Igor Khmelinskii

Igor Khmelinskii
Universidade do Algarve | UALG · Centro de Electrónica, Optoelectronica e Telecomunicações (CEOT)

PhD; Prof. Agregado; Founding member of Ossonoba Philosophical Society

About

308
Publications
178,914
Reads
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3,687
Citations
Introduction
Current research: - Climate change - Energy transfer in the retina - Quantum confinement in conductive films
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - present
University of the Algarve
Position
  • Research Associate
March 1993 - present
January 1993 - December 2017
Universidade do Algarve
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (308)
Article
Full-text available
Society is living in fear of catastrophic climate scenarios, the so called Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) theory. It is a multidisciplinary subject; this paper analyzes the psychology behind such thinking which is governing the perception and politics of the subject. It does this in so-called Game Theory decision tables for people's thinking. W...
Article
Full-text available
The primary ingredient of the Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis, namely, the assumption that additional atmospheric carbon dioxide substantially raises the global temperature, is studied. This is done by looking at the data of temperature and CO2, both in the time domain and in the phase domain of periodic data. Bicentenary measurements are a...
Article
Full-text available
The biggest argument in some areas of science is the existence of a consensus. However, on top of it being a non-scientific argument, it is easy to show how a consensus naturally evolves in modern research environments. In this paper we demonstrate analytically and by cellular automata how a consensus is obtained. Important conclusions are that a c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The state of science in 2014 is presented, comparing to science in earlier times. “Where did we come from, where are we, and where are we going?” Somewhere in the middle of the 20th century, the Scientific Method – described in the paper – has been abandoned in scientific research in favour of something all-encompassing; all research, independent o...
Article
Two possible mechanisms describing intra- and inter-cell energy transfer in biological systems were analyzed. The first one is based on Davydov vibration soliton (DVS) theory, implying C=O vibrational energy transfer along α-helix polypeptides. According to Davydov, a certain vibration of one of the C=O groups somehow receives the entirety of ATP h...
Article
Theoretical biophysical model is reported for mitochondrial swelling (MS) dynamics in vivo. This newly developed model is based on the detailed biophysical model of MS dynamics in vitro, where mechanical properties of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) were taken into account. The present model of MS dynamics in vivo is capable of analyzing MS...
Article
Existing theoretical approaches were considered that allow modelling of mitochondrial swelling (MS) dynamics. Simple phenomenological kinetic models were reviewed. Simple and extended biophysical and bioenergetic models that ignore mechanical properties of inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), and similar models that include these mechanical properti...
Article
Temperature dependences of IR exciton properties in Müller cell (MC) intermediate filaments (IFs) isolated from porcine retina were studied. It was found that the widths of the spectral emission bands in the 2500 cm⁻¹ and 5000 cm⁻¹ energy ranges grow with temperature. It was found that temperature effects on the bandwidth may be described by therma...
Article
ATP production by mitochondria isolated from yeast cells (S. cerevisiae) was accelerated by exciton energy transfer from intermediate filaments (IFs). The effect was dependent on mitochondrial concentration and the intensity of light used to generate excitons. Presumably, mitochondrial cytochrome c (CC) was activated by IF exciton energy transfer t...
Article
Full-text available
Science consists of testing hypothesis. However, this Scientific Method is used ever more scarcely, and is replaced by general research to help making society a better place. In the current work we analyze how the approach of a solution to the sanitary problem caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been done in a non-scientific way leading to erroneous...
Article
ATP production by mitochondria isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was accelerated upon both direct and indirect mitochondrial photo-activation (MPA). The extent of direct MPA was dependent on the wavelength of excitation light. Direct MPA was created by light in cytochrome c spectral absorption bands (440, 520 and 550 nm), this light was...
Article
In the current study, we tested possible mechanism of low- and high contrast vision images discrimination by vertebrate eye-brain system. Apparently the eye-brain system has to discriminate between the low-contrast image component formed by light scattered within the vertebrate eye retina, due to interaction of photons with cells and their parts, a...
Experiment Findings
Enzymatic reaction of ethanol oxidation by ADH1A enzyme in presence of ATP was physically separated into two independent processes occurring in two separate compartments, namely, ethanol oxidation occurring in one 1cm cell, and ATP hydrolysis occurring in another 1cm cell, with the ATP hydrolysis energy transferred from one compartment to another i...
Experiment Findings
Enzymatic reaction of ethanol oxidation by ADH1A enzyme in presence of ATP was physically separated into two independent processes occurring in two separate compartments, namely, ethanol oxidation occurring in one 1cm cell, and ATP hydrolysis occurring in another 1cm cell, with the ATP hydrolysis energy transferred from one compartment to another i...
