Ingela Lundin Kvalem

Ingela Lundin Kvalem
University of Oslo · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

73
Publications
44,705
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Introduction
I am a professor of health psychology, and my main research interest is in body image in general, and in relation to cosmetic surgery, sexuality, and obesity. My other interest is prevention and behavior change. My main research project is a 10-year prospective study of 300 obesity surgery patients, where the focus is on early predictors for health behavior change, as well as body image and body contouring after surgery.

Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Full-text available
Purpose After bariatric surgery, body contouring surgery (BCS) is thought to improve body image, weight loss, and mental health. Many patients desire but do not undergo BCS after bariatric surgery. This patient subset has rarely been studied. The present study compares bariatric surgery patients that, at 5 years after surgery, desires, have undergo...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which Norwegians are satisfied with their singlehood, and to determine the association between being single and sexual activity. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of a representative web sample of 1076 unpartnered individuals (568 women, 508 men) aged 18–89 years. A total of 45.2% o...
Article
A visible difference to the face or body may challenge adolescents’ adjustment and engagement in life activities, where some require psychosocial support. However, evidence is limited for whether existing interventions for this adolescent group reduce social or appearance-related distress. We therefore conducted a parallel-group, randomised control...
Article
Full-text available
Patient satisfaction is viewed as essential for a successful outcome of bariatric surgery. Few studies have explored long‐term satisfaction prospectively. This study aimed to examine pre‐ and post‐surgery predictors for satisfaction with follow‐up care, and change in outcome satisfaction from one to five years after bariatric surgery. A sample of 2...
Article
Full-text available
Online interventions have the potential to reach individuals who are otherwise difficult to engage due to stigma and sensitive topics. However, these individuals also tend to be hard to recruit in clinical trials, a crucial step in order to provide evidence-based interventions. This highlights a need for more information about efficient recruitment...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine Norwegians' reports of seven varied sexual acts. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of a probability-based web sample of 2,181 men and 1,967 women aged 18-89 years. Among seven acts of sexual variety, the most common sexual experiences were trying to watch pornography with a partner, engaging in...
Article
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Purpose: To study different subgroups of Norwegians’ frequency of sexual intercourse and the activities that Norwegians engage in during intercourse. Methods: Data were collected from a questionnaire survey of a representative web sample of 4,160 Norwegians aged 18 to 89 years. The response rate was 35%. Results: The majority of men (65%) and wome...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mammography screening is the main method for early detection of breast cancer in Norway. Few studies have focused on psychological determinants of both attendance and non-attendance of publicly available mammography screening programs. The aim of the current study, guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model, was to examine how psych...
Article
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Severe obesity has been associated with reduced performance on tests of verbal memory in bariatric surgery candidates. There is also some evidence that bariatric surgery leads to improved verbal memory, yet these findings need further elucidation. Little is known regarding postoperative memory changes in the visual domain and how patients subjectiv...
Article
Objective: Executive function (EF) and, in particular, inhibitory control have been associated with weight loss (WL) in behavioural WL treatment for obesity. Few studies have focused on the relationship between preoperative inhibitory control and post-operative WL following bariatric surgery, and the potential mediating role of maladaptive eating...
Article
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Body image issues can affect all domains of sexual functioning. The aim of this study was to examine how, in a sociocultural context where physical and sexual attractiveness is equated with young and slim body ideals, appearance dissatisfaction and importance are related to sexual satisfaction in older adults in four European countries. A cross-sec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Emergency contraception use has received little attention compared to other contraceptives (e.g., condoms), despite increased use in most western countries. The present study aims to examine individual risk behavior and social characteristics of adolescent emergency contraception use of women in late adolescence, a key developmental stag...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Barriers to help-seeking for sexual issues endanger sexual health rights of the growing population of older adults. This study set out to explore older Norwegian adults’ experience of help-seeking for sexual issues. Methods: Thirty-two men and women aged 65–85 years were interviewed. Five themes were identified using thematic analysis: (...
Article
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The Breast Size Satisfaction Survey (BSSS) was established to assess women’s breast size dissatisfaction and breasted experiences from a cross-national perspective. A total of 18,541 women were recruited from 61 research sites across 40 nations and completed measures of current-ideal breast size discrepancy, as well as measures of theorised anteced...
Article
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This study aimed to determine the prevalence of non-consensual sex in older adult men and women across Europe, and to find out what variables predict such experiences in different European countries. Data were collected using probability samples from populations, aged 60–75 years, in Norway (N = 1271), Denmark (N = 1045), Belgium (N = 991), and Por...
Article
Background: Attention to and interpretation of symptoms are influenced by psychologic and contextual factors. Preoperative anxiety, and to some extent depression, has been found to predict the perceived impact of somatic symptoms 1 year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Postoperative changes in negative affect may possibly both influence and be infl...
