Ingmar Werneburg

Ingmar Werneburg
University of Tuebingen | EKU Tübingen · Department of Geosciences

PD Dr. sc. nat., Dipl. Biol.
Research in Evolutionary Vertebrate Morphology, Curator of Paleontology

About

148
Publications
76,306
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Introduction
Using the ‘comprehensive organism concept’, a holistic understanding of evolutionary processes is possible. Therein, the whole life of an organism - from fertilization to dead - is understood as a process of development on which selection can act through evolution. Heterochronies - changes in the developmental timing of characters - are hypothesized to have fundamental impact on shaping an adult structure. In mutual dependence with those, spatial reorganizations take place during development, so called heterotopies. Both mechanisms, together with allometric change, enable the evolution of new morphotypes. With the help of standardized developmental characters, I study the patterns of embryonic timing in a variety of land vertebrate species, including turtles, snakes, lizards, and diverse mammalian groups. Given the recent advances in molecular systematics, a comprehensive (falcifiable) phylogenetic framework is provided, which I use to trace evolutionary developmental changes and discuss those in the context of morphological diversification. Besides organogenesis, also patterns of skeletogenesis and some genetic aspects of development and evolution are observed. On a histological scale, development of particular organs is studied – a classic comparative embryological approach – in order to detect homologies, to uncover patterns of recapitulation, and to trace spatial developmental changes that lead to adult morphology. For adult anatomy, similar to my embryological studies, I concentrate on the craniocervical system of tetrapods and some fish. One focus lies on the morphology of the musculature and other soft tissues, their anatomical diversity, phylogenetic distribution, and functional integration. Another focus lies on the interrelationship of head and neck morphology.
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - present
Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment an der Universität Tübingen
Position
  • Lecturer
January 2015 - December 2015
November 2013 - December 2014
University of Zurich
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
April 2018 - April 2018
University of Tuebingen
Field of study
  • Paleobiology (Habilitation)
August 2007 - October 2010
University of Zurich
Field of study
  • Paleontology/Biology (PhD)
October 2001 - May 2007
Friedrich Schiller University Jena
Field of study
  • Biology/Zoology/Prehistory (Diploma)

Publications

Publications (148)
Article
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Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using 'staging tables' of 'model organisms'. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmen...
Article
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Ontogenese zieht die vertikale Halsretraktion bei Cryptodiren das Palatoquadratum in eine posterodorsale und -mediale Richtung. Die Seitenretraktion bei Pleurodiren verlagert das Palatoquadratum in eine posterolaterale und -mediale Richtung. Diese Mechanismen könn-ten in unterschiedlichen Positionen des Palatoquadratums in Relation zum Hirnschädel...
Article
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Here, we define a research program using primordial skull characters for broad scale phylogenetic comparisons, particularly for amniotes. There are many chondrocranium descriptions in the literature, encompassing many clades of vertebrates. The definition of a comparable “tempus optimum” for fully formed chondrocrania, as developed herein, will ena...
Article
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Mammals feature not only great phenotypic disparity, but also diverse growth and life history patterns, especially in maturity level at birth, ranging from altriciality to precocity. Gestation length, morphology at birth, and other markers of life history are fundamental to our understanding of mammalian evolution. Based on the first synthesis of e...
Article
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The unique ability of modern turtles to retract their head and neck into the shell through a side-necked (pleurodiran) or hidden-necked (cryptodiran) motion is thought to have evolved independently in crown turtles. The anatomical changes that led to the vertebral shapes of modern turtles, however, are still poorly understood. Here we present compr...
Article
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Journal CHELYOPS - Am 8. Oktober 2021 übergab Frau Beate Rau aus Tübingen ein Belthle-Studienmikroskop (Slg.-Nr.: GPIT-PV-116181) und eine Schildplatt-Lupe (Slg.-Nr.: GPIT-PV-116182) aus dem Nachlaß ihres Großvaters Dr. Karl Rau zur Verwahrung an die Paläontologische Sammlung in Tübingen. Die Tübinger Paläontologie beherbergt auch die geologische P...
Article
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Plesiosaurians evolved four wing-like flippers that are morphologically very similar to each other and were most likely used in underwater flight. Plesiosaurians have been the subject of a long research history as well as a long history of misidentifications and misinterpretations, especially transposition of parts of or entire fore- and hind flipp...