Preprint
Full-text available
We explain why a very large fraction of PCR tests are registering false positive results due to lack of specifity in vivo caused by exosomes that are not present in the specifications from tests in vitro. We discuss the fallout effects caused to false positive tests, not least artificial post original pandemic peaks. For further discussion see: htt...
Article
Presently we report that enzymatic oxidation of ethanol (EtOH) by ADH1A alcohol dehydrogenase is strongly accelerated in presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), by up to the factor of 20 in vitro. This result provides a different look on the role of ATP in functioning of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), which until presently were a textbook example...
Article
An extended biophysical model was obtained by upgrading the previously reported one (Khmelinskii and Makarov, 2021). The upgraded model accommodates variations of solute transport rates through the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) within the mitochondrial population, described by a Gaussian distribution. However, the model may be used for any fun...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of the Covid-19 pandemic and governmental countermeasures are described in this work by putting it in the framework of the Energy Theory of Value. It is found that the downturn in economy is not accompanied by an equal downturn in energy consumption nor of carbon emissions. Moreover, not even the empirical fifth-power law linking the fo...
Chapter
In this chapter, the spectral properties of flavins are reviewed in the context of their catalytic applications. Optical spectroscopy of various types of flavin compounds is presented: iso- and alloxazines, 5-deazaisoalloxazines, 5-deazaalloxazines, and some of the flavinium salts, again with iso- and alloxazinic structures, together with 1,10-brid...
Preprint
Full-text available
This letter analyses and explains the large difference in European countries between offical COVID-19 deaths (within 28 days of a positive PCR test) and the probability of false positives which can create false pseudo-epidemic peaks in 'cases'. The false positive fallout disaster can be blamed on the increasing reliance on subjective scientific adv...
Article
Mitochondrial activity as regards ATP production strongly depends on mitochondrial swelling (MS) mode. Therefore, this work analyzes reversible and irreversible MS using a detailed biophysical model. The reported model includes mechanical properties of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). The model describes MS dynamics for spherically symmetric...
Article
Presently a mechanism of permeability transition pore (PTP) opening was proposed and discussed. This mechanism is based on mechanical stretching of inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) caused by mitochondrial swelling (MS). The latter is induced by osmotic pressure generated by solute imbalance between the matrix and the surrounding cyto(sarco)plasm....
Article
Two commonly accepted theories about enzymes were revisited. The first states that adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–stored energy is only released when the substrate is in place, because the substrate changes the enzyme structure when it is bound to the enzyme. In fact, as demonstrated and discussed presently, no structural changes are required, and AT...
Article
New type of behavior of transverse-quantized excitons was discovered in metal nanofilms. These excitons demonstrated ballistic properties, propagating along nanofilms in straight lines along centimeter distances, reflecting at the film patch boundaries, and refracting at the boundary separating films of different materials but with the same exciton...
Article
IR exciton propagation was explored in Müller cell (MC) intermediate filaments (IFs) filling a capillary matrix. These IFs have been isolated from porcine retina using different methods, while their properties were almost identical. Therefore, IFs isolated from the whole retinas were used presently. IR excitons were generated by IR radiation at 2 μ...
Article
Low-energy (IR ∼ 2500 cm⁻¹) exciton transfer was explored in Müller cell (MC) intermediate filaments (IFs) isolated from porcine eye retina and filling a capillary matrix. IR excitons were generated either by absorption of IR radiation at 4 μm, or by ATP hydrolysis energy transfer to the MC IFs. ATP hydrolysis was catalyzed by human alcohol dehydro...
Poster
Full-text available
We invite contributions that advance our basic scientific understanding of the thermal physics and chemistry underlying fluctuations in the various climates on Earth.
Article
Full-text available
We present unique ultrastructural data on avian retinal cells. Presently and earlier (Zueva et al., 2016) we explored distribution of intermediate filaments (IFs) in retinal cells of the Pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca, Passeriformes, Aves) in the central foveolar zone. This retinal zone only contains single and double cone photoreceptors. Prev...
Article
Full-text available
We highlight mechanical stretching and bending of membranes and the importance of membrane deformations in the analysis of swelling dynamics of biological systems, including cells and subcellular organelles. Membrane deformation upon swelling generates tensile stress and internal pressure, contributing to volume changes in biological systems. There...
Article
Presently we report new experimental method for simultaneous measurements of electrical and optical properties in vitro for the intermediate filaments (IFs) in the axial direction, complemented by the method to measure light intensity absorbed by IFs aligned within the capillary matrix. These methods were used to simultaneously measure spectroscopi...
