Ingrid Bouwer Utne

Ingrid Bouwer Utne
Norwegian University of Science and Technology | NTNU · Department of Marine Technology

About

166
Publications
40,411
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3,196
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2011 - present
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (166)
Article
Learning from accidents is decisive for establishing barriers to prevent future accidents and ensuring safety in socio-technical systems. Farmed fish escape is a major concern in the aquaculture industry and there is limited understanding of the accident scenarios involving fish escape. Hence, the systematic analysis of information and data about t...
Preprint
p>Enabling higher levels of autonomy requires an increased ability to identify and handle internal faults and unforeseen changes in the environment. This article presents an approach to improve this ability for a robotic system executing a series of independent tasks by using a dynamic decision network (DDN). A case study of an industrial inspectio...
Article
The objective of this paper is to develop online risk models that can be updated as conditions change, using risk as one metric to control an autonomous ship in operation. This paper extends and integrates the System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) and Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) with control systems for autonomous ships to enable supervisory...
Article
Full-text available
Considering that few or no human operators are directly involved in the operation of Autonomous Marine Systems (AMS), an online risk model is necessary to enhance the intelligence of the AMS, its situation awareness, and decision-making. The current study identifies the criteria for an online risk model for AMS, which can be used to assess its vali...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) are approaching a reality, introducing a new level of complexity and criticality to maritime control systems. In this paper we investigate how Formal Methods (FMs) can be used to design and verify maritime control systems for safe and effective MASS. FMs are a family of mathematically based methods for speci...
Article
A methodology for automatic simulation-based testing of control systems for autonomous vessels is proposed. The work is motivated by the need for increased test coverage and formalism in the verification efforts. It aims to achieve this by formulating requirements in the formal logic Signal Temporal Logic (STL). This enables automatic evaluation of...
Chapter
An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate risk to health, life, property, or environment. Most emergencies require urgent intervention to prevent a worsening of the situation, although in some situations, mitigation may not be possible, and agents may only be able to offer alleviating care for the aftermath. Online risk assessment in emer...
Chapter
This chapter presents the challenges that complex systems face related to risk modeling and human and organizational factors, hardware, and software interactions. In Sect. 4.2, risk assessment of software in automated systems is discussed. A conceptual model to evaluate software failures is proposed, and challenges regarding quantification and cybe...
Chapter
In this chapter, the online risk level of different dynamic positioning (DP) systems is assessed based on the methods presented in Chap. 2. The proposed methods are able to provide an online risk level of the system in different operating and environmental conditions that could assist decision makers to make better (safer) decisions. In the first e...
Chapter
This chapter discusses human factor effects on the system risk level and presents related quantification model in this field. Human errors, response time models, and methods for human factors analysis and quantification are discussed. First, background research on human factor quantifications in risk assessments is presented (Sect. 5.1). Then, a ge...
Chapter
Online risk assessment methods confront multiple challenges when applied to complex automated and autonomous systems. This chapter addresses the main challenges with online risk assessment, related to methodology, data collection, uncertainties, complexity and execution time, and application for decision support.
Chapter
In this attachment, the specific fault trees for different types of dynamic positioning (DP) systems are presented and compared.
Chapter
This chapter is intended to assist in the data collection and development of online risk assessment for automated marine and maritime systems. Section 3.1 presents the data flow in online risk assessment models. One of the main steps, in the modeling process, is data collection and preparation, which is explained in Sect. 3.2. Lastly, in Sect. 3.3,...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, definitions of important terms related to online probabilistic risk assessment are clarified (Sect. 2.1). In Sect. 2.2, dynamic, real-time, and online risk assessments are defined. In Sect. 2.3, methods for online risk assessment such as hazard identification, event sequence diagrams (ESDs), fault tree analysis (FTA), and hybrid me...
Book
This book proposes a new approach to dynamic and online risk assessment of automated and autonomous marine systems, taking into account different environmental and operational conditions. The book presents lessons learnt from dynamic positioning incidents and accidents, and discusses the challenges of risk assessment of complex systems. The book be...
