Iman van Lelyveld

Iman van Lelyveld
De Nederlandsche Bank | DNB · Supervisory Policy

PhD

About

82
Publications
12,434
Reads
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2,365
Citations
Introduction
After a year as foreign exchange trader at Deutsche Bank, I did a PhD on monetary policy (completed 1999). Then I joined DNB in the department of Supervision. I´m a member of the BCBS Research Task Force and have chaired international research groups on stress testing and liquidity. I have held a part-time Associate Professorship and have been an advisor to the Bank of England and Norges Bank. Currently my interests are network effects in interbank markets and banks' internal capital markets.
Additional affiliations
March 2013 - September 2014
Bank for International Settlements
Position
  • Deputy Head International Data Hub

Publications

Publications (82)
Technical Report
This paper introduces a structural micro-founded dynamic stochastic network model for the unsecured interbank lending market. Banks are profit optimizing agents subject to random liquidity shocks and can engage in costly counterparty search to find suitable trading partners and peer monitoring to reduce counterparty risk uncertainty. The structural...
Article
We use data on the 48 largest multinational banking groups to compare the lending of their 199 foreign subsidiaries during the Great Recession with lending by a benchmark of 202 domestic banks. Contrary to earlier and more contained crises, parent banks were not a significant source of strength to their subsidiaries during 2008–09. When controlling...
Article
Full-text available
The financial crisis clearly illustrated the importance of characterizing the level of 'systemic' risk associated with an entire credit network, rather than with single institutions. However, the interplay between financial distress and topological changes is still poorly understood. Here we analyze the quarterly interbank exposures among Dutch ban...
Article
We use new panel data on the intra-group ownership structure and the balance sheets of 45 of the largest multinational bank holdings to analyze what determines the credit growth of their subsidiaries. We find evidence for the existence of internal capital markets through which multinational banks manage the credit growth of their subsidiaries. Mult...
Article
Full-text available
We analyse the development of foreign bank penetration in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and its influence on the stability of bank credit. We measure both cross-border credit and activities of foreign bank subsidiaries within CEE. By combining BIS statistics and BankScope data into a unique database we are able to make a clear distinction betwee...
Article
Full-text available
Crowded trades by similarly trading peers influence the dynamics of asset prices, possibly creating systemic risk. We propose a market clustering measure using granular trading data. For each stock, the clustering measure captures the degree of trading overlap among any two investors in that stock, based on a comparison with the expected crowding i...
Article
We study how pension fund (out)performance is influenced by a) a pension fund’s activity, i.e., how much the pension fund deviates in its stock allocation from typical pension fund behavior, and b) whether the pension fund is patient in exploiting investment opportunities (measured by stock holding duration). We do not find that high activity or hi...
Preprint
Crowded trades by similarly trading peers influence the dynamics of asset prices, possibly creating systemic risk. We propose a market clustering measure using granular trading data. For each stock the clustering measure captures the degree of trading overlap among any two investors in that stock. We investigate the effect of crowded trades on stoc...
Article
We introduce a dynamic network model of interbank lending and estimate the parameters by indirect inference using network statistics of the Dutch interbank market from February 2008 to April 2011. We find that credit-risk uncertainty and peer monitoring are significant factors in explaining the sparse core-periphery structure of the market and the...
Article
Full-text available
Reconstructing patterns of interconnections from partial information is one of the most important issues in the statistical physics of complex networks. A paramount example is provided by financial networks. In fact, the spreading and amplification of financial distress in capital markets is strongly affected by the interconnections among financial...
Article
Capturing financial network linkages and contagion in stress test models are important goals for banking supervisors and central banks responsible for micro- and macroprudential policy. However, granular data on financial networks is often lacking, and instead the networks must be reconstructed from partial data. In this paper, we conduct a horse r...
Article
We conduct a horse race of methods to reconstruct financial networks from partial data. The various methods are assessed using financial network data obtained from 25 different markets, across 13 different jurisdictions. Our contribution is two-fold. We conduct a cross-country panel analysis of financial networks that sheds new and robust insights...
Article