Article
Experimental spectra of Müller cell (MC) intermediate filaments (IFs) isolated from porcine retina are reported in this work. The absorption spectra recorded at different MC IF concentrations were used to estimate their absorption cross-sections at different wavelengths. The average absorption cross-section of a single MC IF was ca. (0.97 … 2.01) ×...
Article
Recently we have reported properties of ZnO semiconductor films attached to CaF2 substrate. Presently we characterized absorption, emission and superluminescence of freestanding ZnO films, comparing these to the attached films with the same thickness values. The absorption spectra of the freestanding films had resolved bands, with the band density...
Article
Full-text available
We review the experimental evidence, from both historic and modern literature of thermodynamic properties, for the non-existence of a critical-point singularity on Gibbs density surface, for the existence of a critical density hiatus line between 2-phase coexistence, for a supercritical mesophase with the colloidal characteristics of a one-componen...
Article
The objectives of this study were to characterize fluorescence of beverages from berry fruit, including chokeberry, blackcurrant, raspberry and strawberry, and to develop classification models based on different types of fluorescence spectra to identify beverages depending on the fruit species. Total fluorescence spectra (excitation-emission matric...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to test the usability of fluorescence spectroscopy to evaluate the stability of cold-pressed rapeseed oil during storage. Freshly-pressed rapeseed oil was stored in colorless and green glass bottles exposed to light, and in darkness for a period of 6 months. The quality deterioration of oils was evaluated on the basis of s...
Article
We reviewed the tools of quantum physics used in modeling of quantum coherence (QC) effects in different systems, including biological systems, which behave as quantum objects in some of their degrees of freedom. In particular, we considered the usage of the effective Hamiltonian (EH), Green’s function (GF) and density matrix (DM) methods in the an...
Article
In the current study, we investigated transmission spectrum of the intermediate filaments (IFs) extracted from porcine retinal Müller cells (MC). The recorded transmission spectrum is quite similar to that of the entire guinea pig retina, providing direct proof that the quantum mechanism (QM) of light energy transmission through the inverted retina...
Article
Full-text available
Mitochondria have been widely accepted as the main source of ATP in the cell. The inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) is important for the maintenance of ATP production and other functions of mitochondria. The electron transport chain (ETC) generates an electrochemical gradient of protons known as the proton-motive force across the IMM and thus prod...
Article
In the current study we reported current-voltage (I/V) characteristics of Müller cell (MC) intermediate filaments (IFs) isolated from porcine retina. It was found that the measured I/V dependences demonstrate behavior of a semiconductor in contact with metal (Au) electrodes. The analysis of the temperature dependence of the experimental I/V curves...
Article
We report new theoretical and experimental results that may significantly change our ideas on the workings of life. We performed ab initio analysis of the band structure of periodic α-helix polypeptides (PP) in function of the chain length. Three different calculation approaches were tested: (a) PP described semiempirically as a one-dimensional obj...
Article
Background: The development of rapid methods for determination of the soluble solids content (SSC) and total phenolic content (TPC) in fruit juices is of great interest. SSC are related to the sensory attributes, while TPC is related to the antioxidant capacity of juices. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize the calibration models for...
Article
Taking into account the ultrastructure of the Pied Flycatcher foveal retina reported earlier and the earlier reported properties of Müller cell (MC) intermediate filaments (IFs) isolated from vertebrate retina, we proposed a quantum mechanism (QM) of light energy transfer from the inner limiting membrane level to visual pigments in the photorecepto...
Article
We report an experimental method for simultaneous measurement of the electric properties and energy transfer by natural biological fibers. We found that energy transfer efficiency along intermediate filaments (IFs) isolated from porcine retina varied with the potential difference applied to these IFs. The maximum measured effect amounted to 25% of...
Article
Presently we report new unique optical and electric properties of Müller cell (MC) intermediate filaments (IFs). We inform that these IFs extracted from porcine retina are excellent conductors of light and electric current. Such IF properties may endow vertebrate eyes with high-contrast vision. The properties of the IFs allow a simple quantum-mecha...
Article
Full-text available
Presently we report (i) excited state (exciton) propagation in a metal nanotrack over macroscopic distances, along with (ii) energy transfer from the nanotrack to adsorbed dye molecules. We measured the rates of both of these processes. We concluded that the effective speed of exciton propagation along the nanotrack is about 8 × 10⁷ cm/s, much lowe...
Article
BACKGROUND Determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) in olive oils is of great interest, as phenolic compounds affect health benefits, sensory attributes and oxidative stability of olive oils. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of the direct front‐face fluorescence measurements coupled with chemometrics for developing mult...
