Ilze Irbe

Ilze Irbe
Latvian State institute of Wood chemistry

PhD
Mycelium biocomposites - development, properties, design. Biopolymers from natural fibers.

About

52
Publications
18,029
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506
Citations
Citations since 2016
25 Research Items
322 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220204060
20162017201820192020202120220204060
20162017201820192020202120220204060
20162017201820192020202120220204060
Introduction
Mycelium biocomposites - development, properties, design. Biopolymers from natural fibers.

Publications

Publications (52)
Article
Full-text available
In this study, novel blends of mycelium biocomposites (MB) were developed. Various combinations of birch sawdust and hemp shives with birch bark (BB) and wheat bran (WB) additives were inoculated with basidiomycete Trametes versicolor to produce self-growing biomaterials. MB were characterized according to mycelial biomass increment in final sample...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Silver birch (Betula pendula) wood chips with fine (A; < 7 mm) and coarse (B; > 7mm) fraction were used as a main substrate. Three different types of mycelium biocomposites (MB) were composed from A and B chip fractions based on the proportion of main substrate and additives with functions to (i) promote fungal growth (wheat bran, WB) and (ii) impr...
Article
Plastic waste is an ever-growing concern, causing harm to many ecological and human health aspects, one of the major contributors to this problem being packaging. Mycelium composites (MC) are ecologically safe materials, well suited for the short-life usage as packaging materials. In our study we made MC using fine and coarse granulometry hemp shiv...
Article
The present research investigated bio-based construction material based on hemp shives and gypsum. Low-density material was developed with densities of 200, 300, and 400 kg/m³. Simple yet robust production technology was used. For the first time, a binder for biocomposites obtained from phosphogypsum was used and properties were compared to commerc...
Article
Full-text available
Durability-based designs with timber require reliable information about the wood properties and how they affect its performance under variable exposure conditions. This study aimed at utilizing a material resistance model (Part 2 of this publication) based on a dose–response approach for predicting the relative decay rates in above-ground situation...
Article
Full-text available
Service life planning with timber requires reliable models for quantifying the effects of exposure-related parameters and the material-inherent resistance of wood against biotic agents. The Meyer-Veltrup model was the first attempt to account for inherent protective properties and the wetting ability of wood to quantify resistance of wood in a quan...
Article
This study investigated the effect of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin treatment on the dimensional stability of birch solid wood and plywood. Therefore, three different low molecular weight PF resins with average molecular weights ( M w ) of 292, 528, and 884 g/mol were synthesized and used for silver birch ( Betula pendula ) solid wood (20 × 20 × 2...
Article
Full-text available
In this study unique blended biopolymer mycocel from naturally derived biomass was developed. Softwood Kraft (KF) or hemp (HF) cellulose fibers were mixed with fungal fibers (FF) in different ratios and the obtained materials were characterized regarding microstructure, air permeability, mechanical properties, and virus filtration efficiency. The f...
Article
Full-text available
Novel biobased materials from fungal hyphae and cellulose fibers have been proposed to address the increasing demand for natural materials in personal protective equipment (PPE). Materials containing commercially available kraft fibers (KF), laboratory-made highly fibrillated hemp fibers (HF) and fungal fibers (FF) obtained from fruiting bodies of...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, two single wood treatments—copper impregnation (I) with thermo-hydro treatment (T) and vice versa—were combined to determine the effectiveness against wood decay fungi. Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood and birch (Betula spp.) boards were treated accordingly, then cut into small-size specimens and exposed to brown rot (Coniophora pu...
Article
Full-text available
Novel mycelium-based biocomposites (MBB) were obtained from local agricultural (hemp shives) and forestry (wood chips) by-products which were bounded together with natural growth of fungal mycelium. As a result, hemp mycocomposites (HMC) and wood mycocomposites (WMC) were manufactured. Mechanical, water absorption and biodegradation properties of M...
Article
Full-text available
Due to environmental concerns the use of wood materials is becoming more extensive and is causing wood supply shortage, therefore the use of Populus genus wood species with a short rotation period is vital. Populus genus species wood has several shortcomings-it is not durable, has low density and is hygroscopic. Thermal modification is a technology...
