Ikhlas Khan

Ikhlas Khan
University of Mississippi | UM · National Center for Natural Products Research

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823
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21,156
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Publications

Publications (823)
Article
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Saffron, the most expensive spice in the world, is comprised of the dried and dark red stigma of Crocus sativus L. flowers of the Iridaceae family. It is mainly used as a spice for imparting color, fragrance, and flavor to food but its medicinal and dyeing properties were also well known. In the USA, saffron products are used as dietary supplements...
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The genus Glycyrrhiza, comprising approximately 36 spp., possesses complex structural diversity and is documented to possess a wide spectrum of biological activities. Understanding and finding the mechanisms of efficacy or safety for a plant-based therapy is very challenging, yet it is crucial and necessary to understand the polypharmacology of tra...
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Members of the genus Salvia are used as culinary herbs and are prized for their purported medicinal attributes. Since physiological effects can vary widely between species of Salvia, it is of great importance to accurately identify botanical material to ensure safety for consumers. In the present study, an in-depth chemical investigation is perform...
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Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) is a leguminous shrub endemic to the western parts of the Cape region in South Africa and a well-known herbal tea that is enjoyed worldwide. Due to its increased use, there is a possible risk of its interaction with conventional pharmaceuticals if administered simultaneously. In addition, the gap in the provision o...
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Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R. Dahlgren, commonly known as rooibos tea, was consumed traditionally by the indigenous South African inhabitants as an herbal remedy. Beside antioxidant properties, it displays antiallergic, antispasmodic, and hypoglycemic activities. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with photodiode arra...
Article
Licorice is obtained from the roots of several species of Glycyrrhiza (Fabaceae), a genus containing about 20 species. The Chinese Pharmacopeia specifies three Glycyrrhiza species (G. glabra, G. uralensis, G. inflata). In an effort to unambiguously differentiate roots of five Glycyrrhiza species (G. glabra, G. uralensis, G. inflata, G. echinata, an...
Article
Soft corals distributed across the Red Sea coasts are a rich source of diverse and bioactive natural products. Chemical probing of the Red Sea soft coral Litophyton arboreum led to isolation and structural characterization of an undescribed sesquiterpenoid, litoarbolide A (1), along with 14 previously reported metabolites (2-15). The chemical struc...
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Primaquine (PQ) is a racemic drug used in treatment of malaria for six decades. Recent studies suggest that the two enantiomers of PQ are differentially metabolized in animals, and this results in different pharmacological and toxicological profiles. The current study characterizes the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, metabolism and tolerability of...
Article
Simultaneous identification and quantification of phenolic acid (chlorogenic acid), sesquiterpene lactone (cnicin), lignan (arctiin), and flavonoids (bracteoside, 6-methoxybracteoside, isokaempferide and viscosine) in mixed parts of Centaurea benedicta (Syn. Cnicus benedictus) were performed for the first time. The liquid chromatography method show...
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This work was initiated to develop a simple, quick, and reliable UHPLC-PDA-MS method to identify chemical markers for authentication and compare fruit samples of four elder species, Sambucus nigra, S. ebulus, S. canadensis, and S. cerulea. The UHPLC method showed an adequate separation of 11 compounds including anthocyanins, phenolic acids, and fla...
Article
The dried roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza species (G. glabra, G. uralensis and G. inflata), commonly known as licorice, have long been used in traditional medicine. In addition, two other species, G. echinata and G. lepidota are also considered "licorice" in select markets. Currently, licorice is an integral part of several botanical drugs and di...
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Ethnopharmacological relevance The two Tinospora species, T. crispa and T. sinensis, native to Southeast Asia, are integral components of various traditional preparations with structure-functional claims to treat various disorders, including diabetes and inflammation. Aim of the study To assure the safety of the botanical finished products, herb-d...
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Background: Daphne pontica is an endemic plant grown wild in the North part of Iran, with anticancer activities. Objectives: This study aims to analyze the phytochemistry and screen the cytotoxic activity of new bioactive compounds against a panel of cancer cells, in addition to proapototic properties against prostate cancer cells. Method: Pur...
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Objective A preliminary study was conducted to assess the role of Tinospora sinensis extract on liver in mice in normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced health-compromised conditions. Method Mice (n = 3–5) were randomly assigned into groups I to IV for hepatotoxic studies. Group I was assigned normal, group II was given LPS (6 mg/kg, intraperit...