Article
In this study, we determined the spectral properties and frequency summing that induced superemission (SE) in two assemblies (A and B) built from a Co nanolayer and a Co nanotrack, which differed in terms of their topography. We found that homogeneous Co films with layer thicknesses of 7.101 and 11.755 nm produced discrete absorption spectra, which...
Article
Presently we explore absorption and emission spectra of ZnO semiconductor nanolayers 4.1–17.3 nm thick. We report that their absorption spectra have discrete structure, with the transition band density increasing with the nanolayer thickness. The emission spectra recorded at 4.1 and 9.3 nm thickness have resolved band structure, with the bands part...
Article
Presently we communicate a newly developed method of resonant radiofrequency heating, applicable in hyperthermal therapy. This method uses electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to transform the electromagnetic field energy into heat. We report the growth dynamics of the S. cerevisiae yeast cells exposed to EPR heating with superparamagnetic magneti...
Article
Full-text available
Near-infrared (NIR) spectra were recorded for commercial apple juices. Analysis of these spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression revealed quantitative relations between the spectra and quality- and taste-related properties of juices: soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and the ratio of soluble solids content to titra...
Preprint
Full-text available
We review the scientific evidence, from both historic and modern laboratory measurements of thermodynamic properties, for the non-existence of a critical-point singularity on Gibbs density surface, for the existence of a critical dividing line between 2-phase coexistence, for a supercritical mesophase with the colloidal characteristics of a one-com...
Article
We report spectral properties and frequency summing that induce superemission (SE) in sandwich structures built of Co nanolayers. We found that separate Co films with a layer thickness of 8.1, 9.2, and 11.3 nm have discrete absorption spectra, originating in transverse quantum confinement in such thin metal films. The surface plasmon resonance in t...
Article
Full-text available
Swelling of mitochondria plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human diseases by stimulating mitochondria-mediated cell death through apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. Changes in the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) of ions and other substances induce an increase in the colloid osmotic pressure, leading to matrix sw...
Article
Presently we evaluated the natural relaxation frequency of the spin angular momentum of Fe3O4 and hemozoin superparamagnetic (SP) nanoparticles in D2O solutions in function of the sample temperature. The sample was composed of 1% H2O in D2O with dispersed Fe3O4 or hemozoin nanoparticles at variable number density. The natural relaxation frequencies...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, we continue investigation of the high-contrast vision in the inverted retina of the vertebrates eyes. We report a method of separation and purification of porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) intermediate filaments (IFs), extracted from the retinal M\"uller cells (MCs). We also report experimental and theoretical methods of measurem...
Article
Full-text available
The dynamics of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is analyzed and it is shown that the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 had a noticeable effect on these dynamics. The growth rate slowed down. Moreover, analyzing the year-on-year CO2 growth data, we can see an anthropogenic footprint, possibly due to the burning of fossil fuels. On top of this anthropogenic...
Article
We report absorption spectra of the 7.3- and 11.3-nm Co nanolayers and emission of a structured Co nanolayer. The structure contains a 7.3-nm Co nanolayer covering a 25×25mm2 fused silica substrate, with a thicker 11.3-nm Co track in the middle of the substrate. We report that the radiation energy absorbed by the entire Co nanolayer is transferred...
Article
The usage of synchronous fluorescence as a means for discrimination between the commercial apple juice categories was studied. We recorded total synchronous fluorescence spectra (TSFS) of commercial apple juices belonging to the two categories: those produced directly - not from concentrate (NFC), and those reconstituted from concentrate (FC). An e...
Article
Chitosan films with grape seed extract and carvacrol microcapsules (CMF) were prepared and their physico-chemical properties and effect on physico-chemical and microbiological parameters in refrigerated salmon were tested. CMF showed higher values of thickness (0.41 ± 0.04 mm), moisture content (13 ± 1 g water/100 g film), a (11 ± 3), b (12 ± 3), o...
Article
Presently we explored quantum confinement (QC) in three-nanolayer sandwich systems, composed of Au-SnO2-Fe, Au-SnO2-Si and Au-SnO2-Ag layers. We recorded the absorption spectra of these sandwich systems, all with discrete structure. We recorded the action spectra of the photocurrent for the Au-SnO2-Fe sandwich system, with the photocurrent quantum...
Article
Full-text available
It is common to use past information about the system modeled in probabilistic statistics to make predictions about the future. Especially in the area of climate modeling and forecasting this is done. Here it is argued that doing this in a purely empirical way is full of perils and pitfalls. Without knowledge of the underlying physical laws it will...
