Ingmar Björkman

Ingmar Björkman
Aalto University · Department of Management Studies

About

87
Publications
69,304
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8,202
Citations
Citations since 2016
5 Research Items
3690 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
How to manage talent effectively is a key question in organisations. Yet we still know relatively little about talent's psychological reactions to their exclusive status. Based on psychological contract theory and research on status, this study analyses a sample of 321 employees identified as talent by their organisations, only some of whom were aw...
Article
This study investigated factors influencing line managers' and professionals' perceptions of the HRM capabilities of the HR function. Using a sample of 913 managers and professionals in subsidiaries of 11 Nordic multinational corporations, we tested the extent to which features of the unit's HRM system, attitudes of the unit's general manager and c...
Article
Dual organizational identification – with both the whole corporation and the local subsidiary – is considered valuable for subsidiary employees, international assignees, and multinational corporations (MNCs). While extant research has examined antecedents of separate targets of identification, it has not fully addressed the challenge of identifying...
Article
Due to organizational concerns about the effects of openly communicating employees' talent status, employees may not be aware of having been identified as talent. In this paper, we examine how talent status self-awareness on the part of the individual influences the social exchange relationship between the employer and the talent. We propose that t...
Data
Full-text available
One of the biggest challenges facing multinational companies is building and sustaining a strong talent pipeline. To learn how leading multinational companies are facing up to the talent test, the team of authors examined both qualitative and quantitative data at leading companies from a wide range of industries. The research drew on 18 in-depth ca...
Article
Against the background of Bowen and Ostroff's (2004) human resource management (HRM) process theorization, this study explores influences on individual employee perceptions of the visibility, validity, and procedural and distributive justice of performance appraisal in subsidiaries of multinational corporations, and at what levels these influences...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an “HRM-as-practice” research agenda. The authors suggest that the HRM-performance literature would benefit from an actor-centric approach and a focus on activities, and that the HR roles research needs to shift its attention toward a more dynamic perspective of HR work and link this further to perf...
Article
In this retrospective, we revisit the goals of the original paper, and we review the studies that have used our paper to discuss the “concept” and the “development” of absorptive capacity. We also propose directions for future research, stressing the need to develop thorough theoretical and empirical models of absorptive capacity as a multi-level a...
Article
Dual organizational identification – with both the whole corporation and the local subsidiary – is considered valuable for subsidiary employees, international assignees, and multinational corporations (MNCs). While extant research has examined antecedents of separate targets of identification, it has not fully addressed the challenge of identifying...
Article
This paper examines how functional and line-management stakeholders evaluate operational human resource management capabilities in multinational corporation (MNC) subsidiaries. We suggest that such evaluations are a function of two key structural factors: (1) that focal subsidiary human resource (HR) departments respond differentially to the expect...
Article
This paper examines how multinational corporations use different mechanisms to integrate four HRM practices in their foreign subsidiaries: financial compensation, performance appraisal, training and development, and recruitment and selection. Our analysis of 76 European-owned subsidiaries located in China reveal systematic differences in the use of...
Article
In this article, we examine the effect of talent identification on employee attitudes. Building on social exchange theory, we analyze the association between employees' perceptions about whether or not they have been formally identified as “talent” and the following attitudinal outcomes: commitment to increasing performance demands, building skills...
Article
Although the importance of on-the-job-learning as a global leadership development tool has been widely acknowledged by both scholars and practitioners, there is limited research on the willingness of employees to undertake such challenging assignments. Building on social exchange theory, we examine potential factors explaining the willingness of in...
Article
How and for whom HRM creates value are key questions in management research. The present study develops and tests an integrative HRM process theorization positing the existence of mutually reinforcing ability–motivation–opportunity, signalling, and identity‐based control mechanisms of the influence of HRM on both employee performance and work inten...
Article
Purpose The present study sought to shed light on the antecedents of HRM integration mechanism usage in MNCs and to establish the extent to which antecedents differ in importance across different mechanism types. Design/methodology/approach A set of hypotheses was developed and tested on a sample of 76 European‐owned subsidiaries located in China....
Article
Full-text available
abstractThe purpose of this paper is to elucidate the effects of organizational and national cultural differences on international acquisitions. We argue that cultural differences prompt social identity building that leads to ‘us versus them’ thinking and thereby creates the potential for social conflict. We also maintain that the same cultural dif...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on research on the value drivers in mergers and acquisitions, as well as work on knowledge transfer in multinational corporations, we present an integrative model of the socio-cultural antecedents of strategic capability transfer in cross-border acquisitions. Its basic premise is that the impact of national cultural differences on the strat...
