psychopathy, 20 men with antisocial personality disorder but not psychopathy, and 18 healthy non-offenders were assessed with an event-related probabilistic response-reversal task ad...
Article
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In individuals with psychopathy, the presence of emotional stimuli implicates a relatively weak distraction from performing cognitive tasks. This study assessed whether there is also a relationship between specific combinations of psychopathy-related traits present in the general population and sensitivity of cognitive processing to distraction by...
Article
Full-text available
According to embodied theories of language (ETLs), word meaning relies on sensorimotor brain areas, generally dedicated to acting and perceiving in the real world. More specifically, words denoting actions are postulated to make use of neural motor areas, while words denoting visual properties draw on the resources of visual brain areas. Therefore,...
Article
Full-text available
Psychopathy is often linked to disturbed reinforcement-guided adaptation of behavior in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Recent work suggests that these disturbances might be due to a deficit in actively using information to guide changes in behavior. However, how much information is actually used to guide behavior is difficult to observ...
Article
Common psychopathy rating instruments distinguish between an interpersonal-affective and an antisocial dimension. The suggestion that the interpersonal-affective dimension, often considered to be the core feature of psychopathy, is positively associated with executive functioning is occasionally made in the literature, without reporting objective e...
Article
Full-text available
Common psychopathy rating instruments distinguish between an interpersonal-affective and an antisocial dimension. The suggestion that the interpersonal-affective dimension, often considered to be the core feature of psychopathy, is positively associated with executive functioning is occasionally made in the literature, without reporting objective e...