Ingrid Schoon

Ingrid Schoon
University College London | UCL · Institute of Education

PhD Psychology

About

210
Publications
83,264
Reads
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7,709
Citations
Citations since 2017
60 Research Items
4243 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
Additional affiliations
October 2007 - present
University of London
Position
  • Prof. of Human Development and Social Policy

Publications

Publications (210)
Article
Full-text available
This paper explored differences in youth life satisfaction across and within countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. A central finding was the flattening, or even the reversal, of the U-shaped age pattern in life satisfaction in some countries. Life satisfaction declined to a greater extent among youth aged 15 to 30 years than among people aged 31...
Article
Full-text available
Although there is a growing interest in the concept of sense of personal agency in adolescence and young adulthood, its operationalization and assessment have been inconsistent. We propose and test a preliminary assessment model of sense of agency combining four of the most relevant indicators suggested by the literature for its assessment (setting...
Article
Full-text available
While there is ample evidence of the decline in mental health among youth during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, less is known about the determinants of recovery, which is the focus of this study. Drawing on a stress process framework, this study examines the associations of changes in direct, pandemic-related, and indirect, lockdown-related st...
Presentation
The current study examined the stability/change trajectories of sense of agency across high school, analyzing whether these trajectories are influenced by attachment to parents over time, as well as adolescent’s sex, psychosocial risk in baseline, and pandemic stress. The sample includes 467 Portuguese adolescents (59.3% were females; Mage = 15.58...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the prevalence, magnitude, and predictors of the aspiration–attainment gap (AAG) after the school-to-work transition. We operationalized the AAG as the discrepancy between the socioeconomic status (SES) of young people’s realistic occupational aspirations and that of the position they actually attained. As a case in point, we in...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the perceived effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the learning of job skills and on education. The context is post-Brexit Britain. We find that 47% of young people in a representative sample perceive a loss of learning of job skills, while a sizeable minority (17%) judge that the pandemic improved matters. The perception of skil...
Conference Paper
Embora exista um interesse crescente no conceito do sentido de agência pessoal na adolescência e na idade adulta emergente, a sua operacionalização e avaliação têm sido inconsistentes. O presente estudo propõe e testa um modelo preliminar de avaliação das crenças de agência pessoal, combinando quatro indicadores apontados pela literatura como os ma...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose In Great Britain, few studies documented mental health trends in young adults in the years preceding 2020, the mental health dimensions affected, and how these compare with changes observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Long-term trends in mental health among 16–34 year old men and women between 1991 and 2018, and changes between 2...
Article
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Objectives: Children with experience of out-of-home care (OHC) are at an increased risk of adverse outcomes in later life, including poorer levels of psycho-social adjustment. Less is known about the intergenerational transmission of the trauma associated with OHC and psychosocial outcomes in mid-adulthood, particularly during a major health pande...
Article
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From the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there were widespread concerns about young people’s labour market prospects. The COVID-19 youth economic activity and health monitorNote (YEAH) project at University College London (UCL) in collaboration with Statistics Canada and other institutes in Europe aimed to shed light in this area by examining the p...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected young people aged 16–25 years and has brought about a major increase in mental health problems. Although there is persisting evidence regarding SES differences in mental health status, there is still little knowledge of the processes linking SES to young people's mental health, in particular during...
Article
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Background Despite concerns about mental health problems among those aged 16–24 in England, which social groups have been most at risk, both over the past decade and during the COVID-19 pandemic, remains unclear. Methods We examined trends in psychological distress among young adults 16–24 years old in England using data from the UK Household Long...
Article
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Previous research has shown that parental educational aspirations for their children are an important predictor of children's academic attainment. However, recent studies have pointed to potential negative effects, in particular if there is a mismatch between parental educational aspirations and the aspirations of their children. This study examine...
Article
Full-text available
Changes across education, employment, and family life over the past 20 years challenges the capacity of previously established social role combinations to continue representing the experiences of young men and women born since the late 1980s. Latent class analysis was used to derive patterns of role combinations at ages 25–26 in those growing up in...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Transitions into work and family life during young adulthood exacerbate differences in the progression of smoking over the life-course. Few have considered how changes in smoking and the transition to adulthood in the past two decades have influenced these relationships over time. Methods We compared the distribution of smoking at age...
