Ilias Cagiannos

Ilias Cagiannos
The Ottawa Hospital · Division of Urology

About

190
Publications
9,318
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3,876
Citations
Citations since 2017
53 Research Items
1538 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250

Publications

Publications (190)
Article
Introduction: Patients with advanced bladder cancer receiving chemotherapy have a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE); however, we hypothesized these patients are not routinely offered thromboprophylaxis. The objective of this study was to characterize practice patterns and perceptions of Canadian urologic and medical oncologists, and to ide...
Article
Introduction There is limited evidence to inform thromboprophylaxis use for patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to surgery in bladder cancer. We sought to determine the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy and cystectomy. We also assessed if the Khorana score was associated with VTE...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To describe patterns of practice of PSA testing and imaging for Ontario men receiving continuous ADT for the treatment of non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC). Patients and methods: This was a retrospective, longitudinal, population-based study of administrative health data from 2008 to 2019. Men 65 years and...
Article
Background: Management of advanced prostate cancer has evolved rapidly with the availability of multiple systemic treatments such as androgen-receptor axis-targeted therapies (ARATs), taxane-based chemotherapy, radium-223, and other approaches. However, limited data exists on real-world treatment selection and clinical outcomes. This study examine...
Article
53 Background: To describe patterns of practice of PSA testing and imaging for Ontario men receiving continuous androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for the treatment of non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC). Methods: This was a retrospective, longitudinal, population-based study of administrative health data from 2008 to 2019....
Article
Introduction: Despite the proven benefit of adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for patients receiving primary radiation, there are few studies evaluating adjuvant ADT after prostatectomy. In the absence of evidence, opinions and practice patterns vary. We surveyed Canadian prostate cancer surgeons about their use of adjuvant ADT and their...
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite the wealth of evidence demonstrating the efficacy of treatment intensification beyond androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) among patients with de novo metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC), little is known of its real-world utilization. This study examined the real-world uptake of ADT treatment intensification amo...
Article
Background Peri-operative thromboprophylaxis guidelines offer conflicting recommendations on when to start thromboprophylaxis. As a result, there is significant variation in clinical practice which may lead to worse patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the start time of peri-operative thromboprophyla...
Article
Introduction: Infections are common after radical cystectomy. The objective of this study was to determine the association between antimicrobial prophylactic regimen and infection after radical cystectomy. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on patients who underwent radical cystectomy at one tertiary Canadian center between Janu...
Article
Introduction: This quality improvement study examined if a video-based resource could reduce delayed discharges after robotic prostatectomy while maintaining high levels of patient satisfaction. Methods: From April 2018 to February 2020, all patients undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) were asked to complete an anonymous sur...
Article
Introduction: Rapid progress in diagnostics and therapeutics for the management of prostate cancer (PCa) have created areas where high-level evidence to guide practice is lacking. The Genitourinary Research Consortium (GURC) conducted its second Canadian consensus forum to address areas of controversy in the management of PCa and provide recommend...
Article
Full-text available
De novo cases of metastatic prostate cancer (mCSPC) are associated with poorer prognosis. To assist in clinical decision-making, we aimed to determine the prognostic utility of commonly available laboratory-based markers with overall survival (OS). In a retrospective population-based study, a cohort of 3556 men aged ≥66 years diagnosed with de novo...
Article
Introduction: Oncologic, urinary, and sexual outcomes are important to patients receiving prostate cancer surgery. The objective of this study was to determine if providing surgical report cards (SuRep) to surgeons resulted in improved patient outcomes. Methods: A prospective before-and-after study was conducted at The Ottawa Hospital. 422 conse...
Article
Introduction: Previous reports indicate urologic surgeries are associated with high rates of hospital re-admission. This study aims to identify factors associated with emergency room (ER) encounters following urologic outpatient surgery. Methods: All outpatient surgeries performed at The Ottawa Hospital between April 1, 2008, and March 31, 2018...
Article
50 Background: Significant developments in the standard of care for patients with de novo metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) have been reported over the past decade. Treatment intensification with systemic therapies in addition to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone is guideline recommended for most patients. We studied th...
Article
47 Background: Docetaxel was the first agent, when added to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), to demonstrate a survival benefit in men with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). It remains an important guideline recommendation approach in these men. However, real-world experience among patients with de novo metastatic disease i...