Article
In this study, we investigated factors that influence the attitudes of line managers towards HRM. Using a sample of the general managers of 123 subsidiaries, we tested whether the general manager's level of HRM internalisation – the extent to which he or she values and is committed to the subsidiary's HRM practices – is influenced by two sets of fa...
Article
Addressing the research question of what influences the likelihood of an individual being labeled as 'talent' in MNCs, this paper seeks to understand the decision processes involved in the identification of MNC-internal talent. We develop a framework suggesting that the decision to include an employee in a corporate talent pool is a two-stage decis...
Article
Full-text available
Dado que la oferta de empleados con talento no es suficiente para abastecer la demanda, cada vez hay más empresas multinacionales que responden creando sistemas de ámbito mundial para identificar y desarrollar el talento. Sin embargo, muchas de estas empresas han comenzado a reconocer la gran cantidad de retos que supone diseñar e implementar tales...
Article
Purpose – This chapter explores the determinants of trust, a manifestation of the relational dimension of social capital, between interaction partners in multinational corporations at interpersonal and inter-unit levels of analysis.Methodology – The study is based on two quantitative data sets from the Finnish subsidiaries of foreign MNCs, one at t...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that have influenced the strategic role of the HR department in Western MNC subsidiaries in China between 1999 and 2006. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on two sets of quantitative questionnaire data collected in 142 subsidiaries in 1999 and 2006. Qualitative interview data...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of human and social capital that different archetypes of subsidiary staffing are associated with, and how this influences the management of knowledge stocks and flows within the MNC. We identify four subsidiary staffing archetypes (local–internal, local–external, global–internal, and global–external...
Article
This paper investigates the extent to which different human resource management (HRM) practices work better in different countries. We also try to open the black box between HRM and multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiary performance by considering mechanisms through which HRM practices affect MNE subsidiary performance. The study utilizes a uniq...
Article
This book is on cross-border competence management in Russia and China. Corporations are facing a number of problems and challenges in their international operations, to which there typically are no simple solutions. For instance, they need to understand and respond to cultural and institutional diversity and ascertain that their foreign units are...
Article
In this study we examine the influence of involvement in internal and external social networks on HRM capabilities. We distinguish between technical and strategic HRM capabilities and focus on the capabilities of the HR department relating to four HRM practices – recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation, and performance app...
Article
This study examines the HRM practices and the role played by the HR department in foreign-owned units located in China and India. The study of 170 Western-owned subsidiaries analyses the extent to which the HRM practices associated with the local professionals and managerial-level employees resemble those of local firms versus those of the (main) W...
Article
This study investigated the changes taking place in HRM practices found in European-owned units in China between 1996 and 2006 in conjunction with the transformation of the context in which they are operating. Our study presents clear evidence for the convergence of HRM found in local Chinese firms with those of European MNC units in China. The res...
Article
There is extensive evidence that planned transfers of management practices by the headquarters of multinational corporations (MNCs) to foreign subsidiaries are not always successful. In this article, we outline a model of factors influencing the transfer of HR practices to MNC units abroad. The article has two main contributions. First, we develop...
Article
Purpose The purpose of the paper is to examine the kind of HRM practices being implemented by overseas firms in their Indian subsidiaries and also to analyze the linkage between HRM practices and organizational performance. Design/methodology/approach The paper utilizes a mixture of both quantitative and qualitative techniques via personal intervi...
Article
Full-text available
This study sets out to explore human resource management (HRM) practices in multinational corporation (MNC) subsidiaries within an institutional theory framework. Based on a sample of 158 subsidiaries of MNCs operating in the United States, Russia and Finland, the paper examines factors hypothesised to influence the HRM practices adapted in US, Jap...
Article
This article proposes that MNC subsidiaries located in economically highly developed countries will transfer more knowledge to other corporate units than will subsidiaries located in less developed countries. The direct effect of subsidiary location is tested, as well as the interaction effects of location and social capital, on outward knowledge t...