Article
Full-text available
We studied intermediate filaments (IFs) in the retina of the Pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in the foveolar zone. Single IFs span M\"uller cells (MC) lengthwise; cylindrical bundles of IFs (IFBs) appear inside the cone inner segment (CIS) at the outer limiting membrane (OLM) level. IFBs adjoin the cone cytoplasmatic membrane, following length...
Preprint
Full-text available
We consider the distribution of the intermediate filaments (IFs) in the retinal cells of the Pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca, Passeriformes, Aves) in the foveolar zone, which has the most specialized morphology, where the passerines have neither the rods nor the second-order neurons that service these rods, with only the single and double cones...
Article
Full-text available
Presently we continue our studies of the quantum mechanism of light energy transmission in the form of excitons by axisymmetric nanostructures with electrically conductive walls. Using our theoretical model, we analyzed the light energy transmission by biopolymers forming optical channels within retinal Müller cells. There are specialized intermedi...
Article
We report experimental temperature and concentration dependences of the natural spin relaxation time of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 and hemozoin nanocrystals. We recorded the ¹H-NMR spectrum of 0.5% benzene dissolved in CS2 in function of superparamagnetic particle concentration and temperature, interpreting the 7.261±0.002 ppm benzene line broadening....
Article
Controlled release of antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds from packaging films is of utmost importance for extending the shelf-life of perishable foods. This study focused on the mathematical modeling of gallic acid release into an aqueous medium from three chitosan films, formulated with grape seed extract (GSE) and carvacrol. We quantified th...
Article
Full-text available
Fluorescence spectroscopy is gaining increasing attention in food analysis due to its higher sensitivity and selectivity as compared to other spectroscopic techniques. Synchronous scanning fluorescence technique is particularly useful in studies of multi-fluorophoric food samples, providing a further improvement of selectivity by reduction in the s...
Article
We studied the spin-polarized state transport in Fe – SnO2 – Ag and Fe – BeO – Ag three-nanolayer sandwich structures. The exchange-resonance spectra of these sandwich structures are quite specific and different from those observed earlier in other three-nanolayer structures. The presently recorded spectra comprise a set of discrete lines, their wi...
Article
Presently we applied multivariate curve resolution – alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method for the analysis of front-face total synchronous fluorescence spectra (TSFS) of differently processed apple juices. This analysis enabled extracting of the TSFS profiles of five fluorescent components with distinct spectral characteristics and different...
Article
Full-text available
One of the ingredients of the anthropogenic global warming hypothesis is the exis-tence of large positive feedback in the climate system. An example is polar ice that, once melted, turns into blacker water that will increase radiation absorption and this reinforces the melting. This causes a run-away scenario with a point of no return. Here it is s...
Article
Some very transparent cells in the optical tract of vertebrates, such as the lens fiber cells, possess certain types of specialized intermediate filaments (IFs) that have essential significance for their transparency. The exact mechanism describing why the IFs are so important for transparency is unknown. Recently, transparency was described also i...
Article
Presently we used two samples of vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes (VASWCNTs) with parallelepiped geometry, sized 0.02 cm × 0.2 cm × 1.0 cm and 0.2 cm × 0.2 cm × 1.0 cm. We report absorption and emission properties of the VASWCNTs, including strong anisotropy in both their absorption and emission spectra. We found that the emission sp...
Article
Full-text available
We report that hemozoin nanocrystals demonstrate superparamagnetic properties, with direct measurements of the synthetic hemozoin magnetization. The results show that the magnetic permeability constant varies from μ = 4585 (at −20 °C) to 3843 (+20 °C), with the values corresponding to a superparamagnetic system. Similar results were obtained from t...
Article
Full-text available
Specialized intermediate filaments (IFs) have critical importance for the clearness and uncommon transparency of vertebrate lens fiber cells, although the physical mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Recently, an unusual low-scattering light transport was also described in retinal Müller cells. Exploring the function of IFs in Müller cells,...
Article
We continue our studies of metal nanolayers started earlier [1]. Presently, we investigate absorption, emission and superemission in Cr nanolayers. We provide experimental estimates of the energy density and power density of superemission of Cr nanolayers, along with estimates of the diffraction-limited light divergence. We report that the divergen...
Article
Full-text available
Infrared spectroscopic techniques and chemometric methods were used to study oxidation of olive, sunflower and rapeseed oils. Accelerated oxidative degradation of oils at 60°C was monitored using peroxide values and FT-MIR ATR and FT-NIR transmittance spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) facilitated visualization and interpretation of s...