Ingo Riess

Ingo Riess
Riess Ingenieur-GmbH · Aerodynamics Ventilation + Risk

Dr. sc. techn. (ETH), Dipl.-Ing. TU/SIA, EurIng

About

49
Publications
68,794
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108
Citations
Citations since 2016
24 Research Items
52 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202468101214
201620172018201920202021202202468101214
201620172018201920202021202202468101214
Introduction
Flow phenomena in the environment are my passion and my interest. My job? I design ventilation systems for road tunnels. Design aspects are fire safety, air-quality, pollution dispersion and noise as well as urban design. For infrastructure projects, I elaborate the risk profile by hazard identification and risk calculation before I develop the safety concept.

Publications

Publications (49)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
National and international regulations require quantitative risk assessment for various purposes, such as comparison of different tunnel options, safety measures, or admission of dangerous goods through a road tunnel. Risk is defined by the probability of an event and the expected damage. Depending on the level of detail, the event tree may require...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A new one-dimensional time-dependent computer model for analysing fire scenarios in tun-nels is presented. The new model is able to handle arbitrary ventilation systems. An important feature is its ability to handle gravity-driven smoke propagation arising from thermal stratifi-cation. The new model was implemented in the computer code ‘Sprint’. T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tunnel ventilation systems are designed to specific goals for normal and emergency operation. The ventilation goals and the required capacity of the ventilation system are well defined. A control concept is usually within the scope of the ventilation designer, limited to the description of normal and emergency ventilation. Depending on the complex...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the ever-increasing construction standard of road tunnels has led to a rapidly increasing workload for operation and maintenance organizations. This development is exacerbated by the ever-shorter life cycles of systems. In addition, unnecessary redundancies are implemented in the name of "safety". This article shows how to simplify...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The subject of this research project is an investigation into the airflow resistance of a tunnel fire in longitudinal flow and of its relevance for tunnel ventilation design for smoke control. The objective of the project was the quantification of the airflow resistance of a tunnel fire – of the “throttling effect”. The findings of the study allow...
Article
Fire throttling is the increase in flow resistance due to a large fire in a longitudinally ventilated tunnel. Although the fire throttling effect has been been known and studied for tunnels over the last 40 years, there is not yet a consistent one-dimensional (1D) model that can describe this behaviour or a framework suitable for practical applicat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tunnel ventilation design and risk analysis rely on modelling smoke propagation. I often read that 3-D numerical models are required, commonly Fire Dynamic Simulator in combination with the egress model EVAC. But these simulations are costly. Design decisions are made following one simulation scenario with the design fire in a single location and w...
Data
Powerpoint slides for the paper as presented in Graz on 9 May 2022.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report respresents a review of literature on the improvement of road tunnel resilience as well as a collection of case studies that illustrate how this topic is being dealt with in practice. The content of the report is addressed at several target groups involved in th eplanning, design, implementation, operation, maintenance and refurbishment...
Technical Report
Full-text available
As a result of the research project [1] a concept for improving the energy efficiency of road tunnels was developed. With the help of this concept, tunnels are categorised based on their energy consumption. The major energy consumers are analysed. As a result, measures for the improvement of energy efficiency are identified. The concept is a practi...
Article
Full-text available