Article
Therapsids covered the entire spectrum of terrestrial locomotion from sprawling to parasagittal. Switching between sprawling and more erect locomotion may have been possible in earlier taxa. First, the axial skeleton shows little regionalization and allows lateral undulation evolving then increasingly towards regionalization enabling dorsoventral s...
Article
Following the traditional and holistic concept of Vergleichende (Comparative) Entwicklungsgeschichte, Wolfgang Maier studied different aspects of vertebrate morphology, including dentition, the locomotor apparatus, nasal and ear regions. His work comprises investigations on pre- to postnatal stages of extant species as well as fossils and is mainly...
Article
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We compared embryogenesis of five species of domesticated even-toed and one odd-toed ungulate and used a phylogenetic framework to contextualize such comparison. Organ systems that occur relatively earlier in embryogenesis generally have more time to develop and therefore are found to be more mature at birth when compared to structures that appear...
Article
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Review on: Vorlesungen über Menschliche Anatomie von Carl Gegenbaur. Die Vorlesungsmitschrift von Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Miklucho-Maclay aus dem Wintersemester 1865/66. Uwe Hoßfeld, Rosemarie Fröber, Teresa Thieme, Georgy S. Levit, Maria Matveeva, Martin S. Fischer, THK-Verlag Arnstadt, 2022, 272 S., 24,90 Euro, ISBN: 978-3-945068-56-4. + Vorlesung...
Article
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A literature review showed that there is not a defined consensus on what specimens belong to Plateosaurus in current phylogenetic analyses, and after the assignation of SMNS 13200 as the neotype for Plateosaurus, the specimen composition of Plateosaurus as an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) needs to be addressed in further iterations of phylogenet...
Book
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About this Research Topic The fish to tetrapod transition transformed the tetrapod body plan, eventually allowing tetrapods to move, eat, breathe, and reproduce on land. Reconstruction of soft tissues in early tetrapods and their relatives has the potential to solve controversies about the behavior and ecology of the earliest terrestrial vertebrat...
Article
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Journal: MorphoMuseuM - Turtles are one of the most impressive vertebrates. Much of the body is either hidden in a shell or can be drawn into it. Turtles impress with their individual longevity and their often peaceful disposition. Also, with their resilience, they have survived all extinction events since their emergence in the Late Triassic. Toda...
Book
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Wolfgang Maier (* 1942) studied biology in Tübingen and was a doctoral student of Dietrich Starck in Frankfurt am Main, where he later also became a professor for human anatomy. In 1987, he moved back to Tübingen as chair for evolutionary zoology. In the course of his career, Maier studied different aspects of vertebrate morphology incl. dentition,...
Article
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Here we report on a recently discovered student script of a lecture on paleontology given by Ernst Haeckel. It dates to the summer semester of 1866, comprises 63 pages, and provides an overview of fossil invertebrate and mainly fossil vertebrate taxonomy and anatomy. It can be assumed that Russian student Nikolai Nikolajevitch Miklucho-Maclay (1846...
Article
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Thanks to new methods of modeling and analysis, we are discovering much more about movement, sensation, and feeding in animals that span the tetrapod water-land transition and the origin of amniotes. As investigations of function in extinct animals become more complex and rigorous, the need to take soft tissues into account becomes more pressing. F...
Article
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During development, the embryonic, cartilaginous skull in vertebrates is partially replaced by bones with endochondral and perichondral ossifications. In order to investigate the association between muscle attachments and early ossifications of late term reptilian embryos, we conducted digital 3d reconstructions of the cranium, the head-, and the n...
Chapter
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Aus dem Inhalt: Das Licht der Kindheit / Der lange Weg nach Erfurt / Der Hell-Dunkel-Kontrast / Drangsal und Emanzipation / ‚Professor‘ Werneburg in Altwarp / Die Taten des Lichts / Wort und geschwungene Linie
Chapter
Wie sah die Welt vor Hunderten von Millionen Jahren aus, als Dinosaurier und andere vorzeitliche Wesen die Erde bevölkerten? Die Paläontologie beschäftigt sich mit der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung vorzeitlichen Lebens. Den größten Teil des „Museums der Universität Tübingen“ stellt die Paläontologische Sammlung mit einem Umfang von ungefähr einer...
