Igor L Shabalin

Igor L Shabalin
University of Salford · Materials and Physics Research Centre

MSc, MBA, PhD

About

159
Publications
257,262
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Introduction
...has developed his personal original approach to a special subclass of engineering materials – hetero-modulus composites and hybrids in ceramics... ...has discovered in Russia in the 80-90s and formulated / interpreted later in the UK – the mesoscopic temperature-pressure-dependent phenomenon in solid-state gas-exchange chemical reactions (surface processes) termed ‘ridge effect’...
Additional affiliations
June 2005 - present
University of Salford
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Carbon (Graphene/Graphite) & Carbon / Boron Nitride Containing Ceramic Materials
Education
September 1974 - October 1977
Ural Polytechnic Institute (now - Ural Federal University)
Field of study
  • Processing Technology of Less-Common and Radioactive Metals

Publications

Publications (159)
Book
This series of books represents a thorough treatment and consideration of ultra-high temperature materials – chemical elements and compounds with melting (sublimation or decomposition) points around or over 2500 °C. In the 4th volume are included physical (structural, thermal, electro-magnetic, optical, mechanical, nuclear) and chemical (about 1300...
Chapter
Full-text available
Addendum A.1 Structures A.2 Thermal Properties A.3 Electro-Magnetic and Optical Properties A.4 Physico-Mechanical Properties A.5 Nuclear Physical Properties A.6 Chemical Properties A.7 Porosity-Property Relationships References Index (Physical Properties) Index (Chemical Systems)
Chapter
Full-text available
Title list. Dedication. Preface. Contents. About the Author. Absract.
Chapter
Tungsten forms with carbon several chemical compounds (see also section C – W in Table I-2.13): tungsten monocarbide δ-WC1±x phase (hexagonal structured), having almost invariable composition (at least at temperatures < 2000 °C) and thermally stable in the wide range of temperatures, tungsten monocarbide γ-WC1–x phase (cubic structured) with a wide...
Chapter
Similarly to other transition metals of group 4 – hafnium and zirconium, titanium forms with carbon, practically, the only one chemical compound (see also section C – Ti in Table I-2.13) – titanium monocarbide TiC1–x, having the broadest homogeneity range compared to all other refractory carbides of groups 4-5 [1-14]; although some low-temperature...
Chapter
Vanadium forms with carbon plenty of chemical compounds (see also section C – V in Table I-2.13): vanadium monocarbide VC1–x having the broad homogeneity range with the highest C/V ratio being extremely far from the stoichiometry, several modifications of vanadium semicarbide: α-V2+xC (Pbcn), β-V2±xC (P63/mmc) and β′-V2+xC (P(–3)m1, P(–3)1m, P312,...
Book
This exhaustive work in several volumes and over 2500 pages provides a thorough treatment of ultra-high temperature materials (with melting points around or over 2500 °C). The first volume focuses on carbon (graphene/graphite) and refractory metals (W, Re, Os, Ta, Mo, Nb and Ir), whilst the second and third are dedicated to refractory transition me...
Article
Full-text available
The prospects for the development of high-temperature ceramic materials science are considered as a matter of discussion. The substantiation of the development of hetero-modulus ceramic composites as the possibility to implement unique physicochemical features of refractory compounds (carbides, nitrides, borides, etc.) under their application condi...
Book
Full-text available
The work represents a thorough treatment of ultra-high temperature materials with melting points around or over 2500 °C. In the second volume are included physical (structural, thermal, electro-magnetic, optical, mechanical, nuclear) and chemical (binary, ternary and multi-component systems, solid-state diffusion, wettability, interaction with chem...
Chapter
Tantalum forms with carbon several chemical compounds (see also section C–Ta in Table I-2.13): tantalum monocarbide TaC1−x with the extremely broad homogeneity range, low-temperature (ordered) α-Ta2+xC and high-temperature (disordered) β-Ta2±xC modifications of tantalum semicarbide (the latter cannot be retained by quenching), close-packed (nanolam...