This paper shows how large data sets can be visualized in a dynamic way to support exploratory research, highlight econometric results or provide early warning information. The case studies included in this paper case are based on the payments and unsecured money market transaction data of the Dutch part of the Eurosystem’s large value payment syst...
Article
We introduce a structural dynamic network model of the formation of lending relationships in the unsecured interbank market. Banks are subject to random liquidity shocks and can form links with potential trading partners to bilaterally Nash bargain about loan conditions. To reduce credit risk uncertainty, banks can engage in costly peer monitoring...
Article
We assess the determinants of banks’ liquidity holdings using data for nearly 7000 banks from 25 OECD countries. We highlight the role of several bank-specific, institutional and policy variables in shaping banks’ liquidity risk management. Our main question is whether liquidity regulation neutralizes banks’ incentives to hold liquid assets. Withou...
Article
This paper investigates the network structure of interbank markets, which has proved to be important for financial stability during the crisis. First, we describe and map the interbank network in the Netherlands, an exception in the literature because of its small and open banking environment. Secondly, we follow recent analyses of interbank market...
Article
We analyse the effect of failing reinsurance cover on the stability of Dutch insurers. As insurers often reinsure themselves with other (re)insurers, a firm's loss could spread contagiously through the sector. Using a unique and confidential data set on reinsurance exposures, we gain insight into the reinsurance market structure and perform a scena...
Article
In the aftermath of the current crisis, banks’s claims of being diversified are met with scepticism. In this paper I apply a Value-at-Risk approach for determining the magnitude of international credit risk diversification effects in large internationally active banking groups. I use a universally applicable correlation matrix approach to calculate...
Article
In this paper we provide evidence that repudiates the popular belief that Dutch pension funds are long-term passive institutional traders; rather like active traders they trade about eight and half percent of their portfolio on monthly basis. Using a unique data sample, our results affirm significant feedback trading strategies, both momentum and c...
Article
Banking groups have become increasingly multinational but the institutional infrastructure to deal with solvency or liquidity problems is still largely national. This might lead to financial instability if national authorities do not internalise externalities abroad. Recently ex-ante burden sharing agreements have been established (e.g. EFSF), but...
Article
This study presents the empirical evidence on the evolution of home bias in Dutch pension funds (PFs) asset allocation behaviour. Using a panel data of more than 600 Dutch PFs over the period 1992-2006, we observe a significantly diminishing home bias from 37% to 13% in portfolio choice decisions of Dutch institutional investors. This abridge in ho...
Article
We test if interconnectedness in the interbank market is a channel through which banks affect each others riskiness. The evidence is based on quarterly bilateral exposures of all banks active in the Dutch interbank market between 1998 and 2008. A spatial lag model, borrowed from regional science, is used to test if z -scores of other banks affect i...
Article
Full-text available
We analyse the effect of failing reinsurance cover on the stability of Dutch insurers. As insurers often reinsure themselves with other (re)insurers, losses could spread contagiously through the sector. Using a unique and confidential data set on reinsurance exposures, we perform a scenario analysis to measure contagion risks. Based on current expo...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing the stability of the financial sector is becoming more common in many countries. This paper presents two useful approaches, applied to the Netherlands. First we discuss the results of a contagion analysis of the Dutch interbank market. We use various ways to measure linkages between banks and find that the interbank market is fairly robus...
Article
We present the application of network theory to the Dutch payment system with specific attention to systemic stability. The network nodes comprise of domestic banks, large international banks and TARGET countries, the links are established by payments between the nodes. Traditional measures (transactions, values) first show payments are relatively...
Article
There is an ongoing debate about whether firm focus creates or destroys shareholder value. Earlier literature has shown significant diversification discounts: firms that engage in multiple activities are valued lower. Various factors are important in determining the size of the discount, for example cross-subsidization and agency problems. The exis...
Article
We apply the Lakonishok, Shleifer & Vishny (1992) herding measure to a new dataset of foreign equities portfolios, covering the larger part of Dutch pension funds (in terms of invested capital). On the level of the individual equities, we find low levels of herding, in line with previous research. We find that smaller funds herd more than bigger fu...
