Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso

Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen | GAUG · Department of Economics

PhD University of Birmingham

About

289
Publications
124,338
Reads
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Introduction
Inma Martínez is Professor of Economics at the University Jaume I, Spain and Apl Professor at the University of Goettingen, Germany. Her research interests lie at the intersection of environmental, development and international economics and she has published over 100 papers on topics relating to trade, foreign aid, economic integration, international agreements and the environment. She is Board member of INFER and associated Editor of Applied Economic Analysis.
Additional affiliations
January 2015 - January 2017
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Position
  • Professor
January 2010 - December 2011
Pompeu Fabra
Position
  • International trade, transport and the environment in the Euro-Med Area
January 2006 - December 2009
Education
March 1995 - February 1998
University of Birmingham
Field of study
  • Economics
October 1993 - September 1994
University of Birmingham
Field of study
  • Economics
October 1985 - June 1990
University of Valencia
Field of study
  • Economics and Business Administration

Publications

Publications (289)
Article
The purpose of this paper is to identify the risk factors for emotional intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and girls with children in Mexico from an ecological perspective. To that end, we generate a dataset with 35,004 observations and 42 covariates, to which we apply an additive probit model estimated with a boosting algorithm to overc...
Article
We use panel data for 115 countries over the period 1995-2016 to model the heterogeneity of the debt-growth nexus along with the underlying factors that might explain it. The grouped fixed effect (GFE) estimator is used to endogenously classify countries into groups and a multinomial logit model is employed to explore the drivers of the detected he...
Article
There is a considerable amount of discussion over the effect of global value chain (GVC) participation on the increasing levels of income inequality in developed and developing countries. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the interlink between income inequality and GVC participation. For this purpose, a panel data analysis...
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Workers' remittances declined sharply as the COVID-19 pandemic spread in the first half of 2020, rebounding in the second half. This paper analyses the impact of containment and economic support measures on remittances sent to Latin America during 2019–2020 using a gravity model estimated with the Poisson pseudo-maximum likelihood estimator (PPML)....
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This paper empirically investigates the effects of governance quality on the number of African asylum seekers in Europe over the period 1996–2018 and evaluates the extent to which official development aid acts as a catalyst. With this purpose in mind, different gravity model specifications and estimation approaches have been employed. The obtained...
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According to 2016 official estimates, almost 60% of the rural population in Mexico (16.9 million people) had income levels below the poverty line, and approximately 29.2% (8.3 million) could not even afford the basic food basket. Whereas most poverty research disregards gender and exclusively analyzes average income or the expected probability of b...
Article
Population movements between countries and continents are not recent phenomena. What is new today is that migration flows are increasingly linked to the globalization process and to environmental degradation. Most of the migrants leave their homes for economic reasons, but also due to the higher frequency of natural disasters. Of the total migrant...
Article
This study analyzes the determinants of both total migration and asylum migration to Germany. For the analysis, a comprehensive empirical model is set up that includes climate change, economic opportunities, such as per capita income differentials, links to Germany, home country characteristics (population growth, poverty, consumer confidence, unem...
Article
This paper is the first to analyze the impact of free trade agreements (FTAs) and the harmonization of rules of origin (RoO) on Middle East and North African (MENA) countries’ exports differentiating between final and intermediate goods for a global sample of trade partners. Data on exports from four MENA countries (Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunis...
Article
In this paper we investigate whether trade liberalization leads to more stringent product standards in a developing country context, uncovering the role that the connected firms’ market share plays in markets dominated by imports. We estimate a two-part model using data over the period from 2002 to 2010 to test whether additional product standards...
Article
This paper investigates whether new donors use foreign aid to facilitate their integration in the world economy. With this aim, the effect of foreign aid on gross trade and global value chains (GVC) is estimated for a sample of 12 new donors and 130 recipients over the period from 2000 to 2014. The results from a theoretically justified gravity mod...
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This is the first paper that analyzes for a global sample of countries how trade agreements that include technology-related provisions impact exports of goods, and how this impact differs depending on the technology content of the goods. It includes estimations of a structural gravity model for a panel of 176 countries over the period 1995–2015. Th...
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In the XXI century, the labor market effects of automation have gained significant attention from scholars and policymakers alike. Concerns about potential negative effects are particularly relevant in emerging countries, where a rapid acceleration of robot adoption and an increasing involvement in global value chains has been observed in recent ye...
Article
This paper explores the link between trade liberalization and firms’performance in Egypt combining macro and micro data. Using theEconomic Census of Egypt 2013, we examine the association betweentariffs and non‐tariffs measures (NTM) imposed on intermediate inputsand total factor productivity (TFP). In a first step TFP is estimated as theresidual o...
