Ilan Yaniv

Ilan Yaniv
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | HUJI · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

46
Publications
29,740
Reads
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4,001
Citations
Citations since 2016
7 Research Items
1684 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
Introduction
Ilan Yaniv currently works at the Department of Psychology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. His research involves a cognitive and social approaches to the study of Advice taking (the use of the "wisdom of few" to make decisions) and advice giving and taking under conflict of interests.
Additional affiliations
October 2014 - present
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
We investigate individual decisions that produce gains for oneself, while imposing losses on a group of others. We theorize, based on the notion of empathy, that decision-makers consider the magnitude of the pain or loss they inflict on an individual in the group, but are largely insensitive to the number of individuals in the group who suffer loss...
Article
Advisors face a conflict of interest when their interests and those of the recipients of their advice are misaligned. Conflicted advisors need to resolve the tension between two competing motives, the need to provide sincere advice that fulfills the recipient's goals and the temptation to give advice that caters to their self-interest. We theorized...
Article
Objective ADHD is linked to increased engagement in risky behavior (ERB). Recent work suggests that this link is mediated by the perceived benefits of the behaviors, but not by the perceived risks or the attitudes toward the risks. Here we examine this hypothesis, using the psychological risk-return and psychometric multidimensional measurement mod...
Article
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Objective: ADHD has been linked to higher engagement in risky behaviors in circumscribed domains such as dangerous driving, substance abuse, and gambling. This study tests whether ADHD is associated with a pervasive tendency to engage in risky behavior across a spectrum of activities and domains, and whether this tendency is driven by comorbid diso...
Article
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Much research shows that judgmental estimation could be improved by combining estimates from independent judges as well as within judges. These results have been obtained mostly with judgments about matters of fact, that is, for which there are objective truth criteria. In the present research, we extend these findings to performance evaluations. I...
Article
Full-text available
Decision makers can often improve the accuracy of their judgments on factual matters by consulting “crowds” of others for their respective opinions. In this article, we investigate whether decision makers could similarly draw on crowds to improve the accuracy of their judgments about their own tastes and hedonic experiences. We present a theoretica...
Article
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Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often assumed to be associated with increased engagement in risk-taking behaviors. The current study sought to understand the mental processes underlying this association using a theory-driven behavioral economics perspective. Psychological risk-return models suggest that risk and benefit are i...
Article
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The usual purpose of negotiations is to explore options and reach an agreement, if possible. We investigated a notable exception to this generalization, where a party negotiates without any intention of reaching an agreement. False negotiation occurs when a party gains more by stalling the negotiations until an external change takes place that impr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We performed controlled experiments of human participants in a continuous sequence of ad auctions, similar to those used by Internet companies. The goal of the research was to understand users' strategies in making bids. We studied the behavior under two auction types: (1) the Generalized Second-Price (GSP) auction and (2) the Vickrey--Clarke--Grov...
Article
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Although decision makers often consult other people's opinions to improve their decisions, they fail to do so optimally. One main obstacle to incorporating others' opinions efficiently is one's own opinion. We theorize that decision makers could improve their performance by suspending their own judgment. In three studies, participants used others'...
Article
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We investigated how perspective-taking might be used to overcome bias and improve advice-based judgments. Decision makers often tend to underweight the opinions of others relative to their own, and thus fail to exploit the wisdom of others. We tested the idea that decision makers taking the perspective of another person engage a less egocentric mod...
Article
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The construction of social preferences often requires one to reconcile various social motives, such as concern with unfavorable inequality and maximization of social welfare. We propose a novel theory whereby people's level of agency influences the relative intensities of their social motives, and thus their social preferences. Agency in this conte...
Article
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The term social preference refers to decision makers' satisfaction with their own outcomes and those attained by comparable others. The present research was inspired by what appears to be a discrepancy in the literature on social preferences--specifically, between a class of studies demonstrating people's concern with inequality and others document...
Article
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People routinely consider the opinions of others prior to making decisions on matters of taste (e.g., a restaurant or movie). Our theoretical framework highlights the role of two sources, social (majority) influence and similarityamong advisors, in such decisions. We suggest that individuals’ use of these sources depends on their taste discriminati...