Article
Children who experience household dysfunction often report more developmental problems and lower educational attainment. A question, however, is whether these lower outcomes are caused by the household dysfunction itself, or by other (pre-existing) factors, such as growing up in poverty. Based on the extended family stress model, we derived hypothe...
Article
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Introduction: This study examines the role of individual agency and parental co-agency as resource factors enabling educational mobility (university enrolment and degree completion) among first-generation students. Methods: The study is based on Next Steps, a nationally representative cohort of UK students. Path models were run, linking differen...
Article
Few have examined how employment is linked to trends in mental health among young adults across economic contexts in more recent years. To better understand the burden of non-employment and mental distress in this age group, this study examines the association of short-term (<1 year) and long-term (1+ year) out-of-work status with mental health acr...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study examined the prevalence and predictors of the aspiration-attainment gap (AAG) after the school-to-work transition. We operationalized the AAG as the discrepancy between the socioeconomic status (SES) of young people's realistic occupational aspirations and that of the position they actually attained. As a case in point, we investigated n...
Article
Full-text available
This study draws on the nationally representative British Birth Cohort Study (BCS70) to examine (1) the association between social background and early socio‐emotional and cognitive competences at age 5 and (2) the relative and independent contributions of early socio‐emotional and cognitive competences to educational and socio‐economic attainment...
Article
Full-text available
This briefing presents new evidence surrounding young people’s employment, learning, well-being, and future expectations during the COVID-19 pandemic, and how these are connected. It does so through the reports of a representative sample of young people themselves at the beginning of February 2021 in the midst of a strict lockdown throughout the UK...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter introduces a socioecological developmental systems approach for the study of human resilience, conceptualizing the multiple contextual influences (ranging from the micro-to the macro context and including the ecosystem), and their interactions with individual functioning over time. It is argued that resilience is a multi-level, dynamic...
Article
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Adolescent agency has been identified as a central aspect in the study of social mobility and status attainment. There is however still a lack of understanding of (a) how different SES dimensions influence the expression of multiple dimensions of agency; (b) the interplay of SES and adolescent agency in shaping adult outcomes; and (c) variations in...
Article
Full-text available
Social-emotional competences are critical for positive development and significantly predict educational and occupational attainment, health, and well-being. There is however a lack of consensus about the number of core competences, and how these are defined and operationalized. This divergence in approach challenges future research as well as the...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study extends existing research on the role of infant temperament as a moderator of the association between the quality of parent-child relationships and children's self-control during the pre-school years. In particular, we focus on the potential moderating role of a dimension of early infant temperament known as behavioral inhibi...
Article
The Covid-19 pandemic is shaking fundamental assumptions about the human life course in societies around the world. In this essay, we draw on our collective expertise to illustrate how a life course perspective can make critical contributions to understanding the pandemic’s effects on individuals, families, and populations. We explore the pandemic’...
Article
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This article reviews the evidence on young people in the UK making the transition from school to work in a changing socioeconomic climate. The review draws largely on evidence from national representative panels and follows the lives of different age cohorts. I show that there has been a trend toward increasingly uncertain and precarious employment...
Article
Full-text available
Systematic differences in voter turnout limit the capacity of public institutions to address the needs of under-represented groups. One critical question relates to the role of health as a mechanism driving these inequalities. This study explores the associations of self-rated health (SRH) and limitations in everyday activities with voting over the...
Conference Paper
Background Education is a strong predictor of voting in most Western countries. New studies, predominantly from the United States, question the role of health as a mechanism reinforcing social inequalities in voting over the life-course. In the United Kingdom, we previously found that heavy smoking, physical inactivity, poor self-reported health, a...
Chapter
In this chapter we review the evidence from a three-country study assessing the impact of the 2008 Great Recession on young people making the step into independent adulthood, comparing experiences in the UK, in Germany, and the USA. Drawing on evidence from large scale, longitudinal studies the experiences of young people coming of age in different...