Article
High levels of trust and shared vision contribute to collaborative behaviour among units belonging to the same corporation. We examined the relationship of language fluency and socialization mechanisms to inter-unit shared vision and trustworthiness, using a sample of 310 inter-unit relationships involving subsidiaries of multinational corporations...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an integrative model of the impact of cultural differences on capability transfer in cross-border acquisitions. We propose that cultural differences affect the post-acquisition capability transfer through their impact on social integration, potential absorptive capacity, and capability complementarity. Two dynamic variables – th...
Article
In the present paper, we aim to explain the dynamic phenomenon of Headquarters (HQ) relocation. The relocation of sales, marketing and production activities has been widely studied, but the strategic decision to relocate a HQ unit across borders has attracted far less attention. Drawing on a multiple case study of Finnish multinationals we conceptu...
Article
abstract The concept of a high commitment work system (HCWS) has mostly been used in the West to study the relationship between a firm's work systems and organizational performance. In this paper, we introduce a preliminary measure of HCWS in China based on the definition of Baron and Kreps (1999). In study 1, we tested the measure by surveying 442...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The paper aims to report on an in‐depth study of the merger and acquisition processes involved in the creation of the leading financial services corporation in the Nordic countries: Nordea. The purposes are, first, to describe the roles played by the HR function and examine the effects of the roles enacted by the HR function on how the work...
Book
Acclaim for the first edition: 'Handbook of Research in International Human Resource Management represents a welcome contribution to IHRM literature and will be required readings for both novices and veteran researchers.' - Dana B. Minbaeva, British Journal of Industrial Relations. © Günter K. Stahl, Ingmar Björkman and Shad Morris 2012. All rights...
Article
Given the importance of local (external) network embeddedness for an MNC subsidiary's ability to create new knowledge, a crucial question is what factors affect this local embeddedness. Despite its obvious relevance, few efforts have been made in the MNC literature to deal with this issue. In this paper, we hypothesize that a subsidiary's local emb...
Article
Purpose When critically reviewing the empirical research on the relationships between personal characteristics and successful foreign assignments it is revealed that the extant empirical research suffers from several limitations. The aim of this article is to shed additional light into the relationship between expatriate personal characteristics an...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we explore the impact of organisational mechanisms on inter-unit knowledge flows in multinational corporations (MNCs). A comprehensive model, based on agency theory and socialisation theory, is tested on a sample of 134 Finnish and Chinese MNC subsidiaries. Our findings indicate that MNCs can influence inter-unit knowledge transfer by...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between a bundle or system of human resource (HR) practices and firm performance and the processes through which these HR practices affect organizational outcomes. Using a sample of fifty-two Japanese multinational corporation subsidiaries operating in the United States and Russia, we examine...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the authors explore media coverage of a recent acquisition across national borders. Their starting point is that the media represent a key arena of “discursive strategizing” for actors such as corporate managers. They illustrate and specify how global capitalism, as discourse relying on economic and financial rationale and exemplif...
Article
Full-text available
Based on a sample of 169 subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in the USA, Russia, and Finland, this paper investigates the relationship between MNC subsidiary human resource management (HRM) practices, absorptive capacity, and knowledge transfer. First, we examine the relationship between the application of specific HRM pract...
Article
Research has shown that Western multinational corporations tend to implement human resource management (HRM) practices in their Chinese units that are rather similar to those of the parent company. However, there is a paucity of research on the effects of the Western-style HRM introduced by foreign-owned firms on the diffusion of HRM practices amon...
Article
The study examines the relationship between human resource management and organizational performance in sixty-two manufacturing Chinese-Western joint ventures and wholly owned subsidiaries located in different parts of the People's Republic of China. A positive relation was found between firm performance and the extent to which firms used a 'high-p...
Article
Based on a sample of 169 subsidiaries of MNCs operating in USA, Russia, and China, this paper investigates the relationship between MNC subsidiary HRM practices, absorptive capacity and knowledge transfer. The paper makes two key contributions. First, the paper examines the relationship between the application of specific HRM practices and the...
Article
This study investigates the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and the performance of 101 foreign-owned subsidiaries in Russia. The study's results provide support for the assertion that investments in HRM practices can substantially assist a firm in improving performance. Further, different HRM practices for managerial and non-ma...
Article
Based on 101 foreign firms operating in Russia, the effect of human resource management (HRM) on firm performance in Russia is investigated. This is accomplished by developing and testing a model including HR outcomes (motivation, retention development) as a mediating variable between HRM practices and firm performance. Our study provides some supp...