Article
Autonomous transportation is an increasingly popular concept and is gradually becoming a reality. This transformation also changes the way people travel. For example, the autonomous ferry is an emerging alternative for residents living in coastal areas. To evaluate the safety of an autonomous ferry, a thorough safety review is necessary. This paper...
Technical Report
Full-text available
WASS is a platform for cross-industrial and interdisciplinary exchange of knowledge on autonomous systems’ Safety, Reliability, and Security (SRS), by invited experts and observers. The workshop gathers experts from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies, to discuss SRS challenges and their potential solutions for SRS of autonomous systems fro...
Article
Full-text available
Decision-making in emergency situations is a risky and uncertain process due to the limited information and lack of time. Some key problem parameters, such as the time required to complete important response tasks, must be estimated and are therefore prone to errors. Other parameters, such as the probability of occurrence of a consequential event,...
Preprint
Enabling higher levels of autonomy requires an increased ability to identify and handle internal faults and unforeseen changes in the environment. This work presents an approach to improve this ability for a robotic system executing a series of independent tasks, such as inspection, sampling, or intervention, at different locations. A dynamic decis...
Article
Autonomous systems, including airborne, land-based, marine, and underwater vehicles, are increasingly present in the world. One important aspect of autonomy is the capability to process information and to make independent decisions for achieving a mission goal. Information on the level of risk related to the operation may improve the decision-makin...
Article
A Dynamic Positioning (DP) system enables vessels and rigs to accurately maintain a predetermined position and heading or track. It enables precise operations under harsh environmental conditions. DP is used for a variety of purposes; however, the role of the DP operator (DPO) is considered the same regardless of type of operation: to monitor and k...
Article
Finfish farming is the most common aquaculture mode in Europe. In Norway, the industry faces sustainability challenges. One major challenge is fish escape, which is a threat to both the environment and the industry’s reputation. The more complex the operation, the greater the risk of escape, and their safety management needs improvement. A recommen...
Conference Paper
This paper focuses on the use of safety barrier analysis, during the design phase of a vessel powered by cryogenic hydrogen, to identify possible weaknesses in the architecture. Barrier analysis can be used to evaluate a series of scenarios that have been identified in the industry as critical. The performance evaluation of such barriers in a speci...
Data
In this file, the historical data for failure modes of different types of dynamic positioning systems are presented. The data are derived from International Marine Contractors Association incident reports for years between 2004-2015. Dynamic positioning types are: 1 Supply vessel, 2 Shuttle tanker, 3 Drilling vessel/unit, 4 Diving support vessel,...
Article
Full-text available
One challenge that has received attention in maritime industry is assessing the risk level of dynamic positioning (DP) systems in emergency situations. Statistics from recent years have shown that the risk level of some DP operations is above the industry's risk criteria. Operators have a significant impact on incidents’ consequences by making resp...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (DPRA) is a systematic and comprehensive methodology that has been used and refined over the past decades to evaluate risks associated with complex systems. However, current approaches to construct and execute DPRA models are challenged by high execution time owing to numerous possible scenarios. This issue wil...
Preprint
Enabling higher levels of autonomy requires an increased ability to identify and handle internal faults and unforeseen changes in the environment. This work presents an approach to improve this ability for a robotic system that is executing a series of independent tasks, such as inspection, sampling, or intervention, at different locations. A dynam...
Preprint
Enabling higher levels of autonomy requires an increased ability to identify and handle internal faults and unforeseen changes in the environment. This work presents an approach to improve this ability for a robotic system that is executing a series of independent tasks, such as inspection, sampling, or intervention, at different locations. A dynam...
Article
This article presents a new risk model for estimating the probability of allision risk (the impact between a ship under way and a stationary installation) from passing vessels on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS). Offshore petroleum operators on the NCS are required by the Norwegian Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) to perform risk assessments t...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous marine systems may switch between various operational modes with different levels of autonomy (LoA), due to a rapidly changing environment and the complex nature of tasks. The dynamic autonomy brings an additional layer of complexity to ensuring safe marine operations, but this functionality is not sufficiently considered in current risk...