Article
149 Background: Despite significant advancements in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, a validated prognostic tool for patients with de novo metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) is still lacking. Using population-based data from Ontario, Canada, we sought to examine the prognostic association between common laboratory t...
Article
Introduction: Approximately 50% of patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer are treated with radical prostatectomy. While some men will be cured with surgery alone, a substantial proportion will experience cancer recurrence. Androgen-directed therapy (ADT) is an effective adjuvant therapy for patients treated with prostate radiation. Comparati...
Article
Background: Surgeons induce renal hypothermia during partial nephrectomy to preserve kidney function, without strong evidence of benefit. This trial examined the effectiveness and safety of renal hypothermia during partial nephrectomy. Methods: We conducted a parallel randomized controlled trial of hypothermia versus no hypothermia (control grou...
Article
Background: There is inadequate high-quality evidence on thromboprophylaxis for patients undergoing surgery for abdominopelvic cancer. We surveyed physicians who treat patients with abdominopelvic cancer to determine current thromboprophylaxis practice patterns and to determine where research is needed. Methods: We created an online survey with...
Article
Full-text available
Background: When used during surgery, antifibrinolytic hemostatic agents such as lysine analogues are effective at reducing blood loss and the need for transfusions. Despite proven efficacy, use of hemostatic agents remains low during some surgeries. Our objective was to explore surgeon opinions about, and use of lysine analogues in, oncologic sur...
Article
Introduction: Shared decision-making incorporates patient's values and preferences to achieve high-quality decisions. The objective of this study was to develop an acceptable patient decision aid to facilitate shared decision-making for the management of small renal masses (SRMs). Methods: The International Patient Decision Aids Standards were u...
Article
Purpose Our institution implemented a novel intervention bundle to reduce incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) for patients undergoing radical cystectomy. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the bundle in reducing incisional SSIs post-cystectomy. Material and methods A before-after cohort study was performed o...
Article
Introduction: Patient decision aids are structured clinical tools that facilitate shared decision-making. In urology, the decision between partial and radical nephrectomy for a renal mass can be difficult. We sought to develop and evaluate a decision aid for patients with a localized renal mass considering surgery. This paper describes the develop...
Article
Background: Thromboprophylaxis aims to reduce venous thromboembolism but has the potential to increase bleeding. We sought to evaluate the risk of venous thromboembolism and transfusion after major abdominopelvic procedures and to quantify the association of the procedure with venous thromboembolism. Methods: The American College of Surgeons' Na...
Article
Purpose: The choice of urinary diversion at the time of cystectomy is a life-altering decision. Patient decision aids (PtDA) are clinical tools that promote shared decision-making by providing information about management options and by helping patients communicate their values. We sought to develop and evaluate a PtDA for individuals undergoing c...
Article
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Introduction: Partial nephrectomy is a standard of care for non-metastatic renal tumours when technically feasible. Despite the increased use of partial nephrectomy, intraoperative techniques that lead to optimal renal function after surgery have not been rigorously studied. Clamping of the renal hilum to prevent bleeding during resection causes t...
Article
Introduction: Data from a randomized trial suggest transfusion rates are similar for robotic and open prostatectomy. The objective of this study was to compare perioperative outcomes of robotic and open prostatectomy at a Canadian academic centre. Methods: A retrospective review of all prostatectomies performed by all surgeons at The Ottawa Hosp...
Article
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Background: The goal of radical prostatectomy is to achieve the optimal balance between complete cancer removal and preserving a patient's urinary and sexual function. Performing a wider excision of peri-prostatic tissue helps achieve negative surgical margins, but can compromise urinary and sexual function. Alternatively, sparing peri-prostatic t...
Article
Introduction: Surgical site infections (SSI) are common after radical cystectomy. The objectives of this study were to evaluate if female sex is associated with postoperative SSI and if experiencing an SSI was associated with subsequent adverse events. Methods: This was a historical cohort study of radical cystectomy patients from the American C...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: We aimed to report the clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate in men undergoing magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound (MRI-TRUS)-cognitive fusion (CF) targeted biopsies stratified by the Prostate Imaging and Data Reporting System (PI-RADS) version 2 (v2) scores. Methods: With a quality assurance wai...
Article
Introduction: Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is associated with high recurrence and mortality rates. The role of radiotherapy as an adjunct to radical cystectomy is not well-defined. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiotherapy preoperatively or postoperatively for patients with MIBC receiving cystectomy compared to cystect...
