Ignacio Montero Ruiz

Ignacio Montero Ruiz
Spanish National Research Council | CSIC · Instituto de Historia

Dr

About

272
Publications
91,669
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2,339
Citations
Citations since 2016
99 Research Items
1413 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
Introduction
I was member of the research team from 1987 to 2000 in several projects about Archaeometallurgy, Bronze Age and Rock Art. Since them I have been main researcher in projects funded by Spanish government (BHA2001-0248, HUM2004-04861-C03-02, HUM2007-04861-C03-02, HAR2010-21105-C02-02) and regional government of Madrid (06/0154/2002 and 06/0112/2003) dealing with Archaeometallurgy. I was editor (2002-2005; 2010-2013) of the journal Trabajos de Prehistoria.
Additional affiliations
February 1996 - May 2020
Spanish National Research Council
Position
  • PhD
Description
  • Researcher
Education
May 1991
Complutense University of Madrid
Field of study
  • Prehistory

Publications

Publications (272)
Article
Our understanding of early copper metallurgy in the Iberian Peninsula is mostly based on analysis from well-studied regions in the Southeast and Southwest. This paper focuses on two recently recovered Chalcolithic metallurgical assemblages outside these traditional research foci: two slagged crucibles from Lugar Viejo III (Zaragoza) and two large s...
Article
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The range of copper sources and the nature of metal supply networks used by the El Argar culture of south-east Spain have been the subject of a long-running debate. On one side of this debate we have a model that envisages supply for much of the El Argar culture coming from a closely circumscribed region and controlled centrally by a political élit...
Chapter
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Como es bien sabido, en la investigación sobre este tipo de elementos ha primado la elaboración de estudios tipológicos, repertorios y mapas de dispersión a partir de los puntos de recuperación con el objetivo de sustentar secuencias cronológicas. También se ha procurado distinguir las producciones autóctonas de las alóctonas mediante la aplicación...
Chapter
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Contrary to copper ore resources, tin is scarce in southeastern Iberia. However, tin is essential to produce the copper/tin alloy called tin bronze. The  rst use of this alloy in the so-called El Argar Culture is detected in its later phases (from 1900–1800 calBC), although it never constituted the predominant alloy. The absence of metallurgical d...
Article
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The metallogenetic characteristics of the Iberian Peninsula are somewhat peculiar due to the availability of numerous small open-cast oxidic copper ore mineralisations exploited until recent times. Their study in relation to prehistoric metallurgy has a long tradition that is reflected in the archaeological literature. However, it is in recent deca...
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En 2019 se recuperó en la motilla de El Retamar la única alabarda argárica de la Meseta; es el primer arma especializada en la Cultura de las Motillas. El hallazgo se produjo en un contexto no funerario -el Corte A-, asociado a recipientes cerámicos, un horno y semillas (trigo harinero y duro, cebada vestida, escanda melliza y lino. El arma, de 118...
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The copper ingots from the underwater site off Rochelongue, near Cap d’Agde, on the coast of West Languedoc, offer an exciting means to investigate coastal mobility and cultural interaction between southern France and the broader western Mediterranean basin in the Early Iron Age. This paper presents the results of elemental and lead isotope analyse...
Article
Nuevas evidencias sobre el inicio de la metalurgia en el País Valenciano: el yacimiento calcolítico de Sanxo Llop (Gandía, Valencia) Se presentan nuevos datos sobre la actividad metalúrgica en el término de Gandía obtenidos en las excavaciones de las parcelas de Sanxo Llop durante los años del 2010 al 2016. El trabajo recoge la información sobre tr...
Conference Paper
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Presentamos el análisis de los hallazgos de moneda romana en dos escenarios bélicos asociados a la Segunda Guerra Púnica y desarrollados en un margen concreto de tiempo, entre el 208 y el 206 a.C, la Batalla de Baecula y el asedio y destrucción del oppidum de Iliturgi respectivamente, ambos tras la toma por Escipión el Africano de Qart Hadasht. Los...
Article
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Debates on early metallurgy in Western Europe have frequently focused on the social value of copper (between utilitarian and symbolic) and its purported role in the emergence and consolidation of hierarchies. Recent research shows that generalisations are increasingly untenable and highlights the need for comparative regional studies. Given its loc...
Article
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Abstract: The excavations carried out between 2002 and 2004 at El Morredón, a Late Bronze and Early Iron Age site located in the Huecha valley, Zaragoza, have enabled the site to be revised and its unpublished materials to be studied using new techniques and methodologies. The metallic repertoire of the site is identified with a set of domestic obj...