Article
The impacts of body dissatisfaction have been widely studied among adolescent girls, but much less in women in mid-life. In this study, we evaluated the associations between body dissatisfaction, psychological health and behaviors used to manage age-related changes, in an online survey of 331 women aged 45–65. Body dissatisfaction, importance of ap...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of extradyadic activity in older adults in four European countries and investigate factors associated with extradyadic sex. Postal questionnaire data were collected in probability samples among populations aged 60–75 years in Norway (N = 1271), Denmark (N = 1045), Belgium (N = 991), and Portuga...
Article
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Background: Individual differences in executive function may influence eating behavior, weight loss (WL), and WL maintenance in obesity treatment. Executive function, which designates top-down cognitive control processes, has been related to eating behaviors which may impact weight, and has been found to be predictive of WL in both behavioral WL p...
Article
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The aim of the study was to explore attitudes towards sexuality and sexual behaviour in older adults in Norway, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal. A cross-sectional survey with representative samples of the population aged 60–75 years recruited through phone registers in Norway (676 men and 594 women), Denmark (530 men and 515 women), Belgium (318 men...
Article
What is the prevalence of using the Internet for love and sexual activities among older adults across Europe, and what predicts such use? Data were collected in probability samples among populations aged 60-75 years in Norway (N = 1271), Denmark (N = 1045), Belgium (N = 991), and Portugal (N = 509) using postal questionnaires. A total of 36% of men...
Article
Full-text available
How do older adults make sense of early sexual experiences with regard to their present sexual well-being? In 2016, a qualitative study on sexual well-being was undertaken among 65- to 85-year-olds of different genders, sexual orientations, and from different social layers. Thirty-two individuals were interviewed. In a thematic analysis, five main...
Article
The aim of the current study was to explore whether developmental trajectories of body satisfaction from adolescence to young adulthood predicted measures of sexual satisfaction in young adulthood, even when controlling for important covariates such as gender, weight development, relationship status, mental health, and frequency of sexual intercour...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The Repetitive Eating Questionnaire, Rep(eat)-Q, is a 12-item self-report measure of compulsive and noncompulsive forms of grazing behaviour (i.e., eating modest amounts of food in a repetitive and unplanned manner). The aim was to validate the proposed two-factor model of the Rep(eat)-Q in a community sample. Method: A total of 190 u...
Article
Cosmetic breast surgery experience and a wide range of mental health, psychosocial, and sociodemographic variables were assessed in the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (N = 78,252). Breast augmentation patients reported elevated mental health problems. Factors in the domains of physical appearance, drug use, relationships,...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-esteem, perception of social acceptance and feeling of loneliness in a sample of young bisexual, lesbian and heterosexual women, including assessing self-esteem longitudinally across 13 years. The analyses were based on self-completed questionnaires from the longitudinal study...
Poster
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of FA in BS candidates and to investigate associations between FA symptom count, BMI, age, gender and binge eating. Data was collected from a prospective study on cognitive predictors and consequences of weight loss in BS patients (the Oslo Bariatric Surgery Study (OBSS) Cognitive).
Article
Full-text available
Background Most patients do not meet the recommended level of physical activity after bariatric surgery, and psychological factors underlying postoperative physical activity remain poorly understood. This study aimed at identifying self-regulatory predictors of physical activity after bariatric surgery. Methods Questionnaire data including self-reg...
Article
Background: The experience of symptoms after bariatric surgery, such as pain, dumping, and fatigue, may affect behavior, quality of life, and the need for healthcare consultations. Attention to and interpretation of symptoms are influenced by psychological and contextual factors. Prospective studies of psychological factors predicting physical sym...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: The aim of the current paper was to provide an overview of literature on sexual function and sexual difficulties in older adults. Method: We conducted a narrative review of papers published in English between January 2005 and July 2015 based on an extensive search in PsycINFO. Results: The review showed that while common biological changes may...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: the aim of the paper is to provide an overview of the literature published 2005–2015 on sexual satisfaction and body image in older adults. Method: A narrative literature search using the PsycINFO database was conducted. Results: Although women in general seem less satisfied with their bodies than men, particularly in sexual contexts, older wo...
Article
During adolescence, romantic relationships are a key developmental milestone. Coupled with the increasing salience of appearance and social acceptance, adolescents with an appearance-altering condition may feel particularly vulnerable when it comes to romantic relationships. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of romantic experiences among a...
Article
During adolescence, romantic relationships are a key developmental milestone. Coupled with the increasing salience of appearance and social acceptance, adolescents with an appearance-altering condition may feel particularly vulnerable when it comes to romantic relationships. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of romantic experiences among a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To study the relationship between age, gender, body mass index (BMI), body image, and perceived intimacy with partner and sexual satisfaction in young Norwegian adults. Methods: A questionnaire survey was completed online by 27.2% (n = 568) of a representative national web sample of 2,090 persons aged 18–29 years. Results: Women were mor...
