Inge Amundsen

Inge Amundsen
Chr. Michelsen Institute | CMI · Department of Political Science

Ph.D.; political science

About

60
Publications
73,042
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790
Citations
Citations since 2016
20 Research Items
491 Citations
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Introduction
Amundsen is a political scientist focussing on democratic institutionalisation, political parties, political corruption, and natural resources (petroleum resources management and revenue management). His main study area is Malawi, Bangladesh, Angola, Ghana, and Nigeria. Amundsen made his PhD in comparative African studies at the University of Tromsø in 1997. He was Research Director at CMI from 2000-2003 and Director of the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre from 2002-2006.
Additional affiliations
August 1998 - present
Chr. Michelsen Institute
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Education
January 1992 - May 2007
UiT The Arctic University of Norway
Field of study
  • Political science, comparative politics, African studies

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
Full-text available
First of all, this paper explores the rationale for internal party democracy, highlighting the ‘school for democracy’ argument. Second, it identifies three crucial processes as determinants for the level of intra-party democracy; a democratic process for the election of leaders, for the formulation of policies and for coalition making. The first is...
Article
Institutional factors are increasingly highlighted to explain the “resource curse” or, why some countries with rich natural resources have little long-term economic and political development. This paper makes the analytical distinction between institutions of extraction (institutions enabling and protecting rents extraction) and institutions of red...
Book
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Analysing political corruption as a distinct but separate entity from bureaucratic corruption, this timely book separates these two very different social phenomena in a way that is often overlooked in contemporary studies. Chapters argue that political corruption includes two basic, critical and related processes: extractive and power-preserving co...
Article
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Regime type matters for the choice of anti-corruption approaches. In recent years, most anti-corruption investments have been allocated to democratising regimes. Today several of these countries are backsliding, including Bangladesh, Brazil, Hungary, Tanzania, Turkey, and Zambia, among others. Often, de-democratisation is disguised as an effort to...
Article
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Angola amended its constitution yet again in 2021. In official statements, it was done to “strengthen the democratic principles of rule of law and of separation of powers”, but this paper demonstrates that the opposite was achieved. In a process that was again top-own, with little or no participation of citizens or civil society and strongly critic...
Article
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Corruption becomes politicised when the spoils of corruption are used by politicians to maintain and extend their hold on power. Anti-corruption initiatives can also be politicised, meaning they face being weaponised or hijacked by political networks. Though very difficult to overcome, ‘bottom-up’ interventions from coalitions of anti-corruption pr...
Chapter
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Separatist movements have been active in the Cabinda enclave in northern Angola since independence.
Article
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Angola revisou, uma vez mais, a sua constituição, em 2021. Segundo declarações oficiais, estas revisões "fortalecem o Estado de Direito, a separação e interdependência dos órgãos de soberania", mas este documento demonstra que o resultado foi o oposto. Num processo que foi, mais uma vez, do topo para a base com pouca ou nenhuma participação dos cid...
Article
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The current Angolan government’s respect for human rights is better than the previous regime. However, according to updated human rights reports from various international NGOs and to recent news reports, human rights abuse still stakes place in Angola. [1] Some of these are carried over from the previous regime, and during the Covid-19 epidemic th...
Article
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Various separatist movements have been active in the Cabinda enclave in northern Angola since independence. During the 1970s and 80s, the FLEC guerrilla operated a low-intensity guerrilla war, at the same time as government suppression was heavy, due to the importance of Cabinda as an oil-producing province. Although never successful in gaining t...
Technical Report
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Cash transfer programmes are being created and extended in developing countries as an economic response to Covid-19. Many donors are increasing their support for these programmes. However, the scale and speed of these programmes will intensify the corruption risks, in terms of fraud and embezzlement. This also extends to political abuse, particular...
Chapter
This chapter analyses political corruption in Nigeria through the trajectory of a number of scandals and their background. It underscores the resilience of political corruption in the country, where the problem is inflated by the size of the economy (second-biggest economy in Africa), population size (roughly 200 million), and an open economy with...
Chapter
The final chapter summarises some of the findings of the previous country analyses, against the background of the conceptual pair of extractive and power-preserving political corruption. It is argued that the power-preserving form of political corruption, fed by extractive political corruption, is holding back democratic developments in Sub-Sahara...
Chapter