Article
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Background Radical cystectomy for bladder cancer is associated with a high risk of needing red blood cell transfusion. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during cardiac and orthopedic surgery, but no study has yet evaluated tranexamic acid use during cystectomy. MethodsA randomized, double-blind (surgeon-, anesthesiologist-, patient-, data-monitor-...
Article
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Background: Canadian guidelines recommend against population-based screening for prostate cancer because of the risk of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We sought to assess whether a higher proportion of patients receiving surgery had clinically significant cancer over time. Methods: All hospitals in Eastern Ontario that perform prostatectomy pa...
Article
Introduction: Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) accounts for 5% of all urothelial tumours. Due to its rarity, evidence regarding postoperative surveillance is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop a post-radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) surveillance protocol based on recurrence patterns in a large, multi-institutional cohort of...
Article
Introduction: More elderly patients are presenting for surgical consultation. Understanding the risk of mortality by age group after urological surgery is important for patient selection and counselling. Methods: A historical cohort study of The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from 2006...
Article
Introduction: An orthotopic neobladder urinary diversion aims to minimize the physical and psychological effects of radical cystectomy through avoidance of a stoma and maintenance of urethral voiding. Neobladder function reported in the literature ranges widely due to differences in patient selection and method of assessment. The objective of the...
Article
Introduction: There is concern that surgical quality initially declines during the learning phase of robotic surgery. At our institution, we used a multi-surgeon programmatic approach to the introduction of robotic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes of patients treated during the first year of our program. Methods: This...
Article
Introduction: Active surveillance is a strategy to delay or prevent treatment of indolent prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) criteria were developed to select patients for prostate cancer active surveillance. The objective of this study was to compare pathological findings from PRIAS-eligible a...
Article
An in-person multidisciplinary continuing medical education (CME) program was designed to address previously identified knowledge gaps regarding quality indicators of care in kidney cancer. The objective of this study was to develop a CME program and determine if the program was effective for improving participant knowledge. CME programs for clinic...
Article
Introduction: We aimed to determine how renal tumour scoring systems, such as RENAL, PADUA, and Centrality (C)-index, compare to clinical judgement at predicting time required for tumour removal and kidney reconstruction during partial nephrectomy. Methods: A consecutive cohort of partial nephrectomy patients treated at The Ottawa Hospital, a te...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Our objective was to summarize published data on associations between cavernosal neurovascular bundle preservation (nerve spare) and positive surgical margins, erectile function, urinary function, and other patient reported outcomes. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search of Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Reviews databases...
Article
Lysine analogues are effective agents used for the reduction of blood loss and transfusion. However, the safety of lysine analogues in cancer patients remains in question due to a potential risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The objective of our review is to investigate safety and efficacy of lysine analogue administration in the patients with c...
Article
Purpose: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the leading cause of noncancer death following major cancer surgery. Current thromboprophylaxis guidelines do not address procedure-specific risk of venous thromboembolism for urological patients. This project was created to determine the risk and timing of VTE after major urological surgery and to evaluate...
Article
Introduction: Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC) is a high-grade variant of conventional urothelial cell carcinoma. This study is the first to describe the imaging findings of PUC, which are previously unreported, using clinical and histopathological correlation. Methods: With internal review board approval, we identified 22 consecutive pat...
Article
Introduction: In this study we determined self-perceived knowledge gaps and continuing medical education preferences among Canadian urologists and medical oncologists related to the treatment of patients with kidney cancer. Methods: A needs assessment survey was created by the Quality Initiative group of the Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada...
Article
Full-text available
p> Introduction: We sought to evaluate the accuracy of prostate volume estimates in patients who received both a preoperative transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to the referent pathological specimen post-radical prostatectomy. Methods: Patients receiving both TRUS and MRI prior to radical prostatectomy a...
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In their paper, Taussky et al compare the rates of biochemical recurrence and salvage treatment between patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with permanent seed prostate brachytherapy or radical prostatectomy from 2005–2011. The primary endpoint was biochemical recurrence or salvage therapy at 48 +/− 4 months after local...
Conference Paper
Introduction and Objectives: It is estimated that over 1,050 men in Canada will be diagnosed with testicular cancer this year. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) remains an important surgical treatment for patients with low-stage testicular cancer. This study evaluated the timing and frequency of complications postoperatively following R...