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We tested Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliales: Magnoliaceae) seed essential oil and its pure compounds for their repellency and toxicity against workers of hybrid imported fire ants. Series of dosages were tested starting from 156 µg/g to the dose where the treatment failed. Workers removed significantly less sand from the vials with M. grandiflor...
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Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Spreng is known for its resinous secretion (agarwood), often secreted in defense against injuries. We investigated the effects of A. sinensis flower extract (AF) on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma (PPARα and PPARγ), liver X receptor (LXR), glucose uptake, and lipid accumulation (adipogenesis)....
Article
Phytochemical investigation of corn silk resulted in isolation and characterization of four flavone C-glycosides, chrysoeriol 6-C-β-oliopyranosyl-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3′-methoxycassiaoccidentalin A (2), chrysoeriol 6-C-β-boivinopyranosyl-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), and ax-4"-OH-3′-methoxymaysin (4), a triterpenoid, friedelin (5), two stero...
Article
Several Salvia species, commonly known as sage plants, are an integral part of various culinary and folklore preparations for the perceived wide range of effects from organoleptic to psychological. As a result, many of these species are an integral part of botanical drug applications, highlighting the need for accurate identification and quality co...
Article
Physalins, including physalins and neophysalins, are a class of highly oxygenated ergostane-type steroids. They are commonly known by the name of 16,24-cyclo-13,14-seco steroids, in which the disconnection of C-13 and C-14 produces an eight or nine-membered ring and the carbocyclization of C-16 and C-24 generates a new six-membered ring. Meanwhile,...
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The increase in cancer incidence and mortality is challenging current cancer care delivery globally, disproportionally affecting low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs) when it comes to receiving evidence‐based cancer prevention, treatment, and palliative and survivorship care. Patients in LMICs often rely on traditional, complementary, and integr...
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In the market of dietary supplements, a low level of certainty exists in the state of the science, coupled with not always knowing what is in the product. Together these issues make weighing benefits/risks difficult and hinder the ability to guide evidence-based practice decisions. The authors sought to identify priorities and develop potential sol...
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Botanicals are among the fastest growing segments of the dietary supplement industry in the U.S. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA; Public Law 103-417 [Oct. 25, 1994]) provided a regulatory classification for the trade of numerous botanicals and botanically-derived products as dietary supplements. The global supply chain, the a...
Article
Mimosa pigra L. is an invasive species that grows with related species called M. pudica L. M. pudica is a dietary supplement, marketing in the United States, with a claim of supporting the immune system. It is known that M. pudica has been misidentified with M. pigra L. As part of our ongoing research endeavors to identify the chemical constituents...
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Morphological similarity within species makes the identification and authentication of Salvia species challenging, especially in dietary supplements that contain processed root or leaf powder of different sage species. In the present study, the species discriminatory power of 2 potential DNA barcode regions from the nuclear genome was evaluated in...
Article
Botanicals have played an important role in maintaining human health and well-being throughout history. During the past few decades in particular, the use of botanical health products has gained more popularity. Whereas, quality, safety and efficacy concerns have continuously been critical issues due to the intrinsic chemical complexity of botanica...
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Since the beginning, human beings have consistently been using plants and their components for the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, in the last few decades, plant-based medicines and health supplements are gaining more acceptability and rapid popularity. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza sp.) is a terrestrial herb belonging to the family...
Article
Salvia mellifera, native to California, Baja California, and Mexico, is a medicinal herb traditionally used to relieve pain, body aches, including chronic pain. A detailed phytochemical investigation of aerial parts of S. mellifera was accomplished to find species-specific markers and to differentiate the closely related, often (un)intentionally su...
Article
Bulbine natalensis, an emerging medicinal herb on the global market with androgenic properties, is often formulated in dietary supplements that promote perceived sexual enhancement. However, to date, comprehensive safety studies of B. natalensis are lacking, particularly those related to its herb-drug interaction potential. The purpose of this stud...
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Background Garcinia cambogia, either alone or with green tea, is commonly promoted for weight loss. Sporadic cases of liver failure from G. cambogia have been reported, but its role in liver injury is controversial. Methods Among 1418 patients enrolled in the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) from 2004 to 2018, we identified 22 cases (adju...
Article
The high throughput method using dansyl cysteamine (HTS-DCYA™) is a sensitive and rapid in chemico approach to characterize skin sensitizers' thiol-reactivity. The direct quantification of fluorescent hapten-DCYA adducts facilitates the rapid testing of pure chemicals as well as mixtures. Poor solubility in acetonitrile was occasionally observed an...