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This introductory chapter outlines the distinctions between, on the one hand, political and bureaucratic corruption, and, on the other hand, between extractive and power-preserving corruption. It is argued that the two distinctions are important to understand the breadth and depth of political corruption: political corruption is two interrelated pr...
Research
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The ‘Mujib’ (or Sheikh–Wazed) dynasty in Bangladesh is thriving.
Research
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What was once a fledgling lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community in the Bangladeshi capital of Dhaka is now destroyed.
Research
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Internet post: http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2018/03/06/democracy-decaying-in-bangladesh/#more-113001
Technical Report
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This brief on Malawi is part of a report series from the Evaluation Department – "Country Evaluation Briefs" (CEB) – collecting and summarising existing evaluation findings from selected Norwegian focus countries. The purpose is to make relevant, systematically collected and collated knowledge about these countries easily accessible for people that...
Article
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Magnificent and Beggar Land: Angola since the Civil War. By de Oliveira Richardo Soares . New York: Oxford University Press, 2015. 320p. $99.00, $34.95 paper. - Volume 15 Issue 1 - Book review by Inge Amundsen
Book
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This book provides a fresh and extensive discussion of corruption issues in natural resources sectors. Reflecting on recent debates in corruption research and revisiting resource curse challenges in light of political ecology approaches, this volume provides a series of nuanced and policy-relevant case studies analyzing patterns of corruption aroun...
Book
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About two decades ago, in Malawi, the issue of the numbers of women in politics was not newsworthy. Few stakeholders showed any concern about the low number of women in politics. Despite an overwhelming increase in the interest over the last years, this book notes that not much has changed on the ground. The latest elections, in 2014, exposed a maj...
Research
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This paper is the introduction chapter to the compendium on Public Sector Ethics, which is the second of three compendiums developed as a part of the institutional cooperation agreement between the Centro de Estudos e Investigação Científica (CEIC) of the Universidade Católica de Angola (UCAN) and Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI). The compendiums are...
Chapter
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Since 1996 Ghana has held four free and fair, competitive, multiparty elections, and the incumbent ruling party and president have twice stepped down peacefully as a result of the popular will as expressed in the elections. Further, the country’s institutions have never been destroyed by civil war and conflict as was the case in Angola and the DRC,...
Chapter
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All societies develop their own norms about what is fair behaviour and what is not. Violations of these norms, including acts of corruption, can collectively be described as forms of ‘grabbing’. This unique volume addresses how grabbing hinders development at the sector level and in state administration. The contributors – researchers and practitio...
Article
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The two major political parties in Bangladesh are dynastic, like other well-known parties in South Asia. Political dynasty means a prominent political family runs the party. This restricts the level of internal democracy of the parties: decision-making, including leadership selection, becomes a ‘family affair’. This is particularly problematic in B...
Chapter
“You can now buy yourself a MP nomination the same way as you buy an air ticket to Singapore: pay up and off you go!” This statement by a Bangladeshi Member of Parliament illustrates a problem in current Bangladeshi politics; public positions are for sale. People with money are progressively getting party nomination and politics is becoming a ‘rich...
Article
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This report focuses on one particular institution which may mitigate the centralisation of power in Angola and pave the way for political reform and democratisation; the Angolan national electoral commission (the Comissão Nacional Eleitoral, CNE). The study outlines the types and role of governmental electoral management bodies (EMBs), positions th...
Chapter
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The ‘resource curse’ refers to the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources, specifically petroleum resources, tend to have less economic growth and less democratic government than countries with fewer natural resources. Democratic institutionalisation is important in this. It seems that a country will be cursed only when the d...
Article
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Nigeria’s elite formation has three distinct characteristics. It is based on a fusion of elites, with the military dominating. It is consolidated through power diversification (with the conversion of political power into economic power as the most important), and it is enriched through economic extraction (where the usurpation of the country’s oil...
Article
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The constitution of Bangladesh bestows the parliament with supreme powers in making laws and approving budgets. It is given wide‐ranging authority to scrutinise the actions of the executive who remains accountable to the parliament. Notwithstanding these constitutional powers, in reality, the parliament’s performance has fallen far short of its pro...
Article
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How is Africa ruled? Better than before, according to Larry Diamond in his introduction. Of Africa's fifty-odd countries, twenty are now full-fledged "electoral democracies" and only Somalia and Swaziland have held no competitive elections (x). At the same time, many of these elections have been blatantly rigged and deeply flawed. Recently, there h...