Chapter
Niobium forms with carbon several chemical compounds (see also section C–Nb in Table I-2.13): niobium monocarbide NbC1−x with the extremely broad homogeneity range, several modifications of niobium semicarbide, such as ordered low-temperature α-Nb2C and middle-temperature β-Nb2+xC and disordered high-temperature γ-Nb2±xC, as well as ε-Nb3C2+x, ζ-Nb...
Chapter
Practically zirconium forms with carbon the only one chemical compound (see also section C–Zr in Table I-2.13) – zirconium monocarbide ZrC1–x with extremely broad homogeneity range, apart from low-temperature (<860–1080 °C) ordered structures of Zr2±xC (Fd(–3)m, R(–3)m, Pnma, P3m1, I41/amd, Pbcn, P4/mmm), Zr3C2±x (C2/m, P(–3)m1, I4/mmm, Immm), Zr4C...
Chapter
Practically hafnium forms with carbon the only one chemical compound (see also section C–Hf in Table I-2.13) – hafnium monocarbide HfC1−x with extremely broad homogeneity range, apart from low-temperature (<510–530 °C) ordered and metastable structures of Hf2±xC (Fd(–3)m, R(–3)m, P3m1, Pnma, I41/amd, Pbcn, P4/mmm), Hf3C2±x (C2/m, I4/mmm, P(–3)m1, I...
Chapter
Referring to the Volume I of this book [1], it is necessary to remind the fact that not only elemental carbon, but also its chemical compounds with various p-, d- and f-elements, termed as carbides, are of great interest for the materials designers and engineers, who are working in the area of ultra-high temperature materials, and so responsible fo...
Chapter
Full-text available
The work represents a thorough treatment of ultra-high temperature materials with melting points around or over 2500 °C. The second volume included physical (structural, thermal, electromagnetic, optical, mechanical and nuclear) and chemical (binary, ternary and multicomponent systems, solid-state diffusion, wettability, interaction with chemicals,...
Article
Concrete electrical resistivity is an important property in the assessment of reinforcement corrosion in concrete, and an essential parameter in the design and operation of cathodic protection for reinforced concrete structures. Water and chloride contents in concrete are highly variable for reinforced concrete structures in real world hostile envi...
Book
This exhaustive work in three volumes and over 1300 pages provides a thorough treatment of ultra-high temperature materials with melting points over 2500 °C. The first volume focuses on Carbon and Refractory Metals, whilst the second and third are dedicated solely to Refractory compounds and the third to Refractory Alloys and Composites respectivel...
Article
Full-text available
As a matter of discussion, the prospects for the development of high-temperature ceramic materials science are considered. The paper provides a rationale for developing hetero-modulus ceramic composites as a possibility to implement the unique physico-chemical properties of refractory compounds (carbides, nitrides, borides, etc.) under the conditio...
Article
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Cathodic protection (CP) is being increasingly used on reinforced concrete structures to protect steel reinforcing bars from corrosion in aggressive conditions. Due to the complexity of environmental conditions, the design specifications in national and international standards are still open to discussion to achieve both sufficient and efficient pr...
Conference Paper
This paper reports an experimental study on the influence of chloride contamination on the polarization resistance, concrete resistivity, and the potential shift of concrete reinforcement under different cathodic protection (CP) current densities. Reinforced and non-reinforced concrete specimens of varied chloride contents and exposed to ventilated...
Conference Paper
Cathodic protection (CP) has been approved in practice to be an effective technique to protect steel reinforcement in concrete from corrosion under severe environmental conditions. Using constant current for CP is the most popular approach in practice, particularly for the structures exposed to atmospheric conditions. However, for submerged structu...
Article
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Coal fly ash is generated in the course of combustion of coal at thermal power plants. Environmental problems increase sharply without disposing that industrial waste. Technologies were tested of hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites from fly ash forming during combustion of coal at thermal power plants of the Pechora coal basin and dependences were i...
Article
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The fly ash, from the combustion of coal to produce energy and heat, is an industrial waste, in which large accumulations represent a serious environmental threat. To reduce the environmental burden and improve the economic benefits of energy production, the science and industry focus on the transformation of coal combustion byproducts into new fun...