Article
Presentamos nuevos análisis de composición elemental y de isótopos de plomo de artefactos metálicos de los yacimientos de El Calvari, La Tosseta y El Puig Roig. Estos datos, junto a otros publicados con anterioridad y los actualmente disponibles para el área launaciense, permiten una mejor definición de la producción y circulación del metal en el n...
Chapter
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El "oro rojo" en la Antigüedad. Perspectivas de investigación sobre los usos y aplicaciones del cinabrio entre la Prehistoria y el fin del mundo antiguo The "red gold" in Antiquity. Research perspectives on the uses and applications of cinnabar between Prehistory and the end of the Ancient World Editores científicos MAR ZARZALEJOS PRIETO PATRICIA H...
Article
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In this paper, we propose a new model of innovation and social value of metallurgy in the Iberian Peninsula taking into account the process followed in the Balkans and Central Europe during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic. We base this on the results of the Cerro Virtud Neolithic site excavated in the Almería province in southeastern Spain. This mod...
Article
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Resumen: Las excavaciones realizadas entre 2002 y 2004 en El Morredón, yacimiento del Bronce Final y la Primera Edad del Hierro situado en el valle del Huecha, Zaragoza, han permitido la revisión del yacimiento y el estudio de sus materiales inéditos mediante nuevas técnicas y metodologías. El repertorio metálico del yacimiento se identifica con un...
Chapter
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This study is based on archaeometallurgical material recovered at Lisnacaheragh and Lisnamanroe, Garranes. Ó Ríordáin’s excavation of Lisnacaheragh led to the discovery of hundreds of crucible fragments, some moulds and slag fragments in a ‘black layer’ in his Site D trench, which he interpreted as evidence of a non-ferrous metal workshop (Ó Ríordá...
Article
Se informa del hallazgo en 1832 de un enterramiento con dos brazaletes del Bronce Final en Cigales (Valladolid). Realizado durante las obras del Canal de Castilla, se vincula al yacimiento de Sopeña, de los inicios de la Cultura del Soto o Soto Formativo. Además de la tipología de los objetos, se estudian su composición y la procedencia del metal e...
Chapter
Descripción y análisis de 62 fragmentos de restos metálicos pertenecientes a la fase de ocupación de la I Edad del Hierro del yacimiento de Los Morrones (Castellón). Mayoritariamente se trata de objetos de base cobre (52) y unas pocas piezas de hierro. El material esta muy fragmentado y su estado de conservación es malo con corrosión muy avanzada e...
Article
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Se presentan nuevos datos arqueológicos del nordeste peninsular (comarca del Priorat, Tarragona) relativos a un período poco conocido, el lapso temporal entre los siglos VII a X. Dichos datos han sido obtenidos en el curso de investigaciones arqueológicas cuyo objeto era la Prehistoria. La emergencia de informaciones relativas al período altomediev...
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One of the qualities of metal is that it can be recycled. The greater or lesser use of recycled metal is conditioned, among other factors, by the availability of raw materials and the demand for consumption, but other socio-economic factors also affect the overall volume of recycled metal used in each historical periodo In order to validate the sca...
Article
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A partir del estudio de cuatro objetos metálicos (una daga y tres puntas de flecha) procedentes de otras tantas cuevas del entorno geográfico de Castro Urdiales, culturalmente encuadrables entre el Calcolítico final y el Bronce medio, y cuya analítica ha proporcionado su fabricación en cobre de origen foráneo a la costa cantábrica, se concluye que...
Conference Paper
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El hallazgo, en las recientes excavaciones en Peña Negra (Crevillent, Alicante), de un nuevo ejemplar de los conocidos como ‘hachas-lingotes’, ‘barras-lingotes’ o ‘barras monetales’ permite revisar la interpretación de este tipo de lingotes laminares, realizados en cobre, bronce, cobre plomado y plomo, cuyas evidencias se concentran de forma mayori...
Chapter
Results of archaeometallurgical study (pXRF elemental composition, use-wear analysis) of prehistoric copper objects (3 awls and a possible arrowhead) from Copper Age site Vilches IV (Albacete, Spain). And a review of the first metallurgy at this zone (2nd half III mil cal BC).
Article
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El papel de la metalurgia en las comunidades de la Edad del Cobre del Sureste de la península ibérica es una cuestión recurrente en la investigación arqueológica en Europa oc­cidental. A partir del análisis de isótopos de plomo y ele­mentos traza de restos arqueometalúrgicos, este artículo aborda la organización territorial de la producción meta­lú...