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Docosanol is the only US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved over-the-counter topical product for treating recurrent oral-facial herpes simplex labialis. Validated analytical methods for docosanol are required to demonstrate the bioequivalence of docosanol topical products. A gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring mode mass spectrometry...
Article
Two monobenzoylcyclopropane (hypoxhemerol A (1) and hypoxhemeroloside G (2)) and three dibenzoylcyclopropane (hypoxhemerol B (3), hypoxhemeroloside H (4), and hypoxhemeroloside I (5)) derivatives were isolated from the hydro-alcoholic extract of Hypoxis hemerocallidea corms. This is the first instance where benzoylcyclopropane analogs were isolated...
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The use of copaiba oil has been reported since the 16th century in Amazon traditional medicine, especially as an anti-inflammatory ingredient and for wound healing. The use of copaiba oil continues today, and it is sold in various parts of the world, including the United States. Copaiba oil contains mainly sesquiterpenes, bioactive compounds that a...
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The goal of this study was to assess the pharmacological effects of black tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) water extract on human kinin-forming enzymes in vitro. Tea is a highly consumed beverage in the world. Factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor)-independent- and -dependent activation of prekallikrein to kallikrein leads to the liberation of brad...
Article
Seven phenolic compounds (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, 4‐methoxycinnamic acid, 3,4‐dimethoxycinnamic acid, 3‐hydroxy‐4‐methoxybenzaldehyde, 3‐methoxy‐4‐hydroxypropiophenone and 1‐ O ,2‐ O ‐digalloyl‐6‐ O ‐trans‐ p ‐coumaroyl‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside), a flavanonol (7‐ O ‐methyl aromadendrin), two lignans (pinoresinol and matairesinol) and six diterpenic...
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Simple isoquinoline alkaloids (heliamine, dehydroheliamine), a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid noscapine, and an aporphine alkaloid boldine are biosynthetically derived from an amino acid tyrosine. These substrates and a simple synthetic isoquinoline alkaloid (2-acetyl-7-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline) contain an isoquinoline nucleus. The bio...
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Two humulene derivatives (asteriscunolides A (1) and C (2)) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Asteriscus hierochunticus. Their structures were characterized by IR, 1D, and 2D NMR and HRESIMS data analysis, in addition to comparison with literature. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited excellent in vitro antileishmanial activiti...
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Bolbophorus damnificus has caused epizootics in catfish aquaculture since the mid‐1990s. To mitigate losses associated with trematode infestations, research has focused on eradicating snails from ponds. Whole pond treatments with 0.64‐1.27 mg/L Cu have been effective in killing snails; however, Cu can be toxic to fish and may result in oxygen deple...
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Background: Bulbine natalensis Baker and Bulbine frutescens (L.) Willd. belonging to the family Asphodelaceae are widely distributed in South Africa and traditionally used as an aphrodisiac and skin remedies. Objective: The aim of this study is to develop an analytical method for chemical profiling and identification of components in Bulbine spe...
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Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl has been used as a remedy for inflammation-related disorders in the folk medicinal system by the inhabitants of the northern areas of Pakistan. This study deals with the phytochemical composition, cytotoxicity, and anti-inflammatory activity of various extracts of A. nitida. The phytochemical composition was established by...
Article
Microbial biotransformation of cannabidiol was assessed using 31 different microorganisms. Only Mucor ramannianus (ATCC 9628), Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 7195), and Absidia glauca (ATCC 22 752) were able to metabolize cannabidiol. M. ramannianus (ATCC 9628) yielded five metabolites, namely, 7,4″β-dihydroxycannabidiol (1: ), 6β,4″β-dihydroxycannabidio...
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This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Asimina triloba extracts and its alkaloidal constituents in terms of their cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity towards different cell lines. Six alkaloids (anolobine-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, anolobine, norushinsunine, liriodenine, squamolone and coclaurine) were evaluated for their cytotoxic po...
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The presence of bio-macromolecules as major ingredients is a primary factor in marketing many biologically derived macromolecular supplements. Workflows for analyzing these supplements for quality assurance, adulteration, and other supply-chain difficulties must include a qualitative assessment of small-molecule and macromolecular components; howev...
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Mirabilis multiflora is an acclaimed hallucinogen consumed traditionally by the Hopi Indians to induce diagnostic visions. Its root extract afforded a new (3) and four known (2, 5, 6, and 7) 12a-hydroxyrotenoids, a known rotenoid (4), and two known secondary metabolites (1 and 8). The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectroscop...