Conference Paper
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In contemporary materials science and engineering the main stream in research and development of novel advanced materials is connected more with ceramics and/or ceramic composites than with other classes of materials such as metals and plastics (polymers); that is caused by the strong necessity in increasing energy capacity and/or exploiting temper...
Conference Paper
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Due to the massive progress in nanotechnology, connected first of all with the discovery of 2D-molecular graphene by Geim and Novoselov, and later – related to it structurally, 2D-transition-metal carbide and nitride expanded molecules (MXenes), the molecular assembly processing of the hetero-structural ceramics becomes a reality. The manipulations...
Research
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Selected Chapters. Introduction: Definition, Classification & Application
Research
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Selected Chapters. Atomic structure, Grain and Texture
Research
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Selected Chapters. Physical properties.
Article
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A manufacturing method of high toughness TiB2–Al2O3 ceramic composites by reactive hot pressing via exothermic reactions with Al, B2O3, C and TiB2 has been developed. The usage of fusible initial components (Al and B2O3) in the hot pressing procedure allowed forming dense ceramics with homogeneous fine structure at 1900uC and 20 MPa (after 8 min ex...
Article
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Nuclear engineering development inevitably results in risks of radiation instability in regions. The creation of scientific basis of radiation safety of population and environment is the vital task, which requires search and study of sorbents that are able to deactivate radioactive sources. Sorption materials, based on mineral and technogenic raw,...
Article
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Abstract In the present work two special instruments are described and introduced which were developed for the rheological tests of materials like minerals, raw materials and semi-finished products of ceramic industry or complex materials like ceramic particles and fibre reinforced metal alloys and hetero-module, hetero-viscous and hetero-plastic m...
Chapter
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Carbon is the sixth element of the periodic table with the ground state level 3P0 and electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2, which is hybridized to form sp 1, sp 2 and sp 3 chemical bonds between atoms...
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Tungsten (or wolfram) is the element No. 74 of the periodic table (period—6, group—6 (or VIB), relates to transition metals) with the ground state level 5D0 and electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 4f 14 5s 2 5p 6 5d 4 6s 2.
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Iridium is the element No. 77 of the periodic table (period—6, group—9 (or VIIIb), relates to transition metals) with the ground state level 4F9/2 and electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 4f 14 5s 2 5p 6 5d 7 6 s 2. The general oxidation states (numbers) of iridium in various chemical compounds are (–3), (–2), (–1),...
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Rhenium is the element No. 75 of the periodic table (period—6, group—7 (or VIIB), relates to transition metals) with the ground state level 6S5/2 and electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 4f 14 5s 2 5p 6 5d 5 6 s 2. The general oxidation states (numbers) of rhenium in various chemical compounds are (–1), 0, (+1), (+2...
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Molybdenum is the element No. 42 of the periodic table (period—5, similar to tungsten group—6 (or VIB), relates to transition metals) with the ground state level 7S3 and electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 5 5s 1.
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Osmium is the element No. 76 of the periodic table (period—6, group—8 (or VIIIa), relates to transition metals) with the ground state level 5D4 and electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 4f 14 5s 2 5p 6 5d 6 6 s 2.
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Tantalum is element No. 73 of the periodic table (period 6, group 5 (or VB), relates to transition metals) with the ground state level 4F3/2 and electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 4f 14 5s 2 5p 6 5d 3 6 s 2.
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Niobium (or columbium) is the element No. 41 of the periodic table (period—5, similar to tantalum group—5 (or VB), relates to transition metals) with the ground state level 6D½ and electron configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 4 5 s 1. The general oxidation states (numbers) of niobium in various chemical compounds are (–1), (+1...
Book
Full-text available
This work represents a thorough treatment of ultra-high temperature materials with melting points over 2500 oC. It will be of interest to researchers, engineers, postgraduate, graduate and undergraduate students alike. The reader is provided with the full qualitative and quantitative assessment for the materials, which could be applied in various e...
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From the dawn of human existence materials have been fundamental to the development of any civilization and determined its level as a whole; that is why specialists in anthropology, archaeology and sociology define the historical epochs by the materials used by the different civilizations such as Stone, Copper, Bronze and Iron ages.