Article
Full-text available
We examine whether foreign and domestic banks in Central and Eastern Europe react differently to business cycles and banking crises. Our panel dataset comprises data of more than 250 banks for the period 1993–2000, with information on bank ownership and mode of entry. During crisis periods domestic banks contracted their credit base, whereas greenf...
Article
We investigate interlinkages and contagion risks in the Dutch interbank market. Based on several data sources, including the answers of banks to a questionnaire, we estimate the exposures in the interbank market at bank level. Next, we perform a scenario analysis to measure contagion risks. We find that the bankruptcy of one of the large banks will...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate interlinkages and contagion risks in the Dutch interbank market. Based on several data sources, including survey data, we estimate the exposures in the interbank market at bank level. Next, we perform a scenario analysis to measure contagion risks. We find that the bankruptcy of one of the large banks will put a considerable burden o...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, several European Union member states have modified the institutional design offinancial supervision. These reforms pose the question which considerations have led to the different models chosen in these countries. We analyse the considerations in the Netherlands leading to the choice in 2002 of the twin -peaks model of financial su...
Article
Full-text available
We analyse foreign bank penetration in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and its influence on private sector credit, taking into account both cross-border credit and credit by foreign bank subsidiaries. By combining BIS and BankScope data into a unique database we make a clear distinction between these credit categories. We show that the relative im...
Article
Full-text available
Financial conglomerates, combining banking, securities trading, and insurance, have become an important part of the financial landscape in many countries. Cross-sector consolidation has been fostered by trends such as disintermediation, globalization, and deregulation creating new challenges for both the group’s management as well as for regulators...
Article
Full-text available
Sinds het begin van het transitieproces in Midden- en Oost-Europa is het belang van buitenlandse banken in de financiering van het lokale bedrijfsleven sterk toegenomen. Uit onze analyse, gebaseerd op een combinatie van BIS- en BankScopecijfers voor 11 transitielanden blijkt dat dochters van buitenlandse banken tot op heden een stabiele kredietbron...
Article
Full-text available
We study whether foreign and domestic banks in Central and Eastern Europe have reacted differently to business cycle conditions and host country banking crises. Our unique panel dataset comprises data of more than 300 banks for the period 1993-2000, with detailed information on bank ownership. Our analysis shows that during crisis periods domestic...
Article
Full-text available
Technological change, especially in information technology, has brought profound changes to services sectors like the financial sector. Two decades ago, closed-system communications methods like faxing had yet to break through. Presently the internet, with its open architecture, makes new ways of communication and production possible, changing the...
Article
We analyse foreign bank penetration in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)and its influence on private sector credit,taking into account both cross-border credit and credit by foreign bank subsidiaries. By combining BIS and BankScope data into a unique database we make a clear distinction between these credit categories.We show that the relative impor...
Article
Full-text available
The new Basel Capital Accord will result in more risk sensitive regulatory capital for banks. Likewise, financial conglomerates' internal models will become more important in group-wide supervision. Such models are relatively well developed for market and credit risk but for others, such as operational risk, many issues remain to be resolved. An ev...
Article
In the last two decades a large number of game-theoretic models describing monetary policy have been used to examine the characteristics of policies over a wide range of 'rules of the game'. Regardless of the specification of the model, the degree of inflation aversion - relative to unemployment - plays an important role. In this paper I estimate i...
Article
Full-text available
We use a unique panel dataset of banks in ten Central and Eastern European countries, comprising data of more than 300 banks for the period 1993-2000, with detailed information on bank ownership structure. We estimate the sensitivities of foreign and domestic banks' loans and deposits to changes in home and host country GDP growth as well as to hos...
Article
We investigate the influence of institutional arrangements on inflation in 18 OECD countries. The factors considered are, on the hand institutional constraints on monetary policy such as the independence of the Central Bank and commitment to fixed exchange rates and on the other political factors such as ideological and re-election motives. We find...

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