Article
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Do groups make better judgments and decisions than individuals? We tested the hypothesis that the advantage of groups over individuals in decision-making depends on the group composition. Our study used susceptibility to the framing effect as a measure of decision quality. Individuals were assigned to one of two perspectives on a choice problem. Th...
Article
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In the interest of improving their decision making, individuals revise their opinions on the basis of samples of opinions obtained from others. However, such a revision process may lead decision makers to experience greater confidence in their less accurate judgments. The authors theorize that people tend to underestimate the informative value of i...
Article
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People’s 90% subjective confidence intervals typically contain the true value about 50% of the time, indicating extreme overconfidence. Previous results have been mixed regarding whether experts are as overconfident as novices. Experiment 1 examined interval estimates from information technology (IT) professionals and UC San Diego (UCSD) students a...
Article
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A central issue in theories of social justice is the potential conflict between equality and efficiency in the distribution of resources. We suggest here that resource priority is a key factor that moderates the perceived fairness of equality/efficiency compromises in resource allocation. Participants were presented with scenarios involving a polic...
Article
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How might people revise their opinions on the basis of multiple pieces of advice? What sort of gains could be obtained from rules for using advice? In the present studies judges first provided their initial estimates for a series of questions; next they were presented with several (2, 4, or 8) opinions from an ecological pool of advisory estimates...
Article
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The purpose of the study is to explore, in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the influence of framing a decision task as inclusion or exclusion on Israeli-Jewish respondents' support for the concession of Jewish settlements in the West Bank and Gaza. Respondents received a list of 40 Jewish settlements. Details such as the number of...
Article
Full-text available
In daily decision making, people often solicit one another's opinions in the hope of improving their own judgment. According to both theory and empirical results, integrating even a few opinions is beneficial, with the accuracy gains diminishing as the bias of the judges or the correlation between their opinions increases. Decision makers using int...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advancement in genetics testing for late-onset diseases raises fundamental decision dilemmas. The first study surveyed people’s willingness to undergo predictive testing to find out about their own predisposition for certain incurable, late-onset diseases. The second study investigated the respondents’ willingness to be tested as a function...
Article
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We present two studies that evaluate how people combine advice and how they respond to outlying opinions. In a preliminary study, we found that individuals use discounting strategies when they encounter an extreme opinion in a small sample of opinions taken only once (a one-shot advice-taking situation). The main study examines the influence of out...
Article
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Seeking advice is a basic practice in making real life decisions. Until recently, however, little attention has been given to it in either empirical studies or theories of decision making. The studies reported here investigate the influence of advice on judgment and the consequences of advice use for judgment accuracy. Respondents were asked to pro...
Article
Full-text available
In daily decision making, people often solicit one another's opinions in the hope of improving their own judgment. According to both theory and empirical results, integrating even a few opinions is beneficial, with the accuracy gains diminishing as the bias of the judges or the correlation between their opinions increases. Decision makers using int...
Article
Full-text available
The 1999 Israeli multi-party parliamentary election was used for studying the effects of inclusive and exclusive modes of thinking. In three experiments, we tested a theoretical framework whose major elements are the justification process, a distinction between middling and clearcut options, and the use of inclusion and exclusion threshold criteria...
Article
The present research contrasts two seemingly complementary decision strategies: acceptance and elimination. In acceptance, a choice set is created by including suitable alternatives from an initial set of alternatives, whereas in elimination it is created by removing inappropriate alternatives from that same initial set. The research used realistic...
Article
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Our framework for understanding advice-taking in decision making rests on two theoretical concepts that motivate the studies and serve to explain the findings. The first is egocentric discounting of others' opinions and the second is reputation formation for advisors. Advice discounting is attributed to differential information, namely, the notion...
Article
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This article reports two experiments that compared the standard ultimatum game played by individuals with the same game played by three-person groups. In the group treatment, the members of the allocating group conducted a brief, face-to-face discussion in order to decide, as a group, on a proposed division, whereas the members of recipient group h...
Article
This study explores the relationship between the precision and the accuracy of forecasts using either judge or item as the unit of analysis. Participants in five experiments answered general-knowledge questions by indicating intervals that were likely to include the correct answer. Results indicate that the precision of an interval estimate is not...