Conference Paper
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Petroleum revenues may cause some serious corruption challenges. This paper depicts how corruption in the petroleum sector adds to the resource curse, and specifically, how corruption can undermine the institutions and practices of good governance and revenue distribution. With high levels of corruption and economic mismanagement of revenues, the g...
Conference Paper
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Petroleum revenues pose some serious corruption challenges. This paper/presentation depicts how corruption in the petroleum sector adds to the resource curse, and in particular, how corruption can undermine the institutions and practices of good governance and revenue distribution. With high levels of corruption and economic mismanagement of revenu...
Article
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Support to democracy building in developing countries increased after 1990. It is gradually seen less as a technical exercise and more as a challenging, politically sensitive area of cooperation. Norway has supported the strengthening of democratic institutions with approximately 12 billion NOK in the last ten years, and as seen in this study a rel...
Article
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The study makes recommendations for Norway’s strategic approach to governance in Nigeria based on a political economy analysis. Norad was requested to undertake the study by the Norwegian Embassy in Nigeria. Senior researcher Inge Amundsen of CMI was in charge, assisted by L. Adele Jinadu, professor of political science, University of Lagos, and se...
Article
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This report presents an analysis of the Parliament of Tanzania (which includes the Bunge in Dodoma and the House of Representatives in Zanzibar), which has only recently taken up its ‘checks and balances’ functions. The report proceeds to outline the multidonor parliament support rendered to the Tanzanian parliament, and to the parliaments of Zambi...
Technical Report
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Prefácio Foi estabelecido em 2008 um acordo de cooperação institucional formal entre o Centro de Estudos e Investigação Científica (CEIC) da Universidade Católica de Angola (UCAN) e o Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI) em Bergen, Noruega (ver: www.cmi.no/research/project/?1176=ceic-cmi-cooperation). Para além dos projectos conjuntos de investigação em...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper is an introductory chapter to a compendium on Public Sector Ethics. This is the second of three compendiums developed as a part of the institutional cooperation agreement between the Centro de Estudos e Investigação Científica (CEIC) of the Universidade Católica de Angola (UCAN) and Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI). The compendiums are pro...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper is an introduction chapter to a compendium on Public Sector Ethics. This is the second of three compendiums developed as a part of the institutional cooperation agreement between the Centro de Estudos e Investigação Científica (CEIC) of the Universidade Católica de Angola (UCAN) and Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI). The compendiums are pro...
Article
Full-text available
Private companies are spending significant resources on social projects in Angola, for the benefit of poor, for general development purposes and for positioning purposes. This study gives a background to and overview of the various “social funds” in Angola and explores the rationale for this spending, the channels and methods used and the amounts s...
Article
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Parliamentary elections will be held in Angola on 5th September 2008, as the first elections in the country since 1992. There are now 138 political parties registered in Angola, and fourteen parties (including four party coalitions) have recently been approved for the elections. This study gives a background to the upcoming parliamentary elections...
Article
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The first multiparty elections were held in Angola in 1992 as a part of the democratization and peace process. However, these elections were followed by a new breakout of the civil war, partly triggered by the results of the elections, as the opposition rebel movement-turned-party UNITA and its leader Savimbi did not accept the electoral defeat. Ma...
Article
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Political parties are indispensable for the functioning of liberal democracies. However, the political parties of many transitional and developing countries are not functioning well. This fact has led to increasing donor support to political parties. However, due to the political sensitivity of the issue, donors are not supporting political parties...
Article
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Civil society is inherently weak in Angola, and the political and societal for civil society is limited. Angolan authorities have not fully accepted civil society's voice, watchdog and control functions, and the legal framework is restrictive. Most organisations are careful in their approach to and in their contact with government. There is tangibl...
Article
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This study discerns several deficiencies in the budget process in Angola. The government's budget proposal is not publicly debated, no pre-budget paper is prepared, comparisons between budgeted expenditure and actual outcomes are not made, and audit reports are not prepared. Besides, budget execution is problematic because Angola has two parallel p...
Article
Full-text available
Civil society is inherently weak in Angola, and the political and societal space for civil society is limited. Angolan authorities have not fully accepted civil society’s voice, watchdog and control functions, and the legal framework is restrictive. Most organisations are careful in their approach to and in their contact with government. There is a...