Article
Full-text available
Offshore oil and gas operations are inherently associated with risk and may have catastrophic consequences to life, property, and environment. Risk management is thus performed during the design, planning, and operation phases to control risk. Operational risk models are only periodically updated and do not always reflect the available real-time da...
Article
Full-text available
Current decision making regarding whether to abort a high-risk aquaculture operation in a Norwegian fish farm is mainly experience-driven. The on-site personnel decides whether to start/delay/abort operations primarily based on their subjective judgement about whether they can handle the situation. The risk is considered implicitly as “gut feelings...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are efficient sensor-carrying platforms for mapping and monitoring undersea ice. However, under-ice operations impose demanding requirements to the system, as it must deal with uncertain and unstructured environments, harsh environmental conditions, and reduced capabilities of the navigational sensors. This pap...
Article
The advent of autonomous cars, drones, and ships, the complexity of these systems is increasing, challenging risk analysis and risk mitigation, since the incorporation of software failures intro traditional risk analysis currently is difficult. Current methods that attempt software risk analysis, consider the interaction with hardware and software...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) plays an essential role in scientific research and offshore exploration. Numerous risk issues exist during operation, however, which makes the AUV mission risky. The operating environment is one of the factors that seriously affect its safe operation. In long-range AUV missions, unavoidable changes in the ope...
Article
Autonomous systems operation will in the foreseeable future rely on the interaction between software, hardware and humans. Efficient interaction and communication between these agents are crucial for safe operation. Conventional methods for hazard identification and safety assessment focus often on one of the aspects of the system only, e.g., human...
Article
Advanced technological systems consist of a combination of hardware and software, and they are often operated or supervised by a human operator. Failures in software-intensive systems may be difficult to identify, analyze, and mitigate, owing to system complexity, system interactions, and cascading effects. Risk analysis of such systems is necessar...
Article
Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) are the subject of a diversity of projects and some are in testing phase. MASS will probably include operators working in a shore control center (SCC), whose responsibilities may vary from supervision to remote control, according to Level of Autonomy (LoA) of the voyage. Moreover, MASS may operate with a dyn...
Article
In recent years, environmental protection has received more attention in society. In addition to the ecological effect of a hydrocarbon release into the sea, its environmental impact is assessed by considering the amount of pollutant discharged. Therefore, limiting the impact of a spill consists in lowering the volume of oil released and effective...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a novel 2.5D map representation, termed polar map, that has a memory consumption of O(ML), where M and L depend on the map's angular and depth resolution, respectively. The map has a computational effort of O(1) in the update and evaluation process, where updates are performed through the use of Kalman filters. The representat...
Article
Norwegian fish farms are expanding into more exposed sites due to a lack of sheltered coastal locations and growing negative ecological consequences close to land. The severe wave and current conditions, irregular and often high winds, sheer remoteness, and limited weather window amplify the hazards during aquaculture operations. This paper present...
Conference Paper
The full text can be found here: http://rpsonline.com.sg/proceedings/9789811485930/html/5190.xml
Article
The Norwegian fish farming industry is experiencing accidents that may have serious consequences for fish-farm operators, the environment, and the farmed fish themselves. Fatalities and serious personnel injuries, mass mortality of fish during and after operations, introgression of genes from farmed salmon, the spread of disease and material damage...
Article
The objective of this paper is to outline a framework for online risk modelling for autonomous ships. There is a clear trend towards increased autonomy and intelligence in ships because it enables new functionality, as well as safer and more cost-efficient operations. Nevertheless, emerging risks are involved, related to lack of knowledge and opera...
Article
Full-text available
The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), is currently designing a small autonomous passenger ferry for up to 12 passengers. The ferry will bridge a harbor channel in Trondheim, Norway. This paper presents the results of the preliminary hazard analysis conducted in the early design phase of the ferry. The main hazards and envisione...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In March 2019 we organized the 1st International Workshop on Autonomous System Safety (#IWASS) in Trondheim, Norway. We gathered over 40 subject matter experts from academia and industry. For three days we discussed challenges concerning autonomous systems safety, and possible solutions. The proceedings of the 1st IWASS are now available (also at...