Article
Full-text available
Thermally modified birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneers that had been subjected to wood treatment technology (WTT) or thermo vacuum (TV) processes were compared in this study. After modification of veneers in the range of temperatures from 160 °C to 218 °C and times from 0.5 h to 3 h, the color, mass loss, density, tensile strength, hygroscopicity,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sustainable composites that use renewable materials and provide better end-of-life options are of great interest to industry. This paper describes study of novel biocomposite material which consists of agricultural waste as wood chips and hemp shives that are bounded together with fungal mycelium matrix and grows in and around substrate. In this st...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Integration of heritage buildings and sites in their surroundings • Public Report Coordinator: Christian Degrigny Contributors: Alice Tavares, Paola Borgarino, Shirley Cefai, José Eloy Hortal Muñoz, Ilze Irbe, Maria Leus, Shu-Ling Lu, Anna Lobovikov-Katz, Marko Marinkovic, João Martins, Luisa Migliorati, Massimo Migliorini, Petros Patias, Veronika...
Article
In this study, Silver birch ( Betulapendula ) wood veneers and solid wood blocks were treated with commercial phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin water solutions. Birch veneers and solid wood blocks of different size were impregnated with PF resin solutions in water with concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 wt%. The weight percent gain (WPG) and bulking afte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, antifungal properties of an organoclay additive were investigated. Two types of organoclay (red and white) were tested in Petri dishes to determine their toxicity against the brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana and the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Red organoclay was more efficient than the white one and, depending on the fun...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, Silver birch (Betula pendula spp.) wood veneers and solid wood blocks were treated with commercial phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin water solutions. Birch veneers and solid wood blocks of different size were impregnated with PF resin solutions in water with concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 wt%. The weight percent gain (WPG) and bulking a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The fungal and moisture resistance of natural, painted, laminated and impregnated plywood panels in 24 months outdoor exposure was evaluated. The best biological and hydrophobic performance demonstrated laminated surfaces and paints with UV absorbents. Impregnation with copper containing preparations ensured short term protection against fungal dis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wheat straw pellets are hydrophilic and after short term storage at humid atmosphere they were rapidly colonized by moulds and decreased their hardness. Microwave treatment significantly decreased hydrophilicity of wheat straw pellets and increased their bio-resistance against moulds.
Article
Full-text available
Thermo-hydro treatment (THT) of plywood produced from birch (Betula spp.) wood veneers was carried out in a multi-functional pilot device manufactured by WTT (Wood Treatment Technology). The treatment was conducted in elevated water vapour pressure conditions using four different treatment regimes: 150/10, 150/50, 160/10 and 160/50 (temperature, °C...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of thermo-hydro treatment (THT) on the properties of birch (Betula spp.) wood veneers has been studied. THT was carried out in a multi-functional pilot scale wood modification device of wood treatment technology (WTT, Latvia) under elevated water vapor pressure conditions at four combinations of temperature and treatment time (°C/min): 1...
Article
Full-text available
A study of self-binding fibreboards pressed without synthetic adhesives is reported. The board samples of steam-exploded grey alder (Alnus incana L. Moench) particles hot-pressed under a variety of conditions including moisture content of the mat (8% and 12%), temperature (150°C, 160°C, 170°C and 180°C) and pressure (0.2–8 MPa) are tested for moist...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal modification (TM) of wood has occupied a relatively narrow but stable niche as an alternative for chemical wood protection. There are different technological solutions for TM and not all details of their effects on wood tissue have been understood. The one-stage hydrothermal modification (HTM) at elevated vapour pressure essentially changes...
Article
Full-text available
Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) is an economically important tree species, targeted for tree breeding programs and also used in afforestation of former agricultural lands. To achieve the highest revenue while selecting clones for plantations, it is important to analyze not only growth traits, but also wood and tracheid properties. Nine 31-ye...
Article
Full-text available
In submerged-(SF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) of wheat bran (WB) substrate, the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana produced high levels of endoglucanase, xylanase and filter paper activity (FPA) but neither laccase nor manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) activity was detected. SF favored the accumulation of endoglucanase (3.2 U ml À1), xyl...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Micropropagated hybrid aspen clones ( Populus tremuloides Michx. × Populus tremula L.) and a plus-tree (superior phenotypes selected) aspen ( Populus tremula L.) were grown under similar conditions in the central part of Latvia. After cutting at the age of 12 years, 64 sample trees were examined. The dimensions of the vessels and the cont...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate enzymatic activity and biodegradation capacity of treated wood by three brown rot fungi. For measurement of enzymatic activity, the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana, Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum were grown in solid state fermentation of wheat bran-containing medium. The highest enzymatic activi...
Article
Full-text available
Wood anatomical properties of 27-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) (n = 32) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm) (n = 19) sample trees grown in Latvia were investigated. Stem diameters, growth rings, and dimensions of 150 earlywood (EW) and 150 latewood (LW) tracheids per sample tree were measured. Lodgepole pine...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A round robin involving 15 European participants was set up in 2006. The round robin consists of both a field test according to the double layer test method and a laboratory test with two different preconditioning methods. When comparing EN 84 preconditioning (two weeks water leaching) with natural preconditioning (1 year in field, above ground) ac...
Article
Full-text available
The white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown-rot fungi Coniophora puteana , Gloeophyllum trabeum , and Postia placenta have a potential to produce a range of hydro-lytic enzymes participating in the degradation of lignocellu-losic materials. In the colonization of untreated and thermally modifi ed wood blocks wheat bran-containing medium (WBA...
Article
Full-text available
The study was focused mainly on the biodeterioration of the external wood of the Latvian Ethnographic Open-Air Museum, Riga (1924), and the sacral wooden buildings in Eastern Latvia (Latgale). The inspected wooden structures included windows, stairs, walls, roofs, fences, benches etc. Roofs, walls and fences were the most commonly decayed outdoor s...
Article
Full-text available
Eleven corticoid and three poroid fungi have been isolated from Latvian cultural monuments and evaluated for their potential to produce wood-degrading enzymes. In submerged fermentation of mandarin peels, notable intergeneric and intrageneric differences were revealed with regard to the extent of hydrolase and oxidase activity. The xylanase activit...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the relationship between the properties of the wood and kraft pulp fibers as well as paper characteristics of 27-year-old trees, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), was assessed. All trees had been grown in Latvia, within the same forest type, Myrtillosa. Wood density, year ring width, chemical composit...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic variation of ten Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) clones regarding their decay resistance against brown rot fungi, as well as physical and chemical properties of clones were investigated. 31-years-old spruce clones: 26, 31, A10, A15, A7, B10, B15, B6, V7, V9 were selected across Latvia. The stem diameters of spruce clones varied betw...
Article
Full-text available
Pinewood was modified by vacuum impregnation with various aqueous lignin solutions of low concentration (0.5-1.0%) and its decay resistance was tested by the standard procedure EN 113. Five lignin types were tested against three brown rot and one white rot fungi. The bio-durability of wood was considerably increased by the treatment. The highest ef...
Article
Full-text available