Preprint
Workers' remittances sent to Latin America declined sharply as the COVID-19 pandemic spread in the first half of 2020, rebounding in the second half. This paper uses a gravity model to estimate the impact of containment and economic support measures, as well as travel restrictions, on remittances sent to Latin America. The results indicate that con...
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Full-text available
This study integrates development aid into a theoretically founded structural gravity model that considers primary and secondary effects of aid as an income transfer and as a bilateral trade cost determinant. We identify the parameters of our model using a two‐stage approach that includes a state‐of‐the‐art Poisson pseudo‐maximum likelihood gravity...
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Reducing the cost of remitting is one of the targets within the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 10). A key factor that causes migrants to use informal channels when sending money back home is the high cost of transferring funds through formal channels. This study examines whether and to what extent the reduction in the cost of sending remit...
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This editorial summarises a number of recent empirical contributions to macroeconomic policies in open economies, with a special focus on European and small emerging countries. The contributions are a selection of the articles presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the International Network For Economic Research (INFER), which took place at the...
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Las remesas que los inmigrantes envían a su país de origen contribuyen a alcanzar los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS), permitiendo que muchas familias salgan de la pobreza. Dichos envíos han disminuido en la primera mitad de 2020 debido a la crisis de la COVID-19. Centrándonos en un grupo de países de América Latina, en este artículo hacem...
Article
This special issue contains a selection of six articles in the field of environmental and resource economics, which were presented in INFER workshops and supported events over the last two years. The topics include the effects of income inequality and freedom of the press on environmental stringency; the trade-environment nexus in China; the behavi...
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This paper investigates the extent to which international migration can be explained by climate change and whether this relationship varies systematically between groups of countries. The primary focus is to further investigate the heterogeneous effect found for countries with different income levels using a yearly migration dataset and allowing th...
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This paper contributes to the literature on the determinants of environmental standards by studying the role of income inequality and freedom of the press. Given that evidence of the environmental Kuznets curve has only been found for some countries, it is thus crucial to investigate whether other factors besides income per capita levels may be aff...
Preprint
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Costa Rica experienced in recent years increasing international migration from neighboring countries due to political, economic and social reasons. This paper is the first to disentangle the impact of migration on wages for native Costa Rican from the impact for already settled migrants. We analyze the effect of migration on wages within cells of e...
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In this paper we examine to what extent developing countries export more as a result of having the official Least Developed Country (LDC) status. We estimate a gravity model of trade over the period 1973–2013, in which identification is achieved by exploiting the particularities and asymmetries of ‘inclusion’ and ‘graduation’ criteria of LDC status...
Article
Download the article here: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1bmIwaptNfdrS The high costs of complying with standards adversely affect export competitiveness. Existing evidence suggests that the harmonisation of standards to international benchmarks reduces compliance costs and is less trade-inhibiting, or may even be trade-promoting. This paper thu...
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This paper focuses on the 2004 enlargement of the European Union to the East and treats it as a natural experiment to investigate two issues: first, whether there has been a trade creation effect in final and intermediate goods and second, to what extent this effect has been more pronounced for final or for intermediate goods. Using difference‐in‐d...
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With approximately US$ 2.3 trillion worth in exports of goods and services in 2015, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) is by far the number one exporter in the world. In addition, China’s merchandise imports stood at US$ 1.7 trillion making it the world’s second largest importer closely following the United States. Understanding the determinants...
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This paper investigates the link between exporting and importing activities and firm performance using a rich dataset on Egyptian and Moroccan firms. We test the export premium, self-selection and learning-by-exporting hypotheses using a number of firm characteristics. Our analysis also includes importing activities as a source of learning and cons...
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This article is the first that quantifies the impact of single windows (SWs) on international trade globally. SWs function as a single point of entry and exit of the goods traded internationally and are therefore intended to facilitate trade. Using a structural gravity model for a panel of 176 countries from 1995 to 2017, we apply a log‐log and a P...
Article
Reducing the cost of remitting is one of the targets within the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 10). A key factor that causes migrants to use informal channels when sending money back home is the high cost of transferring funds through formal channels. This study examines whether and to what extent the reduction in the cost of sending remit...
Article
Full-text available
The connection of innovation and exporting is of major interest to developing countries aiming to achieve higher growth and wellbeing. This study analyzes whether different types of innovation affect export behavior at the firm level for an unbalanced panel of Uruguayan manufacturing firms. Logistic regression and matching with difference-in-differ...
Article
This paper focuses on the process of convergence in per capita CO2 emissions that would occur if the measures taken by the European Union to meet the Kyoto Protocol commitments had been effective. We apply a time series and cross-sectional analysis to test for the existence of convergence among countries and for different economic sectors. The samp...