Article
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The present 3D Dataset contains the 3D models analyzed in: Abel P., Pommery Y., Ford D. P., Koyabu D., Werneburg I. 2022 . Skull sutures and cranial mechanics in the Permian reptile Captorhinus aguti and the evolution of the temporal region in early amniotes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2022.841784
Article
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While most early limbed vertebrates possessed a fully-roofed dermatocranium in their temporal skull region, temporal fenestrae and excavations evolved independently at least twice in the earliest amniotes, with several different variations in shape and position of the openings. Yet, the specific drivers behind this evolution have been only barely u...
Article
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CHELYOPS- Berichte aus der Paläontologischen Sammlung in Tübingen, Band 1, 2022, Seiten 382-390. Zusammenfassung: Die Beschäftigung mit Naturphänomenen, ob auf künstlerische oder wissenschaftliche Weise, ist der Familie Werneburg in die DNA geschrieben: Als Nachkomme eines Naturlyrikers und eines Naturmalers sowie Neffe eines Naturmuseums-Direktors...
Chapter
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[Book abstract] Das Vorlesungsmanuskript „Paleontologie von Ernst Haeckel“ datiert auf das Sommersemester 1866 und umfaßt 31 Doppelseiten. Es befindet sich als Nachlaß des ehemaligen Jenenser Studenten Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Miklucho-Maclay im Archiv der Russischen Geographischen Gesellschaft in St. Petersburg. Im vorliegenden Buch werden die Origi...
Book
Full-text available
Das Vorlesungsmanuskript „Paleontologie von Ernst Haeckel“ datiert auf das Sommersemester 1866 und umfaßt 31 Doppelseiten. Es befindet sich als Nachlaß des ehemaligen Jenenser Studenten Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Miklucho-Maclay im Archiv der Russischen Geographischen Gesellschaft in St. Petersburg. Im vorliegenden Buch werden die Originalseiten und de...
Article
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Studies of domesticated animals have greatly contributed to our understanding of avian embryology. Indeed, foundational questions in developmental biology were motivated by Aristotle’s observations of chicken embryos. By the 19th century, the chicken embryo was at the center stage of developmental biology, but how closely does this model species mi...
Article
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Embryogenesis is the first step in the ontogenetic life journey of any individual and thus is a starting point for the natural selection that causes evolutionary change. There are slight variations in the timing of embryonic development, known as heterochronies, which could eventually lead to major differences in adult anatomy. To test this expecta...
Article
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One of the major questions in evolutionary vertebrate morphology is the origin and meaning of temporal skull openings in land vertebrates. Partly or fully surrounded by bones, one, two, or even three openings may evolve behind the orbit, within the ancestrally fully roofed anapsid (scutal) skull. At least ten different morphotypes can be distinguis...
Article
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Im ersten Halbjahr 2021 fanden eine Schubladen-Inventarisierung und eine kritische Bestandsaufnahme der Paläontologischen Sammlung in Tübingen statt. Dafür wurde sechs Monate lang ein Sammlungsmanager als Unterstützung der Kustodie angestellt. In Zusammenarbeit mit der Arbeitsgruppe Mikropaläontologie gelang es, im Team eine fundierte Basis für die...
Article
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Significance The anatomical framework of the jaw has traditionally been thought to be highly conserved among vertebrates. However, here we show that the therian-unique face (muzzle) evolved via a drastic alteration of the common pattern of the tetrapod jaw. Through comparative morphological and developmental analyses, we demonstrated that the theri...
Article
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Im Jahr 1980 gestaltete der Bildende Künstler Walter Werneburg (1922-1999) ein ‚Triptychon mit Predella‘ – ein dreigeteiltes Bild mit Sockel – in der Art eines gotischen Flügelaltars. Der Sockel stellt die ‚Epoche der frühen Lebewesen‘, das Proterozoikum, dar, das sich über einen Zeitraum von 2,5 Milliarden bis 541 Millionen Jahren vor heute erstre...
Article
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Background In vertebrates, the skull evolves from a complex network of dermal bones and cartilage – the latter forming the pharyngeal apparatus and the chondrocranium. Squamates are particularly important in this regard as they maintain at least part of the chondrocranium throughout their whole ontogeny until adulthood. Anguid lizards represent a u...