Article
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p> Background: Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) are similar procedures and some surgeons may counsel both patients groups the same regarding peri-operative risks. The objective of this study is to compare complications following LRN and LNU. Patients and methods: A historical cohort of patients who r...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent guidelines recommend against routine screening for prostate cancer, partly because of the risks associated with overtreatment of clinically indolent tumours. We aimed to determine the proportion of patients whose low-grade prostate cancer was managed by active surveillance instead of immediate treatment. Methods: We reviewed d...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The impact of nerve-sparing on positive surgical margins during radical prostatectomy (RP) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of positive surgical margins with a wide resection compared to a nerve-sparing technique. Methods: A consecutive, single-surgeon patient cohort treated between August...
Article
Anterior prostate cancer (APC) is defined as a tumour in which more than half of malignant tissue is located anterior to the urethra. APCs are increasingly recognized as clinically important, particularly in patients undergoing active surveillance and for patients with negative non-targeted systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies b...
Article
Objective: To determine if repeating a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in men with an elevated PSA level is associated with a decreased risk of prostate biopsy and cancer diagnosis. Patients and methods: A cohort of patients referred to the Ottawa Regional Prostate Cancer Assessment Clinic from April 1, 2008, through May 31, 2013, who had r...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to present a contemporary review of the imaging appearance of diseases which affect the deeper layers of the urinary bladder, including both suburothelial and extrinsic pathologies, using radiologic-pathologic correlation. Compared to the more common urothelial lesions, at cystoscopy, suburothelial and extrinsic disea...
Article
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The proportion of patients with stage 1 renal tumours receiving partial nephrectomy is considered a quality of care indicator. The objective of this study was to characterize surgical practice patterns at Canadian academic institutions for the treatment of these tumours. The Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System (CKCis) is a multicentre collabo...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluate the associations between 3 renal tumour scoring systems and their components with perioperative complications of partial nephrectomy. A consecutive cohort of partial nephrectomy patients was analyzed. Patient characteristics were abstracted from medical records. PADUA scores (preoperative aspects and dimensions used for anatomic classif...
Article
Radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) must include some form of distal ureter management to avoid high rates of tumour recurrence. It is uncertain which distal ureter management technique has the best oncologic outcomes. To determine which distal ureter management technique resulted in the lowest tumour recurrence r...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To characterize the frequency and timing of complications following radical cystectomy in a cohort of patients treated at community and academic hospitals. Patients and Methods Radical cystectomy patients captured from NSQIP hospitals from January 1 2006 to December 31 2012 were included. Baseline information and complications were abstr...
Article
Purpose A positive surgical margin (SM) during radical prostatectomy (RP) increases risk of biochemical recurrence. We evaluated the effect of nerve-sparing procedures on risk of positive SM for pT2- and pT3-category tumors. We hypothesized that nerve sparing would increase rates of pT2 positive margins. Methods We evaluated a historical cohort of...
Article
Pelvic vasculature is complex and inconsistent while pelvic bones impede access to pelvic organs. These anatomic characteristics render pelvic surgery inherently difficult and some of these procedures are frequently associated with blood loss that necessitates blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the use of lysin...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: We review a subset of men who had discordant prostate biopsy sums and were treated with radical prostatectomy. Methods: Consecutive patients treated with radical prostatectomy at The Ottawa Hospital between 2000 and 2012 were reviewed. Those with at least 1 prostate biopsy core of Gleason sum ≥8 and at least 1 prostate biopsy core...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Cavernosal neurovascular preservation decreases risk of post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. However, the impact of nerve sparing on oncologic outcomes is controversial. The objective of this study was to summarize the published data on associations between nerve spare and positive surgical margin (PSM). METHODS: A s...
Article
Objective: To evaluate risk factors for bladder cancer recurrence in a cohort of patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Patients and methods: At 10 Canadian University Centers, we retrospectively evaluated data, between 1990 and 2010, from 743 patients who were free from bladder cancer and were previously treated with RNU for up...
Article
Objective To evaluate risk factors for bladder cancer recurrence in a cohort of patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Patients and methods At 10 Canadian University Centers, we retrospectively evaluated data, between 1990 and 2010, from 743 patients who were free from bladder cancer and were previously treated with RNU for upper...
Article
To evaluate the impact of concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS) on upstaging and outcome of patients treated with radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection. We collected and pooled a database of 1,968 patients who have undergone radical cystectomy between 1998 and 2008 in eight academic centers across Canada. Collected variables included p...