Article
An understanding of the evolution of sectoral CO2 emissions for all EU countries in recent decades would clearly be useful for political authorities when designing future environmental policies. This paper investigates the process of convergence in sectoral per capita CO2 emissions, with a focus on the energy sector. The concept of club convergence...
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This paper investigates the impact of labour provisions in Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) on labour market conditions in the ratifying countries. Using panel data for up to 96 countries and a time-span from 1995 to 2008, matching techniques and a difference-in-differences approach are applied to identify the effect of FTAs on labour conditions, disti...
Article
In this paper, we test the weak and strong versions of the Porter hypothesis using data from 14 OECD countries over the period 1990–2011. Our analysis makes two contributions to the literature on the topic. First, we use a newly released environmental policy stringency index (EPS) provided by the OECD as an indicator for the stringency of environme...
Article
We analyze the relationship between 3D printing technology, the volume of trade, and the structure of foreign direct investment (FDI). We present a standard trade model with firm-specific heterogeneity into which we include 3D printing as a technology choice for foreign direct investment. The model generates three predictions. First, 3D printers ar...
Article
This paper focuses on twenty‐first‐century‐trade governance patterns within the Commonwealth (CW) countries. It uses an augmented gravity model to examine the role of governance in influencing trade and investment flows, and whether enhanced trade governance within the CW countries could potentially foster trade gains, on a both intra‐ and extra‐CW...
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This paper estimates a gravity model of trade to evaluate the trade effects of the Euro on sectoral trade within the Eurozone (EZ), the CFA Franc Zone (CFA) and between the EZ and the CFA, when CFA countries acquired fixed rates against the non-francophone EZ members. The formation of the EZ provides a quasi-natural experiment to estimate the effec...
Article
Migration is one response to climatic stress and shocks. In this article we review the recent literature across various disciplines on the effects of climate change on migration. We explore key features of the relationship between climate change and migration, distinguishing between fast-onset and slow-onset climatic events and examining the causes...
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This article presents a review of recent studies that estimate the trade effects of foreign aid. It also provides new results obtained using panel data techniques to estimate the direct effects of aid on international trade accounting for countries' participation in free trade agreements, and the indirect effects that aid exerts on income through t...
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We use a gravity model of trade to investigate the effect of internet use on aggregate trade flows. We apply a structural gravity model using up-to-date PPML estimation techniques to a sample of bilateral exports of 120 countries over the period 2000–2014. In contrast to previous studies, we segment countries according to their degree of product co...
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We reexamine the effect of economic development on the level of democracy based on the data sets of Acemoglu et al. (Am Econ Rev 98(3):808–842, 2008) with a novel regression specification utilizing a zero–one-inflated beta distribution for the response variable democracy. Contrary to the results of Acemoglu et al. (2008), some support for a positiv...
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This study is the first to estimate a system of simultaneous gravity equations for Chinese exports, imports and foreign direct investment (FDI) using a sample of 167 countries over the period 2003–2012. The main results indicate that trade and outward FDI are complementary. In particular, the authors show that outward Chinese FDI is related to high...
Article
The empirical evidence that institutional differences across countries affect bilateral trade is robust. The crucial question remains how countries can enhance trade amid these differences. In this paper, we measure the degree to which governance and institutions differ between countries as “governance distance”. Using a sample of EU/EFTA imports,...
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Environmental concerns are increasingly being incorporated into regional trade agreements (RTAs) to promote environmental quality and ultimately ensure compatibility between trade and environmental policies. This occurs in a context where air pollution and its effects on human health are of major concern. This paper investigates whether the prolife...
Chapter
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The main aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of Tunisian trade policy on household welfare. We use the recently released household survey data in combination with estimated tariff pass-through elasticities and wage elasticities obtained from Mincerian equations. Changes in tariffs affect both local prices and wages and those changes are...
Article
This is the first paper to show that participation in an international environmental agreement has some effectiveness. Our identification strategy consists of applying difference-in-differences techniques in a panel data framework to various levels of data aggregation. We find that ratification of the Rotterdam Convention (RC) and the Stockholm Con...
Chapter
While previous chapters have concentrated on trade-related issues (including foreign direct investment and institutions with global values), we now consider the inter-dependencies that exist between foreign trade, European integration, economic development and structural change within the common framework of transition. The performance of Central a...
Chapter
History is important in order to understand the trade-related issues that confronted the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) immediately after 1989 as well as the past and current standing of their trade relations with the world outside the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), a body that governed trade relations between the co...
Chapter
Since planned economies were relatively autarkic, none of them traded extensively with the capitalist outside world. During the transition, as trade relationships widened internationally, these economies also went through a process of creating new institutions and organizations that required new skills and attitudes more relevant to the global trad...