Article
Full-text available
This article addresses the ongoing debate on the role of agency and structure in shaping the transition from school to work. Drawing on theories of life-course sociology and life-span psychology an integrated social-ecological developmental approach is presented, conceptualizing individual agency as a relational and intentional process that evolves...
Article
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People’s motivation to engage in studying and working is an important precursor of participation and attainment. However, little is known about how motivation and the lack of motivation develops normatively across adolescence and young adulthood. Furthermore, there is no comparison of motivation and amotivation development across sequential age-gra...
Article
This paper reviews evidence on young people in Europe and the US making the transition from school-to-work before and after the 2008 Great Recession. Taking a macro-level perspective, similarities and differences in education and employment experiences across different European countries are described, considering the role of different institutiona...
Article
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This study adopts a socio-ecological approach to examine multiple factors and processes assumed to shape the intergenerational transmission of social disadvantage, including influences of social change, social causation and social selection. Moving beyond approaches focusing on cumulative risk indices, this study uses latent class analysis to exami...
Article
There is controversy regarding trends over time in the association between social origins and educational outcomes in the UK. An explanation may lie in different methods of analysis. This article provides new evidence about trends in inequality between the 1980s and 2010s and informs the debate about the conceptualisation and operationalisation of...
Article
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Pathways into and out of conduct problems differ by circumstances experienced since infancy. There is a research gap in understanding how these developmental patterns vary according to the timing and persistence of risk and whether there are differences across ecological domains. This study examines variations in trajectories of conduct problems be...
Article
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Previous research has demonstrated the link between school engagement and academic attainment, but there is less understanding of the relationship between school engagement and educational aspirations. Using the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE), this study examines the association between emotional engagement and educational as...
Article
In this paper we examine the longer term outcomes of young people who experienced out of home care (OHC) as children, in Britain, Germany and Finland, countries characterised by different welfare regimes. While there is some evidence on immediate transitions after leaving care (up to age 21), there is less evidence on experiences around age 30, a p...
Article
Full-text available
Gender-specific pathways of conduct problems (CP) from toddlerhood have received little attention. Using a nationally representative sample of UK children born in 2000-2001 (6458 boys and 6340 girls), the current study (a) identified subgroups of CP pathways separately for boys and girls from ages 3 to 11 and (b) examined early precursors (pregnanc...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we explore how Black Caribbean parents prepare their children for the challenges ahead–including anticipated discrimination–in order to boost their opportunities in education and work and eventually their social mobility. Drawing upon family case studies with Black Caribbean families in London, this article focuses on what we have...
Article
Full-text available
Internal locus of control is associated with academic success and indicators of wellbeing in youth. There is however less understanding regarding the role of locus of control in shaping the transition from school to work beyond the more widely studied predictors of socioeconomic background and academic attainment. Guided by a socio-ecological model...
Article
This study investigates the role of early career aspirations in predicting the later educational and occupational outcomes of adolescents designated as having special educational needs (SEN) in comparison to those without SEN. Drawing upon the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England, the sample includes adolescents with and without SEN who at...
Chapter
What have we learned about the changing nature of youth transitions and the effect of the Great Recession on them? In this final chapter we draw conclusions and seek further insights from the evidence presented. First we give a brief overview, taking the discussion back to the initial questions about the recession effects to which the preceding cha...
Chapter
Did the 2008 economic recession speed up or slow down present trends toward a general prolongation of the transition to independent adulthood? This chapter examines trends in employment and family transitions before and after the Great Recession using evidence from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and Understanding Society. Our analysis ta...
Chapter
The 2007–8 financial crisis and subsequent 'Great Recession' particularly affected young people trying to make their way from education into the labour market at a time of economic uncertainty and upheaval. This is the first volume to examine the impact of the Great Recession on the developmental stage of young adulthood, a critical phase of the li...
Article
Full-text available
In this longitudinal study, we test whether varying degrees of indecision about future career choices at age 16 have long-term economic consequences in adulthood, taking into account potential gender differences. Findings from a British cohort born in 1970 indicate that young people who were completely undecided about job choices did experience a w...