For buildings and industrial plants, detailed design guidelines and technical standards covering automatic fire-fighting systems have been available for many years. However, for road tunnels, this technology is only used in a limited number of projects. If the use of fixed firefighting systems is not required by national standards, PIARC recommends...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Fixed fire-fighting systems are intended to contain a vehicle fire in a tunnel as early as possible in order to prevent the development of a large fire. The protection objectives of fixed fire-fighting systems can be qualitatively stated as follows: • Inhibiting the development of fire or reducing the heat release rate • Reduction of smoke product...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report contains a review of literature on road tunnel resilience, including more general literature on resilience principles or aspects that could be applied to tunnels. Many definitions for “resilience” were found, but the Working Group decided on the following definition in the context of tunnels: “The ability to prepare and plan for, absorb...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
After having been reported in a series of articles in the late 1970s, the air-flow resistance of a tunnel fire in longitudinal ventilation (also known as "throttling effect") has been investigated in several studies between 2006 and 2018, mostly by means of CFD calculations. These previous publications give different formulations for the "throttlin...
Data
SpitFire is a 2016-21 complete re-write of the one-dimensional model for smoke propagation and egress from road tunnels Sprint+ODEM. Especially, the heat conduction and smoke propagation sub-models have been changed, simplified - and accelerated. The heat transport is now based on and tested against the models described in the Austrian ventilation...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Der Forschungsbericht dokumentiert die Untersuchung des Strömungswiderstandes eines Tunnelbrandes in einer Längsströmung und seiner Relevanz für die Auslegung der Tunnellüftung. Mit den Ergebnissen kann der Strömungswiderstand anhand definierter Kenngrössen bestimmt werden – zur Verwendung bei der Dimensionierung von Lüftungsanlagen. Der Strömungsw...
Article
Full-text available
In den vergangenen Jahren entwickelten sich die Normen im Strassentunnelbau stetig weiter und führten zu einer rasanten Zunahme der Arbeitsbelastung der für den Betrieb und Unterhalt von Strassentunneln zuständigen Unternehmen. Der immer kürzere Lebenszyklus der Systeme erschwert die Situation zusätzlich. Ausserdem werden im Namen der "Sicherheit"...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Because a road tunnel is an enclosed space, many tunnel safety measures are rightfully aimed at controlling the risks of fires and dangerous goods. However, practice generally shows that most injuries and fatalities in tunnels are actually related to traffic incidents that could also happen on the open road. Moreover, the tunnel itself can contrib...
Article
Ces dernières abbées, les normes de construction des tunnels routiers n'ont cessé de se développer, augmentant repidement la charge de travail des organismes responsables de l'exploitation et de la maintenance des ouvrages. Cet acroissement est accentué par la raccourcissement des cycles de vie des systèmes. En outre, des redondances inutiles sont...
Article
En los últimos años, la construcción de un número creciente de túneles de carretera estándares ha conllevado un rápido aumento de la carga de trabajo de las organizaciones de exploitación y mantenimiento. Este desarrollo se ve acentuado por un ciclo de vida de los sistemas cada vez más corto. Además, se utilizan redundancias innecesarias en aras de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For a long time, the tunnel community discussed the application of water mist systems in road tunnels. In some European tunnels, water mist systems have been installed. In large-scale fire-tests, it has been demonstrated that water mist can inhibit the development of massive fires. However, there are only very few studies available on the interacti...
Article
Full-text available
Der Einsatz von Wassernebelanlagen in Strassentunneln wird seit Langem diskutiert. In einigen europäischen Tunneln wurden bereits Wassernebelanlagen installiert. In grossmassstäblichen Brandversuchen wurde zwar gezeigt, dass Wassernebel die Entwicklung eines Grossbrands hemmen kann. Wenig untersucht ist jedoch das optimale Zusammenwirken der Wasser...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Als Resultat dieser Forschungsarbeit wurde ein Konzept zur Verbesserung der Energieeffizienz von Strassentunneln erstellt. Mit Hilfe des Konzepts werden Tunnel basierend auf ihrem Energieverbrauch in Energiekategorien eingeteilt und Untersuchungen der massgeblichen Verbraucher durchgeführt. Es resultieren Massnahmen zur Verbesserung der Energieeffi...
Article
Full-text available