Book
Full-text available
The work represents a thorough treatment of ultra-high temperature materials with melting points over 2500 °C. In the first volume included are physical (structural, thermal, electro-magnetic, optical, mechanical, nuclear) and chemical (binary, ternary and multi-component systems, solid-state diffusion, wettability, interaction with chemicals, gase...
Chapter
Full-text available
Hetero-modulus ceramics (or hetero-modulus ceramic-ceramic composites, HMC) are thermal shock-resistant materials, which can be applied, due to their less common microstructures and physicochemical properties, in aerospace and nuclear engineering and in various media, including the extreme environments, at high and ultrahigh temperatures. The main...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most modern advances in rocket motors and propulsion assemblies are connected with increase of intensive thermo mechanical loading effects on the surface of materials in the area of critical cross-section of nozzles. The 3D models were designed in ANSYS SOFTWARE with thermal and mechanical properties of titanium and graphite, models are designed wi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The practical experience collected from the numerous tests of thermal protection systems in aerospace engineering shows that the application of monolithic as well as multi-phase ceramics, e.g. based on the refractory boride – silicon carbide systems, is very limited, because of its weak thermal-shock resistance. The only materials, which are applie...
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Chapter
The fabrication of carbon 3D-nano/microstructures based on the nanostructure deposition from gas phase on the surface of specially treated carbon fibres is proposed as an initial preparative stage to produce a carbonaceous scaffold for hybrid (adsorption-absorption) hydrogen storage materials. This materials design approach is focused toward the hy...
Article
Full-text available
Hetero-modulus ceramics (HMC) present the combination of a ceramic matrix with inclusions of a dispersed phase with considerably lower values of Young's modulus, resulting in a material with significantly advanced properties. Densified '-Si6-xAlxOxN8-x based HMC materials, with various volume contents of low-modulus alpha-BN phase and modifiers suc...
Article
Full-text available
Advanced woven fibre reinforced composites have wide applications in industries. However, the mechanical performance of this kind of composites is significantly affected by the moisture absorption of the polymer matrix. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the moisture diffusion taking place in multilayer woven fabric composites. The tr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For production of diamond-abrasive tool using of granular composition powders is actual under the stipulation that initial material including abrasive grains with the metallic layers. For the increase of durability of tool one takes the thickness of metallic viscid shell on a grain in range 0,1-0,5 of the size of grain [1]. For the decision of ques...
Conference Paper
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As shown scientific researches, the composition materials (CM) on the basis of refractory connections (for example, TiN) with enough fine (ultradispersion) structure have the rise mechanical properties on 20–40%. Reception of CM with ultradispersion structural elements (for example, as more hard inclusions) requires employing of unconventional appr...
Article
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Highly densified TiC, ZrC and HfC based ultrahigh temperature heteromodulus ceramics (HMC), containing 10?50?vol.?% of low modulus phase in the form of particulate graphite, were prepared by hot pressing at 2700?C and 12?MPa in argon atmosphere. The microstructure, elastic characteristics, flexural and compressive static strength, fracture toughnes...
Conference Paper
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The design of cost-efficient and high-performance materials is extremely important to the Energy Economy, which is necessary for the sustainable development of our society. Sustainability is also connected with recycling and utilisation of various wastes. New hybrid ceramic-polymer (inorganic-organic) materials can provide new engineering solutions...
Conference Paper
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Hybridization and structural control of ceramic and polymer materials have been in the limelight during the past two decades because of their ability to enhance properties and enlarge application areas in the conjunction with fundamental understanding of Physics, Chemistry, Materials and related disciplines. A new approach to the production technol...
Article
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Neutron diffraction data from in situ deuteration and dedeuteration of Li(3)N are presented under different pressure regimes, whereby reaction pathways differing from the widely reported stoichiometric pathway of Li(3)N + 2D(2)<--> Li(2)ND + LiD + D(2)<--> LiND(2) + 2LiD are observed. At sufficiently high pressures, where the deuterium chemical pot...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the most important problems of materials science is the development of optimal carbonaceous structures for the production of new multi-functional hybrids and construction composites. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes was carried out on the surface of carbon filaments (cross-sectional dimensions – 4-10 μm) preliminary impregnated with non-metal c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hydrogen is a significant and progressive energy carrier, as energy release can be achieved without producing polluting and harmful by-products, as would be emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels. Hydrogen storage is regarded as one of the most important problems, which have to be solved in the developing area of hydrogen technology and economy,...