Article
Full-text available
In this longitudinal study, we test whether varying degrees of indecision about future career choices at age 16 have long-term economic consequences in adulthood, taking into account potential gender differences. Findings from a British cohort born in 1970 indicate that young people who were completely uindeecicided sive about their job choices did...
Article
Economic conditions have dramatic influences on fertility. This paper evaluates the effect of the 2008 ‘Great Recession’ in the UK on first birth rate, which is the fertility behaviour most susceptible to external economic conditions. The key aim of the study was to assess the effect of the recession on fertility by individual-level characteristics...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation of draft/work-in-progress paper. There is consistent evidence to demonstrate the detrimental and long-term effects on academic and occupational attainment of growing up in a socio-economically disadvantaged family, as well as on the health and wellbeing of the offspring generation. However, the experience of poverty does not occur in i...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the co-development of educational expectations and effort (conceptualized as indicators of individual agency) during secondary school and assessed their role as predictors of academic success, controlling for prior academic attainment and parental social background. Drawing on data collected for the Longitudinal Study of Young P...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the role of structural and agentic resources in shaping school-to-work transitions in England. We ask to what extent are young people able to steer the course of their lives despite the constraining forces of social structure, and how satisfied are they with their lives following the completion of compulsory schooling. Drawing o...
Article
This study examines the role of structural and agentic resources in shaping school-to-work transitions in England. We ask to what extent are young people able to steer the course of their lives despite the constraining forces of social structure, and how satisfied are they with their lives following the completion of compulsory schooling. Drawing o...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Previous studies have shown that individual differences in self-control emerge early in childhood and predict a range of important outcomes throughout childhood and adulthood. There is, however, less knowledge about the social origins of self-control, including the mechanisms by which early socioeconomic adversity may lead to lower leve...
Article
This special section brings together leading experts in psychology and sociology to examine the consequences of the Great Recession for young people's values, achievement orientation, and outlook to the future. Evidence from Europe and the United States suggests that the impact of the recession varies for distinct outcomes and by age, the latter po...
Article
The major aim of the PATHWAYS Post-Doctoral Fellowship Programme is to stimulate innovative, interdisciplinary, and comparative research of productive youth development. Participating institutions include the UCL Institute of Education in London, the Universities of Helsinki, Jena, Tübingen, Stockhom, University of California, Irvine and Michigan S...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Previous evidence indicates that mental health problems are becoming more common for adolescents. Less is known about whether these trends have continued and there has been no study to date which has specifically focused on early adolescents over a sufficiently long period. This study examines changes in parent- and teacher-reported me...
Article
Full-text available
This study identified the varied ways in which emotional disengagement from schoolwork typically developed between 14 and 16 years of age, in the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. Using growth mixture modelling we found eight main trajectories of (dis)engagement, with four trajectories of either increasing or stable emotional disengage...
Article
Persistent inequalities in educational expectations across societies are a growing concern. Recent research has explored the extent to which inequalities in education are due to primary effects (i.e., achievement differentials) versus secondary effects (i.e., choice behaviors net of achievement). We explore educational expectations in order to cons...
Chapter
Full-text available
“Non-cognitive skills” is an umbrella term used to refer to a set of attitudes, behaviors and strategies that are thought to underpin success in school and at work, such as motivation, perseverance and self-control. Non-cognitive skills are increasingly considered to be as important, or even more important than, cognitive skills or IQ in explaining...
Chapter
This chapter introduces an ecological life course approach to the study of positive youth development (PYD), examining the factors and processes enabling young people to withstand the impact of socio-economic adversity, especially in the aftermath of the 2008 Global Recession, also drawing on lessons from previous economic downturns. A developmenta...
Article
Full-text available
In this Special Section of Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, we provide complementary findings from four well-established national and community-based studies about distinct patterns of social role combinations in early adulthood, along with the antecedents and health and well-being correlates of the distinct patterns (Maggs et al 2012, Räikkön...
Article
Full-text available
The study of human development requires a collective effort in addressing complex issues, such as the study of how individuals can overcome adverse childhood experiences to become healthy and happy adults and engaged citizens. Multiple levels of influence have to be considered, such as the role of parents, teachers, peers, neighbourhood characteris...