Article
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Este estudo identifica várias deficiências no processo de orçamento em Angola. A proposta do governo não é discutida publicamente, não é preparado nenhum documento pré-orçamento, não são feitas comparações entre a despesa orçamentada e os seus resultados concretos, e não são preparados relatórios de auditoria. Além disso, a execução do orçamento é...
Technical Report
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Political leadership and commitment to fight corruption at the highest levels is one of the most important preconditions for success in the fight against corruption. However, in some cases, anti-corruption reform processes with initial national political backing and donor support have come to a halt, because of domestic political opposition to it....
Article
Full-text available
Civil society is inherently weak in Angola, and the political and societal space for civil society is limited. Angolan authorities have not fully accepted civil society’s voice, watchdog and control functions, and the legal framework is restrictive. Most organisations are careful in their approach to and in their contact with government. There is a...
Article
Full-text available
The Parliament of Angola was established and elected in 1992 in a watershed election that coincided with the peace process in Angola and the democratisation process in much of Africa. There has still been no second election, which means that this parliament is now working on a feeble legal basis. This study explores the strengths and weaknesses of...
Article
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The state formation process in Palestine started after the Oslo agreements between Israel and Palestine in 1994, which established a Palestinian quasi-state. The process came, however, to an almost complete halt with the onset of the second intifada in late 2000 and with the Israeli reoccupation of the West bank and Gaza in 2002. This chapter argue...
Chapter
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The crisis-ridden progress in Palestinian state formation since the signing of the Oslo Agreements raises important questions about reform priorities and the future prospects of constructing a viable Palestinian state. Were the obstacles to progress primarily due to poor governance and poor leadership on the Palestinian side, how far have corruptio...
Article
Full-text available
The state formation process in Palestine started after the Oslo agreements between Israel and Palestine in 1994, which established a Palestinian quasi-state. The process came, however, to an almost complete halt with the onset of the second intifada in late 2000 and definitely with the Israeli reoccupation of the West bank and Gaza in 2002. At the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
During the last decade corruption has become a topical issue in the international development policy debate. Research on corruption has also expanded rapidly, taking many different directions both within and across disciplines. This report provides an overview of contemporary research on corruption. The academic focus is on economic approaches, but...
Article
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As a comment to Nicolas van de Walle's article in this issue, ‘The Impact of Multi-Party Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa’, it is argued that a qualitative approach can be more appropriate. Quantitative analyses will largely reflect the indicators chosen and the relative weight assigned to them in the first place. Besides, statistics are weak in Afri...
Article
Full-text available
During the last decade corruption has become a topical issue in the international development policy debate. Research on corruption has also expanded rapidly, taking many different directions both within and across disciplines. This report provides an overview of contemporary research on corruption. The academic focus is on economic approaches, but...
Chapter
One of the more interesting, but also ambiguous, tendencies in Cameroon today is the restructuring of the political landscape. Instead of an extremely fragmented political system (where the political parties have a very weak social base), a more balanced system dominated by two broader coalitions is emerging.
Article
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Corruption is generally defined as the misuse of public authority, and political corruption is here defined as corruption in which the political decision-makers are involved. In addition to a review of the various definitions of corruption a classification of the various forms of corruption (bribery, embezzlement, fraud and extortion), this paper p...

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Projects

Projects (10)
Project
I am part of a research team working in and on Angola, and am collaborating with Christian Michelsen Institute (a research institute located in Bergen, Norway) and several milieus in Angola. (1) Universidade Católica de Angola (UCAN), with the following sub-units: Centro de Estudos e Investigação Cientifica (CEIC), Centro de Estudos Africanos (CEA), Laboratório de Ciências Sociais e Humanidades (LAB), (2) Instituto Superior Politécnico Jean Piaget, with the sub-unit: Centro de Estudos e Pesquisa (CEsP), (3) Universidade Nacional Agostinho Neto (UAN), specifically Faculdade de Economia (FECUAN), with the sub-unit: Centro de Investigação Social e Económica (CISE). My work is positioned at the intersection between the social sciences and the humanities. I am also responsible for three research projects/studies. The three projects look into the political economy of decentralisation: i) Local finance dynamics which also includes Gender responsive on local finance dynamics. ii) Gender perspective on local dynamics, and iii) Gender perspectives on Youth and decentralisation.
Project
Two current projects on political corruption: 1) Edited book project on political corruption in Africa, working title: Extraction and Power Preservation. 2) Research project with AMAN/TI Palestine on political corruption in Palestine.