Article
Consider two judgment procedures for selecting an answer from a set of multiple alternatives. One could answer a question either by including likely alternatives from the initial set of alternatives or by eliminating the least likely alternatives from that same initial set. An interesting question is whether the two judgment processes are equivalen...
Article
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Whereas probabilistic calibration has been a central normative concept of accuracy in previous research on interval estimates, we suggest here that norma-tive approaches for the evaluation of judgmental estimates should consider the communicative interaction between the individuals who produce the judgments and those who receive or use them for mak...
Article
Full-text available
In making major decisions (e.g., about medical treatment, acceptance of manuscripts for publication, or investment), decision makers frequently poll the opinions and subjective estimates of other judges. The aggregation of these opinions is often beset by difficulties. First, decision makers often encounter conflicting subjective estimates. Second,...
Article
Full-text available
This work concerns judgmental estimation of quantities under uncertainty. The authors suggest that the "graininess" or precision of uncertain judgments involves a trade-off between 2 competing objectives: accuracy and informativeness. Coarse (imprecise) judgments are less informative than finely grained judgments; however, they are likely to be mor...
Article
Full-text available
This work concerns judgmental estimation of quantities under uncertainty. The authors suggest that the ''graininess'' or precision of uncertain judgments involves a trade-off between 2 competing objectives: accuracy and informativeness. Coarse (imprecise) judgments are less informative than finely grained judgments; however, they are likely to be m...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments were conducted to show that engaging in an effort to answer a question markedly influences the processing of information subsequently encountered in the environment. On each of 2 successive days, participants were given a definition test that involved the recall of rare English words cued by their definitions. A lexical-decision t...
Article
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Definition of insight / alternative perspectives on insight [the business-as-usual perspective, the Wizard Merlin perspective, the prepared-mind perspective] / past studies of the preparation phase / past studies of the incubation phase / expansion of the prepared-mind perspective / studies of impasses and opportunistic assimilation / toward an inf...
Article
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The relative predictive accuracy of humans and statistical models has long been the subject of controversy even though models have demonstrated superior performance in many studies. We propose that relative performance depends on the amount of contextual information available and whether it is distributed symmetrically to humans and models. Given t...
Article
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In this case study of economists' forecasts concerning economic downturn, we examine key issues concerning the psychology of prediction and the controversy surrounding the value of expertise in forecasting. We examine when experts' knowledge promotes forecast accuracy and whether biases found in psychological studies (including underutilization of...
Article
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People's ability to assess probabilities of various events has been the topic of much interest in the areas of judgment, prediction, decision making, and memory. The evaluation of probabilistic judgments, however, raises interesting logical questions as to what it means to be a "good" judge. This article focuses on a normative concept of probabilis...
Article
We propose that children's reasoning about others' visual perspectives is guided by simple heuristics based on a perceiver's line of sight and salient features of the object met by that line. In 3 experiments employing a 2-perceiver analogy task, children aged 3-6 were generally better able to reproduce a perceiver's perspective if a visual cue in...
Article
Using a response-priming procedure, five experiments examined the effects of vowel similarity on the motor programming of spoken syllables. In this procedure, subjects prepared to produce a pair of spoken syllables as rapidly as possible, but sometimes had to produce the syllables in reverse order instead. The spoken responses consisted of consonan...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments were conducted with a hybrid procedure that involved a battery of indirect criterion tests designed to study the activation and metacognition of inaccessible stored information. In each experiment, subjects first attempted to recall some rare target words in response to a series of definitions meant to cue retrieval from long-term s...
Article
Full-text available
In daily decision making, people often solicit one another's opinions in the hope of improving their own judgment. According to both theory and empirical results, integrating even a few opinions is beneficial, with the accuracy gains diminishing as the bias of the judges or the correlation between their opinions increases. Decision makers using int...

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Projects

Projects (10)
Project
Understanding how cognitive biases influence moral decision-making. Developing ways to prevent biases to operate.
Project
Understanding how diversity contributes to collective judgments and decisions. Defining the conditions under which diversity improves judgments. Testing the role of diversity in applied settings involving judgments and decisions with important consequences.