Conference Paper
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"HYBRID 3D-NANO/MICROSTRUCTURES OBTAINING ON THE BASIS OF PRETREATED CARBON FIBERS" One of the most important present-day problems of materials science is developing of optimal carbonaceous structures for promising functional (hybrid) and constructional composite material production. A solution to this major problem will allow the efficiency of car...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the most important present-day problems of materials science is developing of optimal carbonaceous structures for promising functional (hybrid) and constructional composite material production. A solution to this major problem will allow the efficiency of carbonaceous scaffold use in compositions with different substances (metals, plastics,...
Chapter
Recent studies on oxidation of the TIC - 7 vol.% C (graphite) hetero-modulus ceramics, at temperatures of 400-1000 “C and oxygen pressures of 0.13-65 kPa, led to the discovery of a temperature-pressure-dependent phenomenon called ‘ridge effect’. The oxidation rate of material rises rapidly lo a maximum at ridge values of oxygen pressure p02) or tem...
Article
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A novel approach to the oxidation mechanism of near-stoichiometric TiC is presented. It is confirmed by consideration of solid-state chemical kinetics model and electron microscopy observations in parallel. At low oxygen pressures and moderate temperatures the initial step of the process is connected with the dissolution of oxygen and subsequent de...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies on oxidation kinetics of the TiC-7 vol.% C (graphite) hetero-modulus ceramics at temperatures of 400–1000 °C and oxygen pressures of 0.13–65 kPa have led to the discovery of a temperature-pressure-dependent phenomenon called “ridge effect”. The oxidation rate of the composite rises rapidly to a maximum at ridge values of oxygen press...
Article
Full-text available
Hetero-modulus ceramic composite materials (HMC) present an opportunity to combine a ceramic matrix having high Young's modulus with inclusions of a material having a considerably lower value of Young's modulus, resulting in a material with significantly improved properties. The isobaric–isothermal oxidation of 93 vol.% TiC–7 vol.% C (graphite) hot...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent studies of the oxidation process in the 93 vol.% TiC – 7 vol.% graphite particulate composites, at temperatures of 400–1000 ○ C and oxygen pressures of 0.13-65 kPa (in gas flow), led to the discovery of a novel temperature-pressure-dependent phenomenon, called 'ridge effect' and connected with the breakdown of a simple steady increase in oxi...
Conference Paper
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Results of kinetic study of isothermal hydrogenation of Li3N are discussed
Article
Full-text available
Hetero-modulus ceramics (HMC) present the combination of a ceramic matrix with the inclusions of a dispersed phase with considerably lower Young’s modulus, resulting in a material with significantly improved properties. An interpretation of the so-called “ridge effect” observed during the isobaric-isothermal oxidation of 93 vol% TiC–7 vol% C (graph...
Article
Hetero-modulus ceramic–ceramic composite materials (HMC) present the combination of ceramic matrix with high Young's modulus and the inclusions of a dispersed phase with low Young's modulus. The densification of 60–100 vol% TiC–0–40 vol% C (graphite) HMC during hot-pressing of powder compositions at 2200–2400 °C and applied pressures of 8–16 MPa is...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hetero-modulus ceramic composite materials (HMC) are an effective combination of a ceramic matrix with high Young's modulus (300–600 GPa) with inclusions of a dispersed, high-temperature phase with significantly lower Young's modulus (15–20 GPa) such as sp 2 -structured graphite or hexagonal, graphite-like boron nitride (Fig. 1). Fig. 1: Plot of me...
Conference Paper
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How Does Rocket Technology Encourage R&D in Materials...
Article
We report on in situ neutron diffraction measurements during the deuteration of Li3N. A number of novel observations are described: The presence of cubic ‘quasi-imide’ phases with composition-dependent lattice parameters, the identification of Li4ND and the suppression of LiD formation at low deuterium content. On the basis of these observations, i...