Article
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Se presentan los resultados de la revisión de un grupo de piezas de orfebrería castreña de la II Edad del Hierro conservadas en el Museo Arqueológico de Asturias, que en su mayor parte permanecían insuficientemente estudiadas desde el punto de vista documental y arqueométrico. Este trabajo, centrado principalmente en el análisis no destructivo y la...
Article
Traditionally, archaeometallurgical projects have visualised information through distribution maps of the find spots for different metal compositions or types of objects. However, this is limiting, and more innovative styles of communication are required to engage with more dynamic technological questions such as what underpins the use and circulat...
Chapter
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We present a preliminary report about the analysis of metallic materials found in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age levels in the settlement of El Morredón (Fréscano, Zaragoza), whose phases and chronology have been already published (Aranda et al. 2016 and 2018). In the first step of the research, we approach the typological analysis. We focus on...
Article
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Established around 575 BC, Emporion was a Greek colonial enclave in north-east Iberia and hence constitutes a good context to study Mediterranean innovations and their adaptation with indigenous technologies. Here, we present an analytical study of the archaeometallurgical assemblage from a workshop context dated to the first occupational moment of...
Article
We report lead isotope data for cinnabar from three Chalcolithic settlements and several ore deposits in the Iberian Peninsula. Lead isotope ratios of cinnabar (vermilion) employed in one Bell Beaker grave at Humanejos (Madrid) plot in the field of the Almaden mining district. Cinnabar from the La Velilla dolmen (Palencia) also plots in the isotopi...
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Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies, 8, 1, 1-21. open access at : https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5325/jeasmedarcherstu.8.1.0001 ___________________________________________________________________________ A recent reanalysis of compositional and lead isotope legacy data from the early silver hoards of the southern Le...
Article
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A mitjans d’agost del 2016, un aficionat a l’arqueologia de Bellver de Cerdanya, amb un detector de metalls, va localitzar i recuperar un dipòsits de bronzes en un prat de la partida de Colomina del nucli de Bor, entitat de la població esmentada. Els materials metàl·lics col·locats a l’interior d’un vas de ceràmica a mà i dipositat en un clot i cob...
Article
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Las excavaciones llevadas a cabo en el asentamiento de Santa Llúcia desde el año 2012 han recuperado diferentes hallazgos metálicos de base cobre y plomo que indican la presencia de un pequeño taller metalúrgico durante el siglo VI anE. En la campaña de 2018 se localizó un lote de objetos de oro formado por elementos de orfebrería y barritas del mi...
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Un fragmento de lingote de plata descubierto recientemente en el yacimiento fenicio de La Rebanadilla (Málaga) ha sido investigado mediante isotopos de plomo y análisis elemental.El lingote recuperado en los niveles inferiores del yacimiento, se fecha potencialmente entre fines del siglo XI y el IX a.C., situándose en cronología similar a algunos d...
Article
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A fragment of a silver ingot recovered from the Phoenician settlement of La Rebanadilla, near Malaga, in south-east Iberia has been investigated using lead isotope and compositional analyses. The ingot, which was found at the lowest levels of the site, potentially dates from 11th-9th century BC, placing it alongside the hoards of hacksilver found i...
Article
A rare open shallow crucible from the British Museum collection, excavated at the Bronze Age site of El Argar in south‐east Spain by Louis and Henri Siret, was studied using X‐radiography and scanning electron microscopy. The crucible has relatively thick walls, a spout and a non‐refractory fabric. It was used for melting copper alloys for various...
Article
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Resumen: La aleación de cobre con estaño aparece por primera vez en el sureste de la península ibérica en época argárica. En el presente estudio realizamos una recopilación de todos los análisis de composición publicados con el fin de valorar la frecuencia y el uso de esta aleación. Los datos muestran que algunos objetos como las alabardas nunca se...
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This paper presents trace element compositions and lead isotope analyses by MC-ICP-MS of 34 copper ore samples from the Internal Zone of the Betic Range, Southeast Spain. Samples were collected during a fieldwork campaign in the mines of Cerro Minado, Pinar de Bédar, Sierra Cabrera and Sierra Almagrera/Herrerías. Most samples are copper oxide miner...
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This paper deals with the preliminary results of the typological and analytical study of a collection of copper-based objects found at the site of Castelo Velho (Freixo de Numão). This collection is associated to different contexts from the 3rd millennium BC (Chalcolithic). The analyses, performed by non-destructive X-ray fluorescence (XRF), show t...