Im Rahmen der Energiestrategie 2050 soll der Energieverbrauch der Verkehrsinfrastruktur gesenkt werden. Strassentunnel haben den grössten Anteil am Stromverbrauch der Nationalstrassen. Mit einer energetischen Bewertung kann eine Priorisierung der Tunnel im Hinblick auf Optimierungsmassnahmen erfolgen. Massnahmen zielen auf betriebliche Anpassungen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The following controller types for effective closed-loop control of longitudinal airflow velocity in road tunnels in case of fire have been investigated and optimised: - PI-/PID-controller (proportional-integral-derivative controller) - MPC-controller (model predictive controller) In general, for the control of the longitudinal velocity in road...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In the present research project, the following control methods for closed-loop control of longitudinal airflow in case of fire are researched and compared: - PI- and PID-Control - Model Predictive Control (MPC-Control) - Model-based Control (Stepwise calcualtion of jet fans to be switched) MPC is faster than all other examined controllers. But it...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The last update of the calculation of fresh-air demand of the guidelines for the equipment and the utilisation of road tunnels took place in 2000. The European emission standards EURO5 and EURO6 were therefore not included in the data set. In this study, the calculation methodology for the emission factors has been adjusted based on data given in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Endeavouring to improve the ambient air quality, stringent criteria are often imposed onto the impact of the vitiated tunnel air at tunnel portals. Moreover particularly in urban areas, the regulatory requirements to the ambient air-quality often cannot be met. The thresholds values for NO2 and particulates are exceeded. Therefore, firstly conventi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Zur Verbesserung der Luftsituation bei Tunnelportalen kann eine Absauganlage installiert werden, mit der die Tunnelluft statt durch das Portal über ein Kamin ausgestossen wird. Die am Boden feststellbaren Zusatzbelastungen durch Kaminabluft bleiben dank der starken Verdünnung vernachlässigbar, wenn die Anlage richtig betrieben wird. Ob der Bau eine...
Article
Full-text available
Nelle gallerie stradali in funzione da più di 15 anni le apparecchiature elettromeccaniche hanno raggiunto la loro durata di funzionamento. Un esercizio prolungato di queste apparecchiature non sarebbe economico a causa dei crescenti bisogni di manutenzione; inoltre, per gli impianti di sicurezza sarebbe potenzialmente pericoloso. In questa situazi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For a complex road tunnel network, the ventilation system has been designed, implemented and tested. For design and optimisation of the control system, a one-dimensional numerical model has been used. With growing system complexity and demanding constraints of time and quality, system tests become increasingly important. They have to be performed b...
Article
Full-text available
A gap in the Swiss highway network was closed with the opening of the A8 Giswil Bypass in the Canton of Obwalden. The 2066m long, single-tube Giswil Tunnel represents an essential element of this bypass. It is one of the first Swiss tunnels to be executed in keeping with the new guidelines of FEDRO and is provided with a powerful ventilation system...
Article
Full-text available
A gap in the Swiss national highway network was closed with the opening of the A8 Giswil bypass in the Canton of Obwalden. The 2066 m long, single-tube Giswil Tunnel represents an essential element of this bypass. It is one of the first Swiss tunnels to be executed in keeping with the new guidelines of the Federal Roads Administration and is provid...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During the past few years, emission regulations have resulted in a shift of the emphasis of ventilation design. While the main goal of the ventilation system was to provide fresh air for the dilution of pollutants, it is now smoke control during a tunnel fire. However, the reduction of vehicle emissions has also led to new and more stringent air-qu...
Article
Full-text available