Article
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The morphology of the temporal region in the tetrapod skull traditionally has been a widely discussed feature of vertebrate anatomy. The evolution of different temporal openings in Amniota (mammals, birds, and reptiles), Lissamphibia (frogs, salamanders, and caecilians), and several extinct tetrapod groups has sparked debates on the phylogenetic, d...
Article
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Background: How bats deviate heterochronically from other mammals remains largely unresolved, reflecting the lack of a quantitative staging framework allowing comparison among species. The Standard Event System (SES) is an embryonic staging system allowing quantitative detection of interspecific developmental variations. We introduce the first SES...
Article
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Background Placodontia is a Triassic sauropterygian reptile group characterized by flat and enlarged crushing teeth adapted to a durophagous diet. The enigmatic placodont Henodus chelyops has numerous autapomorphic character states, including extreme tooth count reduction to only a single pair of palatine and dentary crushing teeth. This renders th...
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The present 3D Dataset contains 26 3D models analyzed in the study: On the “cartilaginous rider” in the endocasts of turtle brain cavities, published by the authors in the journal Vertebrate Zoology.
Article
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In recent years, paleoneurology became a very popular research field and hundreds of brain-endocasts were described. The interpretation of a dorsal protuberance of the brain-endocast puzzled researchers for a long time, the so-called (cartilaginous) rider. This is mainly because of technical limitations in the past and due to non-accessibility of c...
Book
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Gedichte und Kurzprosa. Ingmar Werneburg (*1981 in Erfurt) legt nach Urworte. Panisch (2009) und Die Söhne der Sonne (2010) seinen dritten Gedichtband vor. Nachdem er den Untiefen des Thüringer Meers entronnen war (Irings Falke, 2013) und fremde Länder entdeckt hatte (Mexikanische Reise, 2012; Minoisches Licht, 2017), findet der Autor am Rande der...
Article
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Domestication provides an outstanding opportunity for biologists to explore the underpinnings of organismal diversification. In domesticated animals, selective breeding for exaggerated traits is expected to override genetic correlations that normally modulate phenotypic variation in nature. Whether this strong directional selection affects the sequ...
Book
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Die Universität Tübingen beherbergt eine der größten universitären paläontologischen Sammlungen. In ihr finden sich überaus seltene Typusbelege, europaweit singuläre Funde und wissenschaftlich höchst bedeutende Konvolute. Diese Publikation stellt erstmals die Geschichte dieser herausragenden Konvolute und des Instituts, ihre Schwerpunkte sowie die...
Data
Werneburg & Joyce. 2021. Cranial turtle CT scans. MorphoSource, Project 353832: Naomichelys speciosa, Pelodiscus sinensis, Emydura subglobosa, Emys orbicularis, Malaclemys terrapin, Kinixys erosa, Peltocephalus dumerilianus, Carettochelys insculpta, Psammobates tentorius, Malacochersus tornieri, Dermatemys mawii, Chelonoidis sp., Testudo marginata,...
Article
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Background Birds exhibit an enormous diversity in adult skull shape (disparity), while their embryonic chondrocrania are considered to be conserved across species. However, there may be chondrocranial features that are diagnostic for bird clades or for Aves as a whole. We synthesized and analyzed information on the sequence of chondrification of 23...
Article
Limb length is intrinsically linked to function and, ultimately, fitness. Thus, it can co-evolve with habitat structure, as exemplified by tropical lizards in highly heterogeneous environments. But does lizard limb length respond in a similar manner during adaptive diversification in temperate zones? Here, we examine variation in habitat preference...
Book
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Papers on chondrocranium research: Edited volume: Vertebrate Zoology. Virtual Issue 2019/2020: https://www.senckenberg.de/de/wissenschaft/publikationen/wissenschaftliche-zeitschriften/vertebrate-zoology/archiv/vz-virtual-issue/ available as printed book at www.scidinge-hall-verlag.de
Article
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Summary of the special issue with overview on recent perspectives in chondrocranium research.
Conference Paper
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GfBS Newsletter 37
Article
Archosauria (birds, crocodilians and their extinct relatives) form a major part of terrestrial ecosystems today, with over 10 000 living species, and came to dominate the land for most of the Mesozoic (over 150 Myr) after radiating following the Permian-Triassic extinction. The archosaur skull has been essential to this diversification, itself dive...