In our study, early period degradation (10 days) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood by the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana (Schum.: Fr.) Karst. (BAM Ebw.15) was followed at the wood chemical composition and ultrastructure-level, and highlighted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An advanced decay period of 50 days was cho...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The frequency and diversity of wood inhabiting fungi in the exterior wood were established in the Araishi lake fortress, the Lielvarde wooden castle, the Latvian Ethnographic Open-Air Museum, Riga, and twelve wooden heritage objects in the Eastern part of Latvia (Latgale). The inspected wooden structures of the external woodwork included windows, s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During a period of 12 years (1996 – 2007), a total of 300 private and public buildings as well as more than 20 cultural monuments had been inspected in Latvia regarding the damage by wood decay basidiomycetes. The culture heritage sites included castles, manors, churches and old buildings. The total number of fungal occurrences in wooden constructi...
Article
Hot water extraction of pine wood was carried out after 10 days of exposure to brown-rot fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coniophora puteana and Poria placenta) and a white-rot fungus (Coriolus versicolor). The microstructure of the wood cell wall was analysed by the water vapour sorption method. The content and composition of monosaccharides in the ex...
Chapter
Pine wood samples were impregnated with fast pyrolysis liquid to study the fungicide and sorption effects. Three fungi were selected: Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta, and Lentinus lepideus. Impregnation was performed according to EN 113, and ageing procedures such as leaching and evaporation according to EN 84 and EN 73, respectively. The treate...
Article
Full-text available
During a period of 12 years (1996 – 2007), a total of 300 private and public buildings as well as more than 20 cultural monuments had been inspected in Latvia regarding the damage by wood decay basidiomycetes. The culture heritage sites included castles, manors, churches and old buildings. The total number of fungal occurrences in wooden constructi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research on the biodeterioration of the cultural heritage in the Republic of Macedonia was conducted from 2004 to 2006, one month per year. The expertise was focused on the biodeterioration caused by wood-inhabiting fungi and moulds. A total of 38 cultural monuments, including 37 monasteries and churches and one fortress, were inspected in the area...
Article
Full-text available
Brown rotted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood was studied using scanning UV microspectrophotometry. Wood blocks were exposed to the fungus Coniophora puteana (Schum.: Fr.) Karst. (BAM Ebw.15) for 6, 8, 10, 30, and 50 days. No wood weight loss was detected in the initial decay periods. On the other hand, point analyses of lignin distribution in...
Article
Full-text available
The dynamics of the biodegradation of wood by brown-rot fungi (Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta, and Gloephyllum trabeum) was investigated by the water vapour sorption method. The change in wood microstructure characteristics (specific surface and concentration of surface hydrophilic centres) with increasing exposure time correlated with reductio...
Article
Full-text available
Pine sapwood blocks were exposed to brown-rot fungi Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana for 1, 2, 3, and 4 months. Ion exchange chromatography method was used to determine the changes in sugar content during brown-rot decay. The most remarkable feature was the preferred degradation of mannose both by P. placenta (80.9% weight loss) and C. putean...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Energy-coupling sites in the electron transport chain of the obligately fermentative aerotolerant bacterium Zymomonas mobilis were examined. The H+ /O stoichiometry of the electron transport chain in intact bacteria oxidizing ethanol was close to 3.3. Cytoplasmic membrane vesicles coupled NADH oxidation to ATP synthesis. With ascorbate/phe...
Article
To define the decomposition patterns of wood cell wall, three economically important brown-rot fungi, Coniophora puteana, Postia placenta, and Gloeophyllum trabeum were studied. Degraded Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood blocks were analysed using 13C NMR spectroscopy, chemical, and water vapor sorption methods. C. puteana caused the most wo...
Conference Paper
Wood protection against biodegradation is very attractive and economic. Wood and its components were treated with different Cr and Cu compounds at different pH values (1.8 9.5). The sorption of Cr compounds from acid solutions increased essentially in the order: cellulose holocellulose wood lignin. In this case, the sorption the chromium by lignin...

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Projects (7)
Project
The scientific aim of EcBioMa is to develop technology and prototypes of ecological and biodegradable materials from natural fibres with functional biopolymer additives, including development of biopolymer extraction method from alternative geographic location independent source and development of mycelium-based fibre material technology and prototype.