Die Bundesstrasse B1 in der Ortsdurchfahrt Dortmund zwischen den Autobahnen A40 und A44 ist wesentlicher Bestandteil der das Ruhrgebiet durchquerenden überregionalen Ost-West-Strassenverbindung. Mit ca. 100000 Kfz pro Tag übersteigt die Verkehrsbelastung der heute niveaugleichen Strasse mit signalgeregelten Kreuzungen und zahlreichen Einmündungen u...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A comprehensive methodology for computing the dispersion of air pollutants and immission levels for road tunnels is described. It is based on the combined use of a so-called Gaussian model and a three-dimensional simulation package. The combined model allows for a detailed analysis of very complex configurations, in particular within urban environm...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The requirements for tunnel ventilations are rapidly evolving, in particular because of an increased sensitivity towards safety in case of fire. A refined analysis of tunnel ventilation, for normal exploitations as well as for fire situations, is called for. New simulation tools are emerging and rapidly growing to standard design tools: 1-dimension...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In many tunnels with transverse ventilation, the smoke-extraction capacity is determined on the base of the estimated smoke production rate of the design fire. This design method implicitly assumes a stable stratification of the smoke layer. As the assumption of a stratified smoke layer is not justified when higher flow velocities are expected, the...
Article
Vor einem Jahr, am 24. März 1999, forderte der tragische Brand im Montblanc-Tunnel 39 Menschenleben. Diese Katastrophe hat das Vertrauen in die Sicherheit unterirdischer Anlagen erschüttert. Realistischerweise muss man eingestehen, dass das Risiko durch aufwendige technische Installationen zwar verringert werden kann, eine absolute Sicherheit in Tu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are recommendations on how a longitudinal ventilation system should be operated in case of a tunnel fire. In tunnels with uni-directional traffic, the common strategy is to maintain the traffic induced airflow. The strategy is to avoid backlayering of smoke by maintaining a minimum flow velocity. In tunnels with bidirectional traffic, the sit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A new one-dimensional time-dependent model for analysing fire scenarios in tunnels with longitudinal ventilation is presented. An important Feature of the model is the ability to handle the stack effect and gravity driven smoke propagation due to the strong thermal stratification in the tunnel. The new model was implemented in the Computer code 'Ra...
Article
Full-text available
Für die lufthygienische Beurteilung von Strassenbauprojekten wird in der Schweiz der Jahresmittelwert der Stickstoffdioxid(NO2)-Konzentrationen herangezogen. Ein grosser Teil der messbaren NO2-Belastung entsteht nämlich aus den in den Abgasen der Motorfahrzeuge enthaltenen Stickoxiden (NOx). Zusätzlich gilt seit dem 1. März 1998 ein Grenzwert für l...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper summarises results from the study of the ventilation system of the Swiss Aecherli tunnel (2071 m long and up to 1400 vehicles/h). Furthermore, it gives an outlook for the use of characteristic time scales for the choice and design of ventilation systems. Due to reduced costs, the use of a longitudinal ventilation system with one central e...
Article
Full-text available
The flow structure in the far field of line-source bubble plumes in shallow water is investigated. Recirculating cells form at both sides of the plume. Cell length, as given by other investigators, vary between 2.5 and 7 times the water depth. The variations are caused in part by different definitions of cell length and by the different geometries...
Thesis
Full-text available
Bei vielen Anwendungen von Blasenplumes aus Linienquellen wird die Wirksamkeit der Anlage von der Strömung im Fernfeld beeinflusst. So kommt es zum Beispiel beim Einsatz von Plumes als Wellenbrecher darauf an, dass die Reichweite der Oberflächenströmung über mehrere Wellenlängen der zu dämpfenden Welle stabil ist. In der Literatur weichen die Anga...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Drifting icebergs pose danger to fixed offshore structure such as production platforms and subsea installations. Data on icebergs are available primarily from observations in the Baffin Bai and along the Labrador and Newfoundland coasts. Various methods have been proposed to protect fixed installations in the path of drifting icebergs, most make us...
Thesis
Full-text available
Die Bewegung von Teilchen oder Tropfen mit gleichzeitigem Wärme- und Stoffübergang in Strömungen hat bei einer großen Anzahl von technischen Anwendungen ausschlaggebenden Einfluß auf die Prozeßführung und den zur Durchführung der Prozesse notwendigen Bauaufwand. Numerische Rechenverfahren zur Beschreibung dieser Vorgänge geben dem Konstrukteur bere...

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Projects (5)
Archived project
Investigate the flow in the far field of two-dimensional bubble plumes. Write a PhD thesis .
Project
Further development of the 1-d CFD software for smoke propagation in road tunnel fires. SpitFIRE is based on the two earlier models Sprint (Smoke Propagation IN Tunnels) and ODEM (One-Dimensional Egress Model).