Article
Background: Weight loss and weight loss maintenance vary considerably between patients after bariatric surgery. Postoperative weight gain has partially been explained by lack of adherence to postoperative dietary and physical activity recommendations. However, little is known about factors related to postoperative adherence. Objectives: The aim...
Article
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Background: Little is known about the psychological prerequisites for weight loss maintenance after bariatric surgery. A first step in investigating whether existing knowledge of conservative weight loss treatment is applicable for lifestyle interventions postoperatively is to compare specific psychological characteristics at baseline. The aim of...
Article
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Objective: Explore psychological functioning in adolescents with a cleft at age 16 from a broad perspective, including cognitive, emotional, behavioral, appearance-related, and psychosocial adjustment. High-risk groups were identified within each area of adjustment to investigate whether vulnerable adolescents were found across domains or whether...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between perception of own appearance, Internet pornography consumption, preferences for pornographic actors' appearance, and sexual self-esteem in gay and bisexual men in Norway. An online survey of 477 gay and bisexual men showed that, despite the prevailing muscular and lean gay body ideal...
Article
This study examines the development of global self-esteem and self-esteem in 6 specific domains across adolescence and young adulthood. Using a cohort-sequential design, we analyzed longitudinal data on 3,116 Norwegian men and women from 13 to 31 years of age by means of growth curve modeling. Questionnaire data provided information on global self-...
Article
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In young people, interactions with horses may contribute to the development of social skills and self-efficacy. Our aim was to identify relationships between psychological variables and young people's experience of activities with horses. Participants in this study were 13–15-year-old adolescents (n = 25), given a 4-month intervention consisting of...
Article
Full-text available
Preoperative weight loss is encouraged before bariatric surgery, as it is associated with improved surgical conditions. It has also been related to better postoperative outcomes, but this relationship is less clear. However, little is known about what predicts weight loss preoperatively, so the aim was to identify psychosocial and clinical predicto...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the associations among the frequency of viewing Internet pornography, beliefs about how realistically pornography portrays sex, self-perceived effects of one's pornography use, genital appearance satisfaction, and sexual self-esteem in young adults. Online data were collected from four convenience samples of university students...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating behavior is mediated through self-esteem and depression. If the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating can be explained by self-esteem and depression, treatment may benefit from focusing more on self-esteem and depre...
Article
Full-text available
In this project, we examined the effect of a 4-month intervention with horses on perceived social support, self-esteem and general self-efficacy among Norwegian adolescents aged 12-15 years. The intervention took place at farm-based stables and included work with the horses and riding. A waiting-list crossover design was used and the participants a...
Article
The study investigates how body ideals are discussed and conceptualized among groups of Norwegian youth. Altogether 48 girls and 15 boys, most aged 17 years, took part in nine focus groups, in order to study subcultural body ideals. Major differences were found between east-end and west-end boys (representing socioeconomic differences), where the f...
Article
Objective: To study the predictors of change in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) from adolescence to young adulthood. Method: A nationally representative sample of 3,251 Norwegian students between 12 and 19 years of age were initially surveyed, and follow-up surveys were conducted three times over a 13-year period. The initial response rate...
Article
This study explores how body ideals are discussed among adolescent boys and girls in 5 mixed-gender focus groups (n = 37). The ways in which boys and girls talk about bodies differed clearly within the focus group conversations as well as in the everyday situations described in the interviews. The boys were more concrete in their description of ide...
Article
Full-text available
The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) is a well-known self-reporting tool for symptom assessment in palliative care. Research has shown that patients experience difficulties in the scoring and interpretation, which may lead to suboptimal treatment. The aims were to examine how palliative care cancer patients interpreted and responded to the...
Article
Most studies examining psychosocial changes after cosmetic surgery have short follow-up periods and therefore provide limited information about long-term effects of such surgery. Moreover, studies that identify whether preexisting patient characteristics are associated with poor psychosocial outcomes after cosmetic surgery are lacking. The current...
Article
Full-text available
There is limited information about psychological predictors of cosmetic surgery and how cosmetic surgery influences subsequent changes in mental health and overall appearance satisfaction. To date, there is a lack of studies examining this issue, whereby representative population samples are assessed at an age before cosmetic surgery is typically c...
Article
This study investigated the role of friendships and social acceptance in self-perceptions of appearance and depressive symptoms, comparing adolescents with and without a facial difference. Adolescents with a visible cleft (n=196) were compared with adolescents with a non-visible cleft (n=93), and with a comparison group (n=1832). Boys with a visibl...