Chapter
Since planned economies were relatively autarkic, none of them traded extensively with the capitalist outside world. During the transition, as trade relationships widened internationally, these economies also went through a process of creating new institutions and organizations that required new skills and attitudes more relevant to the global trad...
Chapter
In this chapter, unlike the others, we employ the broadest definition of the CEECs since we are analyzing trade flows and structures in the widest possible geographical sense. Since trade interrelationships are complex and multilateral, it is but natural to take a wider definition than we have hitherto employed. It also facilitates data collection...
Chapter
This chapter discusses briefly the transition journey that Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) have travelled in the last two to three decades. It mentions the faltering early years, the sunk costs of transition, the transformation into maturing upper-income countries, the expansion of trade as well as the process of integration with the...
Chapter
The transition decade of the 1990s was characterized by a dramatic rise in exports, which rose steadily during 1990–1995 but then doubled in the latter half of the decade (see Table 8.33.1). Germany’s share, as the leading economy of the European Union, doubled during the whole period, while the advanced economies of the European Union came to hold...
Chapter
Overall, the gravity trade results above show that the CEECs had higher potential than actual in terms of trade with the developed economies of the European Union. They were not fulfilling their potential with developed Western Europe in the first phase of transition. As we shall see in later chapters, the position gets reversed by the end of trans...
Chapter
This chapter provides a brief summary of the issues discussed in the main body of the book. It also gives a perspective on future trends, particularly in terms of productivity, innovation and technology, which is how future trade expansion and technological progress could impact on economic growth and development in the CEECs.
Article
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This paper investigates the determinants of indirect exporting, using firm-level data for 27 countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Indirect exporting depends on a combination of fixed and variable trade cost factors. We first hypothesize that firms that perceive customs, transportation, crime and legal systems as severe obstacles anticipate...
Article
This paper aims to analyse whether better governance rewards economic performance and facilitates the integration of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region into the world economy. In comparison with other regions in the world economy, MENA countries suffer from important institutional deficiencies, which generate insecurity and difficult in...
Preprint
Full-text available
African exports have been rejected a number of times at the European Union (EU) borders because of their non-compliance with EU product standards. This paper therefore investigates the causes of rejections of Africa's exports at the EU borders. Our results indicate that poor trade-related infrastructure, inefficient border procedures and a lack of...
Book
This book examines the evolution of trade and trade patterns in Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) and assesses the implications of these patterns on structural change and economic development within transition economies. Taking the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989 as a starting point, the authors discuss the transition of former communi...
Article
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We investigate the theoretically ambiguous link between income inequality and per capita carbon dioxide emissions using a panel data set that is substantially larger (in both regional and temporal coverage) than those used in the existing literature. Using an arguably superior group fixed effects estimator, we find that the relationship between inc...
Article
The structure of international trade is increasingly characterized by fragmentation of production processes and trade policy. Yet, how trade policy affects supply-chain trade is largely unexplored territory. This paper shows how the accession of 10 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to the European Union affected European supply-chain t...
Article
Non-tariff measures such as food safety standards are aimed at protecting consumers' health but may also be used as protectionism tool to limit imports. This study investigates the protectionist intent of EU food safety standards using a sample of EU food imports from African countries. We formalized protectionism by comparing EU standards to the i...
Article
This paper investigates whether Aid for Trade (AfT) leads to greater exports in recipient countries. Using panel quantile regression and two strategies to address endogeneity (AfT lagged by two periods and dynamic OLS), our results suggest that total AfT disbursements promote the export of goods and services mainly for the lower quantiles (0.1, 0.2...
Article
The aim of this paper is to investigate the determinants of international arms transfers in a gravity model framework. By distinguishing between the decision to export arms (extensive margin) and the value of the arms exported (intensive margin), while also considering its interdependence, is what differentiates this paper from previous research. A...
Chapter
The aim of this paper is to provide further empirical evidence on the relation between exchange rate volatility, currency unions and trade. The novelties with respect to previous research are threefold. First, monthly trade and exchange rate data are used to take into account the short term effects of volatility on the bilateral exchange rate. Seco...
Article
Full-text available
Using bilateral data on remittance flows to Pakistan for 23 major host countries, this is the first study that examines the effect of transaction costs on foreign remittances. The authors find that the effect of transaction costs on remittance flows is negative and significant; suggesting that a high cost will either refrain migrants from sending m...
Article
This paper uses firm-level data to investigate the effects of monetary uncertainty and political instability on the extensive and intensive margins of trade (exports and imports) in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The former is related to exchange rate volatility, currency regimes and internal hedging, whereas the latter is related to the politica...