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Background. Benzoxazole derivatives have different biological activities. In pursuit of designing novel chemical entities with antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities, benzoxazolyl aniline was utilized as a privileged scaffold of a series of (3-benzoxazole-2-yl) phenylamine derivatives, 3-benzoxazoloyl acetamide, and butyramide derivatives. Meth...
Article
In an attempt to find species specific markers, a phenoxychromone (1) and eight isoflavonoids including six isoflavans (2-7) and two isoflavanones (8 and 9) were isolated from the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Among the isolated phenolic compounds, glycyurelone (1), glycyurelvanins A and B (2 and 3) were found to be undescribed while others, (-)-v...
Article
Stem and leaf of Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae), indigenous to Asia and Africa, were used for medicinal and dietary purposes with limited information about the plant's phytochemistry. Stem and leaf samples were assessed for the simultaneous determination of polyphenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, quercetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, kaempfe...
Article
Currently, the quality of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) essential oil (LEO) is defined and regulated based on standards and methods established by regulatory authorities. Unfortunately, these existing standards and methods are not sufficient for LEO quality evaluation due to the complexity of LEO and adulteration encouraged by a burgeonin...
Article
The steroidal and terpenoidal composition of Sinularia variabilis was investigated by chromatography methods. One new (1), and four known [gorgasta-5-en-3β-ol (2), ergosta-5-en-3β-ol (3), ergosta-5, 22(Z)-dien-3β-ol (4), 5,8-epidioxy-5α, 8α-ergosta-6, 22E-dien-3β-ol (5)] steroids, in addition to one known diterpenoidal alkaloid [sinulasulfone (6)]...
Article
An undescribed conjugated sesquiterpene, amelicarin (1), together with nine known compounds (2-10) were isolated for the first time from Melicope latifolia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric methods. The conjugated sesquiterpene possesses a unique 6/6/9/4-ring fused tetracyclic skeleton. The prop...
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Oakmoss and treemoss absolutes are the major natural extracts of concern as potential sources of skin sensitizers in cosmetics and personal care products (PCP). Two single constituents, atranol and chloroatranol, have been identified as primary culprits in both lichens, and industrial self-regulation has been proposed to limit their contents to les...
Article
The antimalarial drug primaquine (PQ) causes methemoglobinemia and hemolysis in individuals with a genetic deficiency of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by redox cycling of the metabolite primaquine-5,6-orthoquinone (POQ) in erythrocytes has been attributed to be responsible for the toxicity of PQ. Carboxy...
Article
Background Bulbine natalensis is an African-folk medicinal plant used as a dietary supplement for enhancing sexual function and muscle strength in males by presumably boosting testosterone levels, but no scientific information is available about the possible herb-drug interaction (HDI) risk when bulbine-containing supplements are concomitantly take...
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It has previously been shown that extracts (fractions and subfractions) from Euphorbia umbellata sap possess cytotoxic and anticancer effects against different cell lineages. However, there are few studies regarding the effects of such sap extracts upon breast and colorectal cell lineages. Therefore, the aims of this study were as follows: to evalu...
Chapter
Several phytochemicals, belonging to different classes of plant constituents, have been identified as causative agents for evoking toxicity/health threats to humans. The range of toxic effects includes mild symptoms of damage to vital organs, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and occasionally the toxicity leads to death. In the following chapter, thre...
Article
The metabolism of papaverine, the opium benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, with Aspergillus niger NRRL 322, Beauveria bassiana NRRL 22864, Cunninghamella echinulate ATCC 18968 and Cunninghamella echinulate ATCC 1382 has resulted in O-demethylation, O-methylglucosylation and N-oxidation products. Two new metabolites (4″-O-methyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) 4′-dem...
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Thermally processed rhizomes of Atractylodes macrocephala (RAM) have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating various disorders, and have been an integral part of various traditional drugs and healthcare products. In TCM, herbal medicines are, in most cases, uniquely processed. Although it is thought that processing...
Article
Indoxamycins A-F, a novel class of polyketides, were isolated from the saline culture of marine-derived actinomyces by Sato et al. in 2009. Intriguing stereochemical complexity involving tricyclic [5.5.6] cage-like structures with six consecutive chiral centers challenged many organic chemists. Chemical ingenuity, implementation of pioneered reacti...
Article
Volatile compounds (VCs) and triglycerides (TGs) are the primary groups of constituents in the fruits of five well-known species used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), viz. Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. (AO), Alpinia katsumadai Hayata (AK), Amomum villosum Lour. (FAL), Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen (FALX) and Amomum longil...