Article
Few studies have tested potential explanatory mechanisms for the high stability of extraversion. In this study, the relationship between extraversion, appearance evaluation, and cosmetic surgery was investigated to examine such mechanisms. The “Big Five” personality traits were assessed in 155 female cosmetic surgery patients prior to and 6 months...
Article
This study aims to investigate whether cosmetic surgery has an effect on an individual's body image, general self-esteem, and psychological problems. Further tests were conducted to assess whether the extent of psychological problems before surgery influenced improvements in postoperative psychological outcomes. Questionnaire data from 155 female c...
Article
What are the relationships between self-efficacy when communicating to the partner about use of contraception, stopping undesired intercourse, and perceived self-conscious emotions in sexual contexts? How does past contraceptive behaviour influence perceived self-efficacy? These research questions were studied among 399 10th grade students with coi...
Article
This study investigates how personality traits in combination with frequency of and emotional reaction to negative comments about appearance while growing up are related to appearance evaluation and orientation among adult women. Nine hundred and seven participants from a representative sample of Norwegian women aged 22-55, answered questions measu...
Article
The present study investigates psychological factors expected to predict the motivation to undergo cosmetic surgery. It is hypothesized that body image, self-esteem, teasing history, acceptance of cosmetic surgery in the individual's environment, and self-monitoring relate to motivation to have cosmetic surgery. Questionnaire data were obtained fro...
Article
There are few data on the frequency of cosmetic surgery among Norwegian women. A random sample of 2000 Norwegian women aged 22 to 55 received a questionnaire on cosmetic surgery, demographic data, self-esteem, and to what extent people around them accepted cosmetic surgery. The response rate was 46% (907 women). Of these, 7.7% indicated that they h...
Article
The knowledge of how self-efficacy works within sexual scripts is limited. In the context of sexual script theory, this paper aims at focusing on the relationship between contraceptive self-efficacy and the intention to use condoms among Norwegian adolescents. The data is based on a stratified sample of 920 adolescents aged 16–20 years in a Norwegi...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to study alcohol consumption among Norwegian adolescents at their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. The material comprises a stratified sample of 920 adolescents aged 16-20 years in a Norwegian county (52.3% of the girls and 41.4% of the boys had coital experience). Data were collected by means of questionna...
Article
The impact of gender differences in sexual socialization on early sexual experiences among Norwegian adolescents is discussed. The material comprises a stratified sample of 920 adolescents ages 16-20 years in a Norwegian county. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. Of the respondents, 55.5% were girls and 44.5% were boys. 52.3% of girls...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to study alcohol consumption among Norwegian adolescents at their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. The material comprises a stratified sample of 920 adolescents aged 16–20 years in a Norwegian county (52.3% of the girls and 41.4% of the boys had coital experience). Data were collected by means of questionna...
Article
Full-text available
A school-based sex education program was developed in order to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies. A Solomon four-group design, with random assignment to the different conditions, was used to evaluate an intervention based on cognitive social learning theory and social influence theory. The main goal of the intervention...
Article
Gender and birth cohort differences and the influence of social background variables on the coital debut age were investigated in the general population of Norway. The data derive from a 1987 questionnaire on sexual behavior mailed to a random sample of 10,000 Norwegians of both sexes, ages 18 through 60; 63% responded to the questionnaire. 94.5% r...
Article
In a questionnaire survey on sexual behaviour, a random sample of 10,000 Norwegians aged 18 through 60 were asked about use of condoms during their last intercourse. The response rate was 62.7%. Except as regards level of education, the response group was fairly representative of the population with respect to socio-demographic variables. About 12%...
Article
In Norway, a questionnaire on sexual behaviour was mailed to a random sample of 10000 subjects aged 18 through 60. Sixty-three percent responded. Among respondents living together with a partner, extramarital sex during the past 3 years was reported by 15.3% of men and 8.8% of women. More than 5 extramarital partners in this period was reported by...

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Projects (5)
Archived project
A previous collaboration between Statped (Norway) and the Centre for Appearance Research (UK). Statped is a national service for special needs education made up of four regions and a main office located in Oslo: https://www.statped.no/Spraksider/In-English.
Project
The Breast Size Satisfaction Survey (BSSS) is an international, collaborative project with the primary aim of mapping rates of breast size dissatisfaction across different world regions. By involving researchers from multiple sites across the globe, the BSSS will produce one of the largest datasets documenting rates of breast size dissatisfaction across countries. Secondary aims of the project include an exploration of correlates of breast size dissatisfaction, including exposure to different forms of media and breast self-examination. The BSSS is currently seeking international collaborators who would like to be involved in the project (for more information, please check the updates or email viren.swami@anglia.ac.uk).
Project
OBSS Cognitive aims to investigate factors associated with post-operative weight loss maintenance in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.