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We present the results of the archaeological excavation carried out at the Solana del Bepo mine that have allowed us to contextualise the surface finds made in the 1940s. It had been possible to locate the prehistoric workings and to characterise the mined ores by pXRF elemental, -XRF and LIA analyses. The mining implements found in the excavation...
Article
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Eleven biconical vessels from the Copper Age sites Pietrele and Blejeşti (Romania) have been investigated using p-XRF. In most cases, traces of lead could be measured on their surfaces. Samples of slag-like material from two vessels and the clay of one vessel were investigated using laboratory methods, namely SEM, XRD, LIA and optical microscopy. T...
Data
Standard reference materials used for data quality evaluation of the p-XRF measurements with indications of their composition, amount of volatile components (loss on ignition, LOI) and Na2O, if specified (data according to: CanmetMINING 1995; Potts 2015; Potts et al. 2003; Thermo Scientific 2013; Webb et al. 2015; Wise–Watters 2009, 2012). (PDF)
Data
Coefficient of correlation (r2) intercept and slope according to biplots for the comparison of p-XRF and recommended values (CRM) for the oxides SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3(T), MnO, MgO, K2O P2O5 and the elements S, Pb, Cu, Zn. (PDF)
Data
Expected values, mean results of the p-XRF measurements, number of p-XRF measurements (n), standard deviation (1 σ SD), relative standard deviation (RSD), bias and relative bias for oxides (in wt%) and selected elements (in ppm) for certified reference materials (CRM data according to: CanmetMINING 1995; Potts 2015; Potts et al. 2003; Thermo Scient...
Data
Coefficient of correlation (r2) intercept and slope for oxides and elements by p-XRF. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
The origins of the silver trade across the Mediterranean, and the role of the Phoenicians in this phenomenon, remain contentious. This is partly because of difficulties encountered when trying to assign archaeological silver to its geological sources. Here we present a reanalysis of Iron Age silver hoards in the southern Levant, which demonstrates...
Article
Full-text available
The origins of the silver trade across the Mediterranean, and the role of the Phoenicians in this phenomenon, remain contentious. This is partly because of difficulties encountered when trying to assign archaeological silver to its geological sources. Here we present a reanalysis of Iron Age silver hoards in the southern Levant, which demonstrates...
Article
La aparición en escena de un nuevo depósito compuesto por siete hachas planas en Yunclillos (Toledo) permite ampliar la escasa muestra de un tipo peculiar de utensilio, caracterizado por su gran tamaño y por su reducido perfil. Se analiza el fenómeno de los depósitos de hachas planas en la península ibérica y pese a la ausencia de un contexto arque...
Article
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El artículo recoge el debate sobre la invención única o múltiple de la metalurgia y el papel del metal en el desarrollo social de la Prehistoria europea, con especial mención del caso de la Península ibérica. Aunque las posiciones mayoritarias aceptan que para la mayor parte de las sociedades europeas el metal en sus primeras fases no tuvo una repe...
Chapter
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Este estudio se centra en los metales de las tumbas campaniformes del yacimiento de Humanejos (Parla), aunque el yacimiento cuenta también con una abundante muestra de metales pre-campaniformes, queremos como primer paso definir estos contextos con campaniforme desde una triple perspectiva: la composición del metal de base cobre, el estudio de los...
Article
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El proyecto “Arqueometalurgia de la Península Ibérica” empezó en 1982 con el propósito de estudiar la tecnología metalúrgica durante la Prehistoria y cubrir la limitación de datos existentes en comparación con otros países europeos cuya investigación se había iniciado en décadas anteriores. Inicialmente centrado en el Calcolítico y la Edad del Bron...
Article
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We present the study of a flat-convex lead ingot found years ago in the Ribera de Cabanes (Castellón, Spain). The results of its morpho-typological study, analysis of composition and isotopes indicate a probable protohistoric chronology (Iberian Age) and an origin in the mines of Cartagena. We present also a brief contextualization of the archaeolo...
Chapter
Several copper-alloy objects of Islamic origin from the collection of the Museo Arqueológico Nacional [National Archaeological Museum] in Madrid were studied by X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF), using an INNOV-X Alpha spectrometer with a silver anode X-ray tube. All the objects are ternary and quaternary copper alloys with variable proportion...
Chapter
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Copper exchange in the western Mediterranean reflects highly complex patterns between 1500-500BC due to several interactions happening in an area which acted as a crossroad between the Atlantic and the Eastern Mediterranean worlds. The LIA data obtained from Funtana Coberta-Ballao hoard (Sardinia), dated in the 13th century BC, reveals an unknown s...