Article
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Organismal development is defined by progressive transformations that ultimately give rise to distinct tissues and organs. Thus, temporal shifts in ontogeny often reflect key phenotypic differences in phylogeny. Classical theory predicts that interspecific morphological divergence originates towards the end of embryonic or fetal life stages, i.e. t...
Article
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The origin of turtles is one of the most long-lasting debates in evolutionary research. During their evolution, a series of modifications changed their relatively kinetic and anapsid skull into an elongated akinetic structure with a unique pulley system redirecting jaw adductor musculature. These modifications were thought to be strongly correlated...
Book
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Der Bionik liegt die Annahme zugrunde, daß die belebte Natur durch evolutionäre Veränderungen optimierte Strukturen und Prozesse entwickelt, von denen der Mensch für seine Technik lernen kann. Um die Funktionalität einer biologischen Struktur für die Bionik umfangreich zu durchschauen und nutzbar zu machen, ist es notwendig, sowohl die phylogenetis...
Article
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Fossil turtles are one of the least studied clades in regard to endocranial anatomy. Recently, the use of non-invasive technologies, such as radiographic computed tomography (CT), increased the knowledge of the neuroanatomy of several extinct and extant taxa. Here, we provide the description of the nasal cavity, cranial endocast, and inner ear of t...
Article
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The present 3D Dataset contains the 3D model analyzed in the following publication: Paulina-Carabajal, A., Sterli, J., Werneburg, I., 2019. The endocranial anatomy of the stem turtle Naomichelys speciosa (Early Cretaceous, North America). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, https://doi.org/10.4202/app.00606.2019
Article
Anatomical variation is a major source for natural selection. Marine turtles are endangered and survival predictions are of important biological, ecological, social, and political value. Here, we perform a preliminary study illustrating how comparative embryology permits understanding of ontogenetic variation as a contributor evolutionary fitness....
Article
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Chelonioid turtles are the only surviving group of reptiles that secondarily evolved marine lifestyles during the Mesozoic Early chelonioid evolution is documented by fossils of their stem group, such as protostegids, which yield insights into the evolution of marine adaptation. Neuroanatomical features are commonly used to infer palaeoecology owin...
Conference Paper
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On March 25, 2019, we organized a Minisymposium called “Research in Museums” in the historical Paleontological Collections of ‘Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment an der Universität Tübingen’ (funded by VW-Stiftung). The focus of the symposium was on the study of form-to-function relationships using museum specimens represe...
Conference Paper
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Das Phylogenetische Symposium ist ein seit 1956 stattfindendes Diskussionsforum über aktuelle Fragestellungen der organismischen Evolutionsbiologie (Schmitt & Sudhaus 2018). Das 60. Jubiläum dieser Veranstaltung fand vom 23. bis 25.11.2018 unter der Überschrift „Funktionsmorphologie und Bionik“ in der traditionsreichen Paläontologischen Schau- und...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Die Lebendgeburt (Viviparie) evolvierte mehrfach unabhängig voneinander innerhalb der Wirbeltiere, besonders oft bei den Eidechsen und Schlangen. Dafür werden verschiedene physiologische und anatomische Veränderungen entwickelt wie die Plazenta bei rein viviparen Arten. Fossile Meeresreptilien belegen, dass das marine Leben die Evol...
Article
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In 2017, the archives of the paleontological collection Tübingen, Germany, were fully catalogued. This process revealed a large number of drawings, letters, notes, manuscripts, photo plates, and documents going as far back as the early 19th century and ending in modern times. The archive provides insight to the state of mind, the scientific state o...
Article
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Sphenodon punctatus, the tuatara, is the last survivor of the formerly widely distributed group of Rhynchocephalia, which is the sister group of Squamata. The skull anatomy of S. punctatus and its fossil relatives is comparably well known; however, embryological data of skull development are rare, incomplete, and mostly represented by dated works....
Article
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Compared to historical classifications, there is a common consensus that temporal openings are only a weak indication for higher taxon interrelationship, although it can be informative on lower taxonomic level. Here, I present a rather morphofunctional categorization of temporal openings and provide an ontogenetic explanation on their evolutionary...
Article
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Like other diapsids, Tyrannosaurus rex has two openings in the temporal skull region. In addition, like in other dinosaurs, its snout and lower jaw show large cranial fenestrae. In T .rex, they are thought to decrease skull weight, because, unlike most other amniotes, the skull proportion is immense compared to the body. Understanding morphofunctio...