Book
Full-text available
The First International Workshop on Autonomous Systems Safety (IWASS) was organized by the Department of Marine Technology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the B. John Garrick Institute for the Risk Sciences at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). IWASS took place in Trondheim, Norway, from 11th to 13th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
On 29 March 2017, the floating production storage and offloading unit (FPSO) did not disconnect and sail away when a medium iceberg came close to the FPSO. The tow of the iceberg was unsuccessful, and the crew was instructed to brace for impact. Because of favorable weather conditions, the iceberg passed 50 m from the FPSO. This incident was formal...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous research and industry initiatives have increasingly aimed at developing maritime surface autonomous ships (MASS). Among the motivations for the use of MASS is the potential increase in safety when compared to traditional manned ships-particularly regarding human error. However, in spite of having less human intervention , MASS will rely on...
Research
Full-text available
IWASS is a workshop that aims to gather experts' views and recommendations on the path towards safe, reliable, and secure autonomous systems. This whitepaper provides a starting point concerning some of the topics that will be addressed at IWASS, including the current state of the art on autonomous systems development and challenges it faces.
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the process used to develop safety envelopes and subsea traffic rules for autonomous remotely operated vehicles (AROVs)used in subsea inspection, maintenance, and repair (IMR)operations. Preventing loss of subsea assets and the AROV is the overall goal of the proposed safety envelopes and subsea traffic rules. Currently, no su...
Article
This paper's objective is to analyze the main real-time risks in operation of autonomous marine systems, which follow from various levels of autonomy (LoA). High reliability management (HRM) is an established framework for assessing real-time operator performance in complex infrastructures. In this paper, the framework is applied to two cases repre...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous and unmanned ships are approaching reality. One of several unsolved challenges related to these systems is how to perform safety verification. Although this challenge represents a many-faceted problem, which must be addressed at several levels, it seems likely that simulator-based testing of high-level computer control systems will be an...
Article
The design and function allocation of control in complex technological systems have mainly been technology-driven, resulting in increased automation. A human or user perspective is rarely taken in the technological development. The pertaining attitude seems to be that increased automation will reduce the occurrence of human error and thereby ensure...
Conference Paper
The development of autonomous is driven by, among other factors, the possibility of reduction of accidents generated and/or aggravated by human error. Although autonomous ships imply less human interference in operation than regular ships, they will probably rely on human operators working onshore for supervision or remote control when necessary. T...
Article
The Norwegian aquaculture industry has the potential to become the country's leading ocean industry in the future. More than 99% of the produced biomass is Atlantic salmon and trout. Norwegian fish farming is characterised by operations that are susceptible to changing weather, wind and currents, and face challenges in terms of safety for fish, per...
Article
Full-text available
The introduction of autonomy in subsea operations may affect operational risk related to inspection, maintenance, and repair (IMR). This article proposes a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) to model the risk affecting autonomous subsea IMR operations. The proposed BBN risk model can be used to calculate the probability of aborting an autonomous subsea...
Article
Marine Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) are tested in public waters. A requirement for MASS to be operated is that they should be at least as safe as conventional ships. Hence, this paper investigates how far the current ship risk models for ship-ship collision, ship-structure collision, and groundings are applicable for risk assessment of MASS. Nin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recently, numerous organizations have made progress in developing autonomous ships, motivated by, among other factors, the potential for increased safety. This applies especially to accidents involving human error, as autonomous ships would remove operator role from all or most operations. The reality is that although the human role is reduced, aut...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper addresses localization and mapping of flexible ocean structures. The methodology is based on a network of low cost acoustic transmitters on the structure and receivers stationed in the vicinity of the structure. The position of the receivers is assumed to be known. The position of each transmitter is estimated and represents a point posi...