Article
Full-text available
This systematic review examines the meta-analytic evidence on four broad categories of preventive interventions for children and adolescents, including: mentoring, service learning, outdoor adventure, and social and emotional learning (SEL) programs. There were 15 meta-analytic studies that fit the criteria for inclusion. For each intervention type...
Chapter
Social change has affected all young people—but not all in the same way. While the transition to adulthood has generally been extended, not all young people are delaying the step into paid employment , independent living, and family formation , especially those from less privileged family background. Existing templates for the transition to adultho...
Article
Full-text available
This systematic review examines the meta-analytic evidence on four broad categories of preventive interventions for children and adolescents, including: mentoring, service learning, outdoor adventure, and social and emotional learning (SEL) programs. There were 15 meta-analytic studies that fit the criteria for inclusion. For each intervention type...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this report we assess the evidence on the long-run associations between early social, emotional and cognitive skills (focusing on measures before age six) and a range of later outcomes. We summarize these skills under the umbrella term of ‘life skills’ and provide a taxonomy, or descriptive model, of specific skill sets. Regarding outcomes, we f...
Article
The major aim of the PATHWAYS Post-Doctoral Fellowship Programme is to stimulate innovative, interdisciplinary, and comparative research of productive youth development. Participating institutions include the UCL Institute of Education in London, the Universities of Helsinki, Jena, Tübingen, Stockhom, University of California, Irvine and Michigan S...
Article
In this report we assess the evidence on the long-run associations between early social, emotional and cognitive skills (focusing on measures before age six) and a range of later outcomes. We summarize these skills under the umbrella term of ‘life skills’ and provide a taxonomy, or descriptive model, of specific skill sets. Regarding outcomes, we f...
Article
Full-text available
Young people from working class backgrounds remained mostly excluded from the widening educational participation which characterised postwar Britain. Based on 20 semi-structured interviews which were part of a wider study about ‘Social Participation and Identity’ (2008–2009), this article explores the unusual learning trajectories of a group of wor...
Article
Full-text available
Contributing to the literature on early precursors of entrepreneurship, this study investigated the role of early social competencies for an entrepreneurial career choice and entrepreneurial success in young adulthood. We utilized data from the British Cohort Study and the Thuringian Founder Study (Germany), thereby comparing results across countri...
Chapter
The transition to adulthood can be considered as a status passage in the institutionalized life course, involving the assumption of new social roles, such as the completion of education, entry into the labor market, and family formation (Shanahan, 2000). It is guided by age-related legal norms as well as population-based norms and informal expectat...
Article
Alegria, Green, McLaughlin and Loder (2015) provide a most informative review of four key factors shaping disparities in mental health outcomes among children and adolescents, focusing on the role of socio-economic status, childhood adversities, family structure and neighbourhood factors. The paper concludes with recommendations for a future resear...
Chapter
Full-text available
Abstract Drawing upon data from two British age cohorts born in 1970 and 1990, this chapter examines gender and socio-historical differences regarding uncertainty in the educational and career aspirations of young people. Despite differences in the age of assessment and measurement, findings suggest that similar background characteristics are assoc...
Chapter
Abstract In this chapter we investigate how boys’ and girls’ ability and attitudes toward science differ as they approach the end of compulsory schooling. We begin by comparing their performance on an internationally standardized test, before investigating the proportion of boys and girls aspiring to a scientific career. Results are compared across...
Article
The major aim of the PATHWAYS Post-Doctoral Fellowship Programme is to stimulate innovative, interdisciplinary, and comparative research of productive youth development. Participating institutions include the Institute of Education in London, the Universities of Michigan and Michigan State, Stockholm, Helsinki, Jena, and Tübingen. The mission of th...
Article
Full-text available
The paper emphasizes the importance of finding ways for different disciplines to communicate across the conceptual boundaries between them. Four different fields of study i.e. economics, psychology, sociology and education bring concepts into this study to become integrated in a framework for analyses of risk. The context of the study is lifelong e...
Article
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In this paper we investigated the relationship between repeated parental worklessness and the academic progress made by children in England in their first full year of primary school. We draw on data from two recent longitudinal birth cohort studies with multiple rounds of data collection in the very early years up to age 5. We use the Avon Longitu...