Article
This study analyzes the Human Resource Management (HRM) practices in joint ventures and wholly-owned subsidiaries of Western MNCs located in Russia and Poland. Different hypotheses are developed, testing whether or not MNCs are more likely to implement standardized practices in Poland and Russia. The effects on HRM practices of MNC equity share, no...
Chapter
In the international business literature, the strategy and operations of MNCs are often conceptualized in terms of global integration versus local responsiveness (Prahalad and Doz, 1987). The framework is typically used to analyse the advantages of global integration and/or standardization of the execution of certain tasks versus the benefits of ad...
Article
The recruitment, development, motivation, and retention of competent and high-performing Chinese professionals and managers is a major challenge for foreign firms operating in China. This article analyzes how local managers and professionals are managed in Western companies’ manufacturing joint ventures. The investigation is based on interviews con...
Article
Full-text available
Firms that plan to do business in Russia must be prepared to master the human resources management challenges that exist. A study of 18 western firms found success lay in use of western "high performance" practices adapted to fit the Russian environment. The practices studied covered all aspects of human resources management, from recruitment to co...
Article
Many large corporations have established a China center to coordinate and control their operations in the country. This article describes the roles played by the HR function in these China centers. As we explain, the China center’s HR function provides a variety of services to the MNC units in China, is typically responsible for HR policy making an...
Article
Full-text available
One of the fundamental concerns for multinational corporations (MNCs) is how to handle the relationship with their host governments. This study analyzes the response of Western MNCs to host government pressures in the People's Republic of China. This is one of the first articles to provide managers with a clear and fairly complete set of ways in wh...
Article
Government pressures are thought to influence multinational companies' strategies. This study analyzes central government pressures regarding MNCs in China since 1990, particularly the pressures concerning operational modes utilized by foreign companies investing in China. The methodology utilizes in-depth interviews of MNC executives and governmen...
Article
Full-text available
Government pressures are thought to influence multinational companies' strategies. This study analyzes central government pressures regarding MNCs in China since 1990, particularly the pressures concerning operational modes utilized by foreign companies investing in China. The methodology utilizes in-depth interviews of MNC executives and governmen...
Article
Suggests that most research on internationalization of service firms has investigated how companies over time have developed their outward business operations. Finds, however, that some service firms, especially within the tourism industry, have chosen another way of handling international business operations, namely by marketing their services abr...
Article
In recent years, multinational corporations have become increasingly ascendant in the world economy. The HRM strategies that these corporations adopt may blend global integration with local responsiveness. This paper examines the compatibility between MNC standardization and localization of different HRM practices in a sample of Sino-Western joint...
Article
This article discusses the role played by social relationships when penetrating a foreign business network. In the business network literature social bonds have been identified as a dimension of buyer-seller relationships, but few studies have actually focused on this issue. The present study analyzed based on semi-structured interviews with Chines...
Article
The board of directors has so far been neglected in research on the operations of Sino-foreign joint ventures, a subject which has not previously obtained any scholarly attention. This paper analyzes the role of the board in the management of Chinese-Western joint ventures as seen from the expatriate managers' point of view. Qualitative and quantit...
Article
Recently, there has been a tremendous boom in foreign direct investments in the People's Republic of China, most of which has been in Sino-foreign joint ventures. But despite many success stories, most expatriate foreign managers experience frustration. Ingmar Björkman and Annette Schaap present the results of a study of human resource issues relat...
Article
The present paper reports the results of a survey of the use of the subsidiary board of directors (SBs) in French and Norwegian manufacturing units owned by Swedish and Finnish MNCs. In addition to presenting data on the composition of the SBs, and the importance of different roles that SBs may play, the paper analyses a number of hypotheses concer...
Article
On the basis of an empirical study of 146 Scandinavian firms, this paper analyses possible determinants of corporate practice regarding the selection and training of expatriates. The analysis indicates that the home country of the multinational company, its total number of expatriates, the extent to which the company has expatriates in culturally d...
Article
The recent development of a cognitive, interpretive approach to organizational analysis has helped to increase our understanding of organizational action. This paper discusses the relationship between organizational beliefs and organizational change. Based upon a review of empirical studies of strategic reorientations, the article presents a model...
Article
Full-text available
Mergers and acquisitions are particularly timely and revealing examples of the contemporary restructuring - embedded in the language of global capitalism - that is shaping organizational fields and national economies. In the dominant business discourse and rhetoric, mergers and acquisitions are justified and legitimized